ankoravaat mandir

ankoravaat mandir
ankoravaat mandir

naam: angakoravaat mandir
nirmaata: sooryavarman dviteeya
jeernoddhaarak: jayavarman saptam
nirmaan kaal : 1112 se 53 isvi ke madhya
devata: vishnu
vaastukala: khmer va chol shaili
sthaan: kanbodiya

ankoravaat (khamer bhaasha : អaaងaa្aaគaaរaaវaaតaa្aaត) vishv ka sabse bada hindu mandir parisar tatha vishv ka sabse bada dhaarmik smaarak hai. yeh kanbodiya ke ankor mein hai jiska puraana naam 'yashodharapur' tha. iska nirmaan samraat sooryavarman dviteeya (1112-53i.) ke shaasanakaal mein hua tha. yeh vishnu mandir hai jabki iske poorvavarti shaasakon ne praay: shivmandiron ka nirmaan kiya tha. meekaang nadi ke kinaare simrip shahar mein bana yeh mandir aaj bhi sansaar ka sabse bada hindu mandir hai jo saikadon varg meal mein faila hua hai.[1] raashtra ke liye sammaan ke prateek is mandir ko 1983 se kanbodiya ke raashtradhvaj mein bhi sthaan diya gaya hai. yeh mandir meru parvat ka bhi prateek hai. iski deevaaron par bhaarateeya dharm granthon ke prasangon ka chitran hai. in prasangon mein apsaraaen bahut sundar chitrit ki gayi hain, asuron aur devataaon ke beech amrut manthan ka drushya bhi dikhaaya gaya hai. vishv ke sabse lokapriya paryatan sthaanon mein se ek hone ke saath hi yeh mandir yoonesko ke vishv dharohar sthalon mein se ek hai. paryatak yahaaain keval vaastushaastr ka anupam saundarya dekhne hi naheen aate balki yahaaain ka sooryodaya aur sooryaast dekhne bhi aate hain. sanaatani log ise pavitra teerthasthaan maanate hain .

anukram

parichay

angkorathom aur angkoravaat praacheen kanbuj ki rajdhani aur uske mandiron ke bhagnaavashesh ka vistaar. angkorathom aur angkoravaat sudoor poorv ke hindacheen mein praacheen bhaarateeya sanskruti ke avashesh hain. isavi sadiyon ke pehle se hi sudoor poorv ke deshon mein pravaasi bhaarateeyon ke anek upanivesh bas chale the. hindacheen, suvarn dweep, vanadveep, malaaya aadi mein bhaarateeyon ne kaalaantar mein anek raajyon ki sthaapana ki. vartamaan kanbodiya ke uttari bhaag mein sthit 'kanbuj' shabd se vyakt hota hai, kuchh vidvaan Bhaarat ki pashchimottar seema par basane vaale kanbojon ka sambandh bhi is praacheen bhaarateeya upanivesh se bataate hain. anushruti ke anusaar is raajya ka sansthaapak kaundinya braahman tha jiska naam vahaaain ke ek sanskrut abhilekh mein mila hai. naveen shataabdi isavi mein jayavarma truteeya kanbuj ka raaja hua aur usi ne lagbhag 860 isavi mein angkorathom (thom ka arth 'rajdhani' hai) naamak apni rajdhani ki neenv daali. rajdhani praaya: 40 varshon tak banti rahi aur 900 E. ke lagbhag taiyaar hui. uske nirmaan ke sambandh mein kanbuj ke saahitya mein anek kinvadantiyaaain prachalit hai.

ankoravaat ka havaai drushya

pashchim ke seemaavarti thai log pehle kanbuj ke samer saamraajya ke adheen the parantu 14veen sadi ke madhya unhonne kanbuj par aakraman karna aarambh kiya aur angkorathom ko baarabaar jeeta aur loota. tab laachaar hokar khmeron ko apni vah rajdhani chhod deni padi. fir dheere-dheere baaains ke vanon ki baadh ne nagar ko sabhya jagat se sarvatha pruthak kar diya aur usaki satta andhakaar mein vileen ho gayi. nagar bhi adhiktar tootakar khandahar ho gaya. 19veen sadi ke ant mein ek fraanseesi vaigyaanik ne paaainch dinon ki nauka yaatra ke baad us nagar aur uske khandaharon ka punaruddhaar kiya. nagar tonle saanp naamak mahaan sarovar ke kinaare uttar ki or sadiyon se soya pada tha jahaaain paas hi, doosare tat par, vishaal mandiron ke bhagnaavashesh khade the.

aaj ka angkorathom ek vishaal nagar ka khandahar hai. uske chaaron or 330 foot chaudi khaai hai jo sada jal se bhari rahati thi. nagar aur khaai ke beech ek vishaal vargaakaar praacheer nagar ki raksha karti hai. praacheer mein anek bhavya aur vishaal mahaadvaar bane hain. mahaadvaaron ke ooainche shikharon ko trisheersh diggaj apne mastak par uthaae khade hain. vibhinn dvaaron se paaainch vibhinn raajapath nagar ke madhya tak pahuainchate hain. vibhinn aakrutiyon vaale sarovaron ke khandahar aaj apni jeernaavastha mein bhi nirmaanakarta ki prashasti gaate hain. nagar ke theek beechobeech Shiv ka ek vishaal mandir hai jiske teen bhaag hain. pratyek bhaag mein ek ooaincha shikhar hai. madhya shikhar ki ooainchaai lagbhag 150 foot hai. is ooainche shikharon ke chaaron or anek chhote-chhote shikhar bane hain jo sankhya mein lagbhag 50 hain. in shikharon ke chaaron or samaadhisth Shiv ki moortiyaaain sthaapit hain. mandir ki vishaalata aur nirmaan kala aashcharyajanak hai. usaki deevaaron ko pashu, pakshi, pushp evam nrutyaanganaaon jaisi vibhinn aakrutiyon se alankrut kiya gaya hai. yeh mandir vaastukala ki drushti se vishv ki ek aashcharyajanak vastu hai aur Bhaarat ke praacheen pauraanik mandir ke avasheshon mein to ekaaki hai. angkorathom ke mandir aur bhavan, uske praacheen raajapath aur sarovar sabhi us nagar ki samruddhi ke soochak hain.

12veen shataabdi ke lagbhag sooryavarma dviteeya ne angkorathom mein vishnu ka ek vishaal mandir banavaaya. is mandir ki raksha bhi ek chaturdik khaai karti hai jiski chaudaai lagbhag 700 foot hai. door se yeh khaai jheel ke samaan drushtigochar hoti hai. mandir ke pashchim ki or is khaai ko paar karne ke liye ek pul bana hua hai. pul ke paar mandir mein pravesh ke liye ek vishaal dwaar nirmit hai jo lagbhag 1,000 foot chauda hai. mandir bahut vishaal hai. iski deevaaron par samast raamaayan moortiyon mein ankit hai. is mandir ko dekhne se gyaat hota hai ki videshon mein jaakar bhi pravaasi kalaakaaron ne bhaarateeya kala ko jeevit rakha tha. inse prakat hai ki angkorathom jis kanbuj desh ki rajdhani tha usamein vishnu, Shiv, shakti, ganesh aadi devataaon ki pooja prachalit thi. in mandiron ke nirmaan mein jis kala ka anukaran hua hai vah bhaarateeya gupt kala se prabhaavit jaan padti hai. angkoravaat ke mandiron, toranadvaaron aur shikharon ke alankaran mein gupt kala pratibinbit hai. inmein bhaarateeya saanskatik parampara jeevit gayi thi. ek abhilekh se gyaat hota hai ki yashodharapur (angkorathom ka poorvanaam) ka sansthaapak naresh yashovarma 'arjun aur bheem jaisa veer, sushrut jaisa vidvaan tatha shilp, bhaasha, lipi evam nrutya kala mein paarangat tha'. usane angkorathom aur angkoravaat ke atirikt kanbuj ke anek raajya sthaanon mein bhi aashram sthaapit kiye jahaaain raamaayan, mahaabhaarat, puraan tatha anya bhaarateeya granthon ka adhyayan adhyaapan hota tha. angkoravaat ke hindu mandiron par baad mein bauddh dharm ka gahra prabhaav pada aur kaalaantar mein unamein bauddh bhikshuon ne nivaas bhi kiya. angakorathom aur angkoravaat mein 20veen sadi ke aarambh mein jo puraataatvik khudaaiyaaain hui hain unase khmero ke dhaarmik vishvaason, kalaakrutiyon aur bhaarateeya paranparaaon ki pravaasagat paristhitiyon par bahut prakaash pada hai. kala ki drushti se angkorathom aur angkoravaat apne mahalon aur bhavanon tatha mandiron aur devaalayon ke khandaharon ke kaaran sansaar ke us disha ke sheershasth kshetr ban gaye hain. jagat ke vividh bhaagon se hajaaron paryatak us praacheen hindu-bauddh-kendra ke darshanon ke liye vahaaain prati varsh jaate hain.

sthaapatya

angkoravaat mandir parisar ki kendreeya sanrachana ki vistrut yojana (urdhv drushya)

khmer shaastreeya shaili se prabhaavit sthaapatya vaale is mandir ka nirmaan kaarya sooryavarman dviteeya ne praarambh kiya parantu ve ise poorn naheen kar sake. mandir ka kaarya unke bhaanaje evam uttaraadhikaari dharaneendravarman ke shaasanakaal mein sampoorn hua. mishr evam Mexico ke step piraamidon ki tarah yeh seedhi par uthata gaya hai. iska mool shikhar lagbhag 64 meter ooaincha hai. iske atirikt anya sabhi aathon shikhar 54 meter uainche hain. mandir saadhe teen kilometer lambi patthar ki divaar se ghira hua tha, uske baahar 30 meter khuli bhoomi aur fir baahar 190 meter chaudi khaai hai. vidvaanon ke anusaar yeh chol vansh ke mandiron se milta julata hai. dakshin pashchim mein sthit granthaalaya ke saath hi is mandir mein teen veethiyaaain hain jismein andar waali adhik oonchaai par hain. nirmaan ke kuchh hi varsh pashchaat champa raajya ne is nagar ko loota. uske uparaant raaja jayavarman-7 ne nagar ko kuchh kilometer uttar mein punarsthaapit kiya. 14veen ya 15veen shataabdi mein theravaad bauddh logon ne ise apne niyntran mein le liya.

mandir ke galiyaaron mein tatkaaleen samraat, bali-vaaman, svarg-narak, samudra manthan, Dave-daanav yuddh, mahaabhaarat, harivansh puraan tatha raamaayan se sambaddh anek shilaachitr hain. yahaaain ke shilaachitron mein roopaayit Ram katha bahut sankshipt hai. in shilaachitron ki shrunkhala raavan vadh hetu devataaon dvaara ki gayi aaraadhana se aarambh hoti hai. uske baad seeta svayanvar ka drushya hai. baalakaand ki in do pramukh ghatnaaon ki prastuti ke baad viraadh evam kabandh vadh ka chitran hua hai. agale shilaachitr mein Ram dhanush-baan liye svarn mrug ke peechhe daudte hue dikhaai padte hain. iske uparaant sugreev se Ram ki maitri ka drushya hai. fir, baali aur sugreev ke dvandv yuddh ka chitran hua hai. paravarti shilaachitron mein ashok vaatika mein hanumaan ki upasthiti, Ram-raavan yuddh, seeta ki agni pareeksha aur Ram ki ayodhya vaapasi ke drushya hain. ankoravaat ke shilaachitron mein roopaayit Ram katha yadyapi atyadhik virl aur sankshipt hai, tathaapi yeh mahattvapoorn hai, kyonki iski prastuti aadikaavya ki katha ke anuroop hui hai.[2]

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain