antarajaal ka itihaas

sarvapratham 1962 mein vishvavidyaalaya ke J si aar liklidr ne abhiklitr jaal taiyaar kiya tha. ve chaahate the ki abhiklitr ka ek esa jaal ho, jisse aankado, kramaadesh aur soochanaayein bheji ja sake. 1966 mein daarapa (morchaabandi pragati anusandhaan pariyojana abhikran) (en:DARPA) ne aarapaanet ke roop mein abhiklitr jaal banaaya|yeh jaal chaar sthaano se juda tha. baad mein ismein bhi kai parivartan hue aur 1972 mein baaainb kaaainhan ne antarraashtreeya abhiklitr sanchaar sammelan ne pehla sajeev pradarshan kiya. 1 January 1983 ko aarapaanet (en:ARPANET) punarsthaapit hua TCP-IP. isi varsh ekteeviti board (IAB) ka gathan hua.November mein pehli prakshetr naam seva (DNS) paul mokapetreej dvaara sujhaai gayi. antarajaal sainik aur asainik bhaagon mein baaainta gaya[1]| haalaaainki 1971 mein sanchika antaran niymaavali (FTP) viksit hua, jisse sanchika antaran karna aasaan ho gaya| 1990 me tim barnars li ne vishv vyaapi web (WWW) se parichit karaaya|

Amreeki sena ki soochana aur anusandhaan sambandhi aavashyakataaon ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue 1973 mein ``you S advance research prrojekt ejeinsee´a´ ne ek kaaryakram ki shuruaat ki. us kaaryakram ka uddeshya tha kampyootaron ke dvaara vibhinn prakaar ki takaneeki aur praudyogiki ko ek-doosare se joda jaae aur ek `network´ banaaya jaae. iska uddeshya sanchaar sambandhi mool baaton (kamyoonikeshan protokaul) ko ek saath ek hi samay mein anek kampyootaron par network ke maadhyam se dekha aur padha ja sake. ise ``intaraneting projekta´a´ naam diya gaya jo aage chalakar `Internet´ ke naam se jaana jaane laga. 1986 mein amareeka ki ``national saanis faanudeshana´a´ ne ``enaesaefaneta´a´ ka vikaas kiya jo aaj Internet par sanchaar sevaaon ki reedh hai. ek saikand mein 45 megaabaait sanchaar suvidha waali is praudyogiki ke kaaran `enaesaefaneta´ baarah arab -12 billion- soochana paikets ko ek maheene mein apne network par aadaan-pradaan karne mein saksham ho gaya. is praudyogiki ko aur adhik tej gati dene ke liye `naasaa´ aur urja vibhaag ne anusandhaan kiya aur ``enaesaaaineta´a´ aur `iesaneta´ jaisi suvidhaaon ko iska aadhaar banaaya.

intaranet hetu `kshetreeya´ sahaayata kansartiym netavarkon dvaara tatha sthaaneeya sahaayata anusandhaan va shiksha sansthaanon dvaara upalabdh karaai jaati hai. amareeka mein Federal tatha raajya sarkaaron ki ismein aham bhoomika hai parantu udyogon ka bhi ismein kaafi haath raha hai. Europe va anya deshon mein paarasparik antarraashtreeya sahayog va raashtreeya anusandhaan sangathan bhi is kaarya mein mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibha rahe hain. 1991 ke ant tak intaranet is kadar viksit hua ki ismein teen darjan deshon ke 5 hajaar network shaamil ho gaye, jinki pahunch 7 lakh kampyootaron tak ho gayi. is prakaar 4 karod upabhoktaaon ne isse laabh uthaana shuroo kiya.

intaranet samudaaya ko Amreeki Federal sarkaar ki sahaayata lagaataar upalabdh hoti rahi kyonki mool roop se intaranet amareeka ke anusandhaan kaarya ka hi ek hissa tha. aaj bhi yeh Amreeki anusandhaan kaaryashaala ka mahattvapoorn ang hai kintu 1980 ke dashak ke ant mein network sevaaon va intaranet upabhoktaaon mein antarraashtreeya star par abhootapoorv vruddhi hui aur iska istemaal vyaapaarik gatividhiyon ke liye bhi kiya jaane laga. sach to ye hai ki aaj ki intaranet pranaali ka bahut bada hissa shiksha va anusandhaan sansthaanon evam vishv-stareeya niji va sarkaari vyaapaar sangathanon ki niji network sevaaon se hi bana hai.

Internet ka takaneeki vikaas

pichhle 18 saalon se Internet sahakaari pakshon ke beech sahayogi bhoomika nibhaata chala aa raha hai. Internet ke sanchaalan mein kuchh baatein bahut jaroori hain. iname se ek hai pranaali ko sanchaalit karne vaale protokol ka nirdhaaran. protokol ka mool vikaas deeeaarapeee anunsadhaan kaaryakram mein kiya gaya kintu pichhle 5-6 saalon mein yeh kaarya vibhinn deshon ki sarkaari agencyon, udyogon va shaikshik samudaaya ki sahaayata se vistrut roop se kiya jaane laga hai. Internet samudaaya ke sahi maargadarshan aur teeseepi/aaipi ke samuchit vikaas ke liye 1983 mein amareeka mein Internet ektiviteej board ka gathan kiya gaya.

Internet engineering taask fors tatha Internet research taask fors iske do mahattvapoorn ang hai. engineering taask fors ka kaam teeseepi/aaipi protokol ke vikaas ke saath saath anya protokol aadi ka Internet mein samaavesh karna hai. vibhinn sarkaari ejansiyon ke sahayog ke dvaara Internet ekteeviteej board ke maargadarshan mein networking ki nai unnatisheel pariklpanaaon ke vikaas ki jimmedaari research taask fors ki hai jismein vah lagaataar prayatnasheel rahata hai.

is board va taask fors ke niyamit sanchaalan ke liye sachivaalaya ka bhi gathan kiya gaya hai. engineering taask fors ki meeting aupachaarik roop se chaar maheene mein ek baar hoti hi hai. iske 50 kaaryakaari dal samay-samay par `E-mel´ teleekaanfreinsig va roo-baroo meetigon dvaara pragati ki sameeksha karte hain. board ki meeting bhi teen-teen maheene mein video kaanfresing ke maadhyam se aur aneekon baar telephone, E-mel athva computer kaanfreson ke jariye hoti rahati hai.

board ke do aur mahattvapoorn kaarya hain - Internet sanbandhi dastaavejon ka prakaashan aur protokol sanchaalan ke liye aavashyak vibhinn aaidentifaayars ki rikaardig. Internet ke kramik vikaas ke dauraan iske protokol va sanchaalan ke anya pakshon ko pehle `Internet eksaperimeint notsa´ aur baad mein `rikvestas for kameinntsa´ naamak dastaavejon ke roop mein sangraheet kiye jaate hain. dastaavej Internet vishyak soochana ke mukhya puraalekh ban gaye hain.

aaidentifaayars ki rikaardig `Internet esaaind nambars othoritee´ upalabdh karaati hai jisne yeh jimmedaari ek `Internet rajistree´ (I aar) ko de rakhi hai. `intaranet rajistree´ hi domen name system -di N S- root daataabes ka kendreeya rakharakhaav karti hai jiske dvaara data anya sahaayak `di N S sarvarsa´ ko vitrit kiya jaata hai. is prakaar vitrit daataabes ka istemaal `hosta´ tatha `network´ naamon ko unke `edadesij´ se kanaikt karne mein kiya jaata hai. uchchastareeya teeseepi/aaipi protokol ke sanchaalan mein yeh ek mahattvapoorn kadi hai, jismein E-mel bhi shaamil hai. upabhoktaaon ko dastaavejon, maargadarshan va salaah-sahaayata upalabdh karaane ke liye samooche Internet par `network inforameshan sentarsa´ (soochana kendra)- sthit hain. antarraashtreeya star par jaise-jaise Internet ka vikaas ho raha hai aise soochana kendron ki uchchastareeya kaaryavidhi ki aavashyakta bhi badhti jaati hai.

aarambh mein Internet upabhogakarta samudaaya mein jahaan keval computer saanis tatha engineering shreni ke log hi hua karte the, aaj iske upabhoktaaon mein vigyaan, kala, sanskruti, sarkaari/gair sarkaari prashaasan va sainya-jagat ke hi naheen balki krushi evam vyaapaar jagat ke log bhi shaamil ho rahe hain. aisa lagta hai ki ab duniya ke kisi bhi hisse mein rahane wala koi bhi vyakti `Internet´ ke bina apne astitv ki kalpana kar sake.

anukram

sankshipt itihaas (pramukh ghatanaaeain)

varsh ghatna
1958 bail pehle maudem ke liye ek telephone line[2] baainari deta sanchaarit[2]
1961 liyonaard emaaaiti ke Kleinrock ke liye deta[2] hastaantaran packet svichn ke prayog par pehla siddhaant[2]
1962 khoj ARPA, raksha, vibhaag ki ek agency dvaara shuroo hoti hai jab JCR Licklider safalataapoorvak computer ke ek vaishvik network par apne vichaaron ka bachaav karte hain.
1964 liyonaard emaaaiti ke Kleinrock ek network[2] karne ke liye sanchaar ke packet par ek pustak[2]
1967 arapaanet par pehle sammelan
1969 intarafes Leonard Kleinrock ka sandesh prosesar dvaara 4 ameriki vishvavidyaalayon se pehle computer kanekt
1971 saaaincha:Nombre computer arapaanet par jude hue hain
1972 Internetworking kaarya samooh, ek Internet ke prabandhan ke liye jimmedaar sangathan ka janm
1973 England aur Norway pratyek 1 computer ke saath Internet mein shaamil
1979 banaane Newsgroups ameriki chhaatron dvaara (manchon)
1981 France mein Minitel ki shuruaat
1982 sthaapana teeseepi / aaipi aur Internet shabd ""
1983 pratham naam sarvar saaitein
1984 saaaincha:Nombre computer
1987 saaaincha:Nombre computer
1989 saaaincha:Nombre computer
1990 arapaanet ke laapata
1991 world wide web ki saarvajanik ghoshana
1992 saaaincha:Nombre computer juda
1993 NCSA maujek ke roop web braaujr
1996 saaaincha:Nombre computer
1999 saaaincha:Nombre upayogakartaaon ko duniya bhar mein
2000 Internet ka bulabula dhamaaka

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain