antaarkatika

antaarkatika

Southern Hemi Antarctica.png
laambart ajimuthaal projekshan par aadhaarit maanachitr.
dakshini dhruv madhya mein hai.

kshetr (kul)


(barf rahit)
(barf sahit)

14,000,000 kimi2 (5,000,000 varg meal)
280,000 kimi2 (100,000 varg meal)
13,720,000 kimi2 (5,300,000 varg meal)
janasankhya
(sthaai)
(asthaai)
7vaan
shoonya
≈a1,000
nirbhar
aadhikaarik kshetreeya daavein antaarkatik sandhi vyavastha
anaadhikrut kshetreeya daavein
daavon par adhikaar ke liye surakshit
time jon naheen
UTC-3 (keval Graham land)
Internet taap leval daamin .aq
kaaling code pratyek base ke Patrick desh par nirbhar

antaarkatika (ya antaartika) pruthvi ka dakshintam mahaadveep hai, jismein dakshini dhruv antarnihit hai. yeh dakshini golaarddh ke antaarkatik kshetr aur lagbhag poori tarah se antaarkatik vrut ke dakshin mein sthit hai. yeh chaaron or se dakshini mahaasaagar se ghira hua hai. apne 140 lakh varg kilometer (54 lakh varg meal) kshetrafal ke saath yeh, Asia, Africa, uttari America aur dakshini America ke baad, pruthvi ka paanchavaan sabse bada mahaadveep hai, antaarkatika ka 98% bhaag ausatan 1.6 kilometer moti barf se aachhaadit hai.

ausat roop se antaarkatika, vishv ka sabse thanda, shushk aur tej havaaon wala mahaadveep hai aur sabhi mahaadveepon ki tulana mein iska ausat unnayan sarvaadhik hai.[1] antaarkatika ko ek registaan maana jaata hai, kyonki yahaaain ka vaarshik varshan keval 200 mimi (8 inch) hai aur usame bhi jyaadaatar tateeya kshetron mein hi hota hai.[2] yahaaain ka koi sthaayi nivaasi naheen hai lekin saal bhar lagbhag 1,000 se 5,000 log vibhinn anusandhaan kendron jo ki poore mahaadveep par faile hain, par upasthit rahate hain. yahaaain sirf sheetaanukoolit paudhe aur jeev hi jeevit, rah sakte hain, jinmein penguin, seal, nimetod, taardeegred, pissoo, vibhinn prakaar ke shaivaal aur sookshmajeev ke alaava tundra vanaspati bhi shaamil hai.

haalaanki poore Europe mein tera ostrelis (dakshini bhoomi) ke baare mein vibhinn mithk aur atkalein sadiyon se prachalit the par is bhoomi se poore vishv ka 1820 mein parichay karaane ka shreya roosi abhiyaan karta mikhaail petrovich laajaarev aur faibiyn gautaliyeb vaun belingashausen ko jaata hai. yeh mahaadveep apni visham jalavaayu paristhitiyon, sansaadhanon ki kami aur mukhya bhoomiyon se alagaav ke chalte 19 veen shataabdi mein kamobesh upekshit raha. mahaadveep ke liye antaarkatika naam ka pehle pahal aupachaarik prayog 1890 mein skautish nakshaanavees John George baartholomyoo ne kiya tha. antaarkatika naam yoonaani yaugik shabd αaaνaaτaaαaaρaaκaaτaaιaaκaaή entaarkatike se aata hai jo αaaνaaτaaαaaρaaκaaτaaιaaκaaόaaς entaarkatikos ka streeling roop hai aur jiska[3] arth "uttar ka vipreet" hai."[4]

1959 mein baarah deshon ne antaarkatik sandhi par hastaakshar kiye, aaj tak chhiyaalees deshon ne is sandhi par hastaakshar kiye hain. sandhi mahaadveep par sainya aur khanij khanan gatividhiyon ko pratibndhit karne ke saath vaigyaanik anusandhaan ka samarthan karti hai aur is mahaadveep ke paaristhitik kshetr ko bachaane ke liye pratibaddh hai. vibhinn anusandhaan uddeshyon ke saath vartamaan mein kai deshon ke lagbhag 4,000 se adhik vaigyaanik vibhinn prayog kar rahe hain.[5]

anukram

itihaas

mahaadveep ki barfeeli satah.

taulemi ke samay (1 shataabdi isvi) se poore Europe mein yeh vishvaas faila tha ki duniya ke vishaal mahaadveepon Asia, Europe aur uttari Africa ki bhoomiyon ke santulan ke liye pruthvi ke dakshintam sire par ek vishaal mahaadveep astitv mein hai, jise vo tera ostrelis kah kar pukaarate the. taulemi ke anusaar vishv ki sabhi gyaat bhoomiyon ki samamiti ke liye ek vishaal mahaadveep ka dakshin mein astitv avashyambhaavi tha. 16 veen shataabdi ke shuruaati daur mein pruthvi ke dakshin mein ek vishaal mahaadveep ko darshaane vaale maanachitr aam the jaise Turkey ka peeri rees naksha. yahaan tak ki 17 veen shataabdi ke uttaraardh mein, jab khojakarta yeh jaan chuke the ki dakshini America aur Australia kathit 'antaarkatika " ka bhaag naheen hai, fir bhi vo yeh maanate the ki yeh dakshini mahaadveep unke anumaanon se kaheen vishaal tha.

Europeeya nakshon mein is kaalpanik bhoomi ka darshaana lagaataar tab tak jaari raha jab tak ki, echaemaes rijolyooshan aur edaveinchar jaise poton ke kaptaan James cook ne 17 January 1773, December 1773 aur January 1774 mein antaarkatik vrut ko paar naheen kiya. cook ko vaastav mein antaarkatik tat se 121 kilometer (75 meal) ki doori se jami hui barf ke chalte vaapas lautana pada tha. antaarkatika ko sabse pehle dekhne vaale teen poton ke karmeedal the jinki kaptaani teen alag alag vyakti kar rahe the. vibhinn sangathanon jaise ki ke anusaar naishanal science foundation,[6] naasa,[7] California vishvavidyaalaya, sain Diego[8] (aur anya srot),[9][10] ke anusaar 1820 mein antaarkatika ko sabse pehle teen poton ne dekha tha, jinki kaptaani teen alag alag vyakti kar rahe the jo the, faibiyn gautaliyeb vaun belingashausen (roosi shaahi nausena ka ek kaptaan), Edward braansafeeld (british shaahi nausena ka ek kaptaan) aur naithaaniyl paamar (stoningatan, Connecticut ka ek seal shikaari). faibiyn gautaliyeb vaun belingashausen ne antaarkatika ko 27 January 1820 ko, Edward braansafeeld se teen din baad aur naithaaniyl paamar se das maheene (November 1820) pehle dekha tha. 27 January 1820 ko vaun belingashausen aur mikhaail petrovich laajaarev jo ek do-pot abhiyaan ki kaptaani kar rahe the, antaarkatika ki mukhya bhoomi ke andar 32 kilometer tak gaye the aur unhone vahaaain barfeele maidaan dekhe the. praapt dastaavejon ke anusaar antaarkatika ki mukhya bhoomi par pehli baar pashchim antaarkatika mein ameriki seal shikaari John Davis 7 fravari 1821 mein aaya tha, haalaanki kuchh itihaasakaar is daave ko sahi naheen maanate.

December 1839 mein, sanyukt raajya America ki nausena dvaara sanchaalit, sanyukt raajya America anveshan abhiyaan 1838-42 ke ek bhaag ke taur par ek abhiyaan Sydney, Australia se antaarkatik mahaasaagar (jaisa ki ise us samay jaana jaata tha) ke liye ravaana hua tha aur isne baleni dveepasamooh ke pashchim mein 'antaarkatik mahaadveep' ki khoj ka daava kiya tha. abhiyaan ne antaarkatika ke is bhaag ko vilkeej bhoomi naam diya gaya jo naam aaj tak prayog mein aata hai.

1841 mein khojakarta James Clark Ross us sthaan se gujre jise ab Ross saagar ke naam se jaana jaata hai aur Ross dweep ki khoj ki (saagar aur dweep donon ko unke naam par naamit kiya gaya hai). unhone barf ki ek badi deevaar paar ki jise Ross aais shelf ke naam se jaana jaata hai. erebes parvat aur terar parvat ka naam unke abhiyaan mein prayukt do poton: echaemaes erebes aur terar ke naam par rakha gaya hai.[11] markaataur koopar 26 January 1853 ko poorvi antaarkatika par pahuaincha tha.[12]

nimrod abhiyaan ke sadasya
1914 ke ek abhiyaan ke dauraan barf mein fansa arnest shaiklatan ka pot endyooreins

nimrod abhiyaan jiska netrutv arnest shaiklatan kar rahe the, ke dauraan 1907 mein ti. dablyoo ejavarth David ke netrutv vaale dal ne erebes parvat par chadhne aur dakshin chunbakeeya dhruv tak pahainchane mein safalta praapt ki. dagalas mausan, jo dakshin chunbakeeya dhruv se mushkil vaapasi ke samay dal ka netrutv kar raha the, ne 1931 mein apne sannyaas lene se pehle kai abhiyaano ka netrutv kiya.[13] shaiklatan aur uske teen sahayogi December 1908 se fravari 1909 ke beech kai abhiyaanon ka hissa rahe aur ve Ross aais shelf, traansaantaarkatik parvatamaala (baraasta biyrdamor himnad) ko paar karne aur vaale dakshin dhruveeya pathaar par pahuainchane vaale pehle manushya bane. Norway ke khoji roaald emundasen jo fraam naamak pot se ek abhiyaan ka netrutv kar rahe the, 14 December 1911 ko bhaugolik dakshin dhruv par pahainchane vaale pehle vyakti bane. roaald emundasen ne iske liye vhel ki khaadi aur eksal haaibarg himnad ke raaste ka prayog kiya.[14] iske ek maheene ke baad durbhaagyashaali Scott abhiyaan bhi dhruv par pahunchane mein safal raha.

1930 aur 1940 ke dashak mein richrd evalin baayard ne havaai jahaaj se antaarkatik ke liye kai yaatraaon ka netrutv kiya tha. mahaadveep par yaantrik sthal parivhan ki shuruaat ka shreya bhi baayard ko hi jaata hai, iske alaava vo mahaadveep par gahan bhoovaijnyaaanik aur jaivik anusandhaanon se bhi juda raha tha.[15] 31 October 1956 ke din rear Admiral George J dufek ke netrutv mein ek ameriki nausena dal ne safalataapoorvak ek vimaan yahaan utara tha. antaarkatika tak akela pahuainchane wala pehla vyakti New Zealand ka David henari luis tha jisne yahaaain pahuainchane ke liye 10 meter lambi ispaat ki chhoti naav aais bird ka prayog kiya tha.

Bhaarat ka antaarkati‍ak kaaryakram

antaarkati‍ak mein pehla bhaarateeya abhiyaan dal January 1982 mein utara aur tab se Bhaarat dhruvi vigyaan mein agrim morche par raha hai. dakshin gangotri aur maitri sthit bhaarateeya anusandhaan kendra mein upalabdh moolabhoot aadhaar mein vaigyaaniko ko vibhinn vi‍ashayon yatha vaataavaraneeya vigyaan, jaivik vigyaan aur paryaavaraneeya vigyaan ke kshetr mein agrani anusandhaan karne mein saksham banaaya. iname se kai anusandhaan kaaryakramon mein antaarkati‍ak anusandhaan sambandhi vaigyaanik samiti (esaseeeaar) ke tatvaavadhaan mein seedhe vaishvik parikshanon mein yogadaan kiya hai.

antaarkati‍ak vaataavaraneeya vigyaan kaaryakram mein anek vaigyaanik sangathanon ne bhaag liya. inmein ullekhaneeya hai bhaarateeya mausam vigyaan, raashtreeya bhautiki prayogashaala, bhaarateeya bhoo-chumbakatv sanstha, Kolkata vishvavidyaalaya, bhautik anusandhaan prayogashaala aur barkatatulla vishvavidyaalaya aadi. in vaigyaanik sangathanon mein vishesh roop se saarvabhaumik bhautiki (upari vaataavaran aur bhoo-chumbakatv) madhyavarti vaataavaraneeya adh‍aayayan aur nimn vaataavaraneeya adhyayan (mausam, jalavaayu aur seemaavarti parat). kul vaishvik saur vikeeran aur vitrit saur vikeeran ko samajhne ke liye vikeeran santulan adhyayan kiye ja rahe hain. is upaaya se oorja hastaantaran ko samajhne mein sahaayata milti hai jiske kaaran vaishvik vaataavaraneeya engine aankade sangrah ka kaam jaari rakh paata hai.

maitri mein niyamit roop se ojon ke maapan ka kaam ojonasaun‍aade ke istemaal se kiya jaata hai jo antaarkati‍ak par ojon -chhidr tathya aur vaishvik jalavaayu parivartan mein ojon ki kami ke prabhaav ka adhyayan karne ke liye antarraashtreeya prayaason ko gati pradaan karta hai. aayanamandaleeya adhyayan ne entaarkatik vaigyaanik prayogon ka ek mahattvapoorn hissa banaaya hai. 2008-09 abhiyaan ke dauraan Canadai agrim ankeeya aayanosaun‍aade (seeedeeaai) naamak ankeeya aayanosaun‍aade sthaapit kiya gaya. yeh hamein antariksh ki mausam sambandhi ghatnaaon ka byaura dete hain. maitri mein vaishvik aayanamandaleeya chamak aur poorn ilaiktron avayav anushravan pranaali (jeeaaiesateeem) sthaapit ki gayi hai jo poorn ilaiktron avayav (aaiteeseei) aur dhruveeya aayanamandaleeya chamak aur usaki antariksh sambandhi ghatnaaon par nirbharata ke abhilkshanon ki upasthiti ki jaankaari dete hain. jeeaaiesateeem ke aankade bruhat aur maiso star ke plaajaama dhaanche aur usaki gatividhi ko samajhne mein hamaari sahaayata karte hain. dhruveeya kshetr aur usaki sukamaar paryaavaraneeya pranaali vibhinn vaishvik vyavasthaaon ke sanchaalan mein mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaati hai. is prakaar ki paryaavaraneeya vyavasthaaen aantarik roop se sthir hoti hain. kyonki paryaavaran mein maamooli sa parivartan unhein atyadhik kshati pahuncha sakta hai. yeh yaad hai ki dhruveeya rachanaaon ki vikaas dar dheemi hai aur use kshati se ubarane mein achha khaasa samay lagta hai. bhaarateeya vaigyaaniko dvaara antaarkati‍ak mein jaivik adhyayan samudri himaani sooksh‍aam rachanaaon, sajeev upajaatiyon, taaje paani aur pruth‍aavi sambandhi paryaavaraneeya pranaaliyon jaiv vividhta aur anya sambaddh tathyon par vishesh dhyaan dete hain.

kraayo-jaiv vigyaan adhyayan

kraayo jaiv vigyaan prayogashaala ka 15 fravari 2010 ko udghaatan kiya gaya tha taaki jaiv vigyaan aur rasaayan vigyaan ke kshetr ke un anusandhaanakartaaon ko ek sthaan par laaya ja sake. jinki nimn taapamaan waali jaiv- vaigyaanik pranaaliyon ke kshetr mein ek saamaan roochi ho. is prayogashaala mein is samay dhruveeya nivaasiyon ke jeevaanuon ka adhyayan kiya ja raha hai. jaiv vaigyaanik kaaryakramon ki kuchh upalabdhiyon mein sheetal aabaadiyon se baik‍aatari‍aya ki kuchh nai upajaatiyon ka pata lagaaya gaya hai. antaarkati‍ak mein ab tak pata lagaai gayi 240 nai upajaatiyon mein se 30 Bhaarat se hain. 2008-11 ke dauraan dhruveeya kshetron se baik‍aatari‍aya ki 12 nai prajaatiyon ka pata chala hai. do jeen ka bhi pata laga hai jo nimn taapamaan par baik‍aatari‍aya ko jeevit rakhate hain. jaiv praudyogiki udyog ke liye kam upayogi taapamaan par sakriya kai lipaase aur proteej ka bhi pata lagaaya hai.

antaarkati‍ak sambandhi paryaavarani sanrakshan samiti dvaara nirdhaarit niyamon ke anusaar maitri mein paryaavaraneeya maapadandon ka anushravan kiya jaata hai. Bhaarat ne apne naye anusandhaan kendrit laarjemann pahaadiyon par paryaavaraneeya pahaluon par aadhaar rekha aankadein sangrah sambandhi adhyayan bhi shuroo kar diye hain. iski pramukh upalabdhiyon mein paryaavaraneeya moolyaankan sambandhi vistrut report ki taiyaari hai. yeh report laarjasann parvateeya kshetr se paryaavaraneeya maanadandon par ekatr kiye gaye aadhaar rekha aankade aur paryaavaraneeya prayogashaalaaon mein kiye gaye kaarya par aadhaarit hai. Bhaarat entaarkatik samjhauta vyavastha ki paridhi mein dakshin godaavari himnadi ke nikat sanrakshit kshetr sthaapit karne mein bhi safal raha.

bhoovijnyaaan

jalavaayu

The blue ice covering Lake Fryxell, in the Transantarctic Mountains, comes from glacial meltwater from the Canada Glacier and other smaller glaciers.

antaarkatika pruthvi ke sabse thande sthaan hai | pruthvi par sabse thanda praakrutik taapamaan kabhi 21 July 1983 mein antaarkatika mein roosi vostok station mein -89.2 degree celcius (-128.6 ° F) darj tha | antaarkatika vishaal veeraan barfeele registaan hai | jaado mein iske aatanrik bhaagon ka kam se kam taapamaan −80 °aC (−112 °aF) aur −90 °aC (−130 °aF) ke beech tatha garmiyon mein inke taton ka adhiktam taapamaan 5 °aC (41 °aF) aur 15 °aC (59 °aF) ke beech hota hai | barfeeli satah par girne waali paraabaingani prakaash ki kirnein saadhaaranataya poori tarah se paraavartit ho jaati hai is kaaran antaarkatika mein sanabarn aksar ek svaasthya mudde ke roop mein hai |

antaarkatika ka poorvi bhaag, pashchimi bhaag ki apeksha adhik unchaai mein sthit hone ke kaaran apekshaakrut adhik thanda hai | is doorasth mahaadveep mein mausam shaayad hi kabhi pravesh karta hai iseeliye iska keindreeya bhaag hameinsa thanda aur shushk rahata hai | mahaadveep ke madhya bhaag mein varsha ki kami ke baavajood vahaaain barf badhi hui samay avadhi ke liye rahata hai | mahaadveep ke tateeya bhaagon mein bhaari himpaat saamaanya baat hai jahaan 48 ghante mein 1.22 meter himpaat darj kiya gaya hai | yeh dakshin golaardh mein stithi banaaye hue hai.

raajaneeti

anusandhaan

bhoomandaleeya ooshmeekaran ke prabhaav

ojon parat ka hraas

sandarbh

  1. "National Geophysical Data Center". National Satellite, Data, and Information Service. http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/image/2minrelief.html. abhigman tithi: 9 June 2006.
  2. C. Alan Joyce (2007-01-18). "The World at a Glance: Surprising Facts". The World Almanac. http://www.worldalmanac.com/blog/2007/01/the_world_at_a_glance_surprisi.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-02-07.
  3. Antarktikos, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus
  4. Hince, Bernadette (2000). The Antarctic Dictionary. CSIRO Publishing. pa॰ 6. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9780957747111. http://books.google.com/books?id=lJd8_owUxFEC&pg=PA6&lpg=PA6&dq=antarctica+opposite+of+north+greek&source=web&ots=ACmVhnUkbo&sig=IbN0OK9FBy29RPzGdDqZevrlylk&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=2&ct=result. abhigman tithi: 2009-04-26.
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  8. "Palmer Station". Archived from the original on 2006-02-10. http://web.archive.org/web/20060210005949/http://arcane.ucsd.edu/pstat.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-03.
  9. "An Antarctic Time Line: 1519–1959". south-pole.com. http://www.south-pole.com/p0000052.htm. abhigman tithi: 2006-02-12.
  10. "Antarctic Explorers Timeline: Early 1800s". http://ku-prism.org/polarscientist/timeline/antarcticexplorers1800.html. abhigman tithi: 2006-02-12.
  11. "South-Pole - Exploring Antarctica". south-pole.com. http://www.south-pole.com/p0000081.htm. abhigman tithi: 2006-02-12.
  12. "Antarctic Circle - Antarctic First". 2005-02-09. http://www.antarctic-circle.org/firsts.htm. abhigman tithi: 2006-02-12.
  13. "Tannatt William Edgeworth David". Australian Government Antarctic Division. http://www.aad.gov.au/default.asp?casid=6740. abhigman tithi: 2006-02-07.
  14. "Roald Amundsen". south-pole.com. http://www.south-pole.com/p0000101.htm. abhigman tithi: 2006-02-09.
  15. "Richard Byrd". 70South.com. http://www.70south.com/information/antarctic-history/explorers/richardbyrd. abhigman tithi: 2006-02-12.

yeh bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain