anjeer

anjeer
अंजीर के पत्ते और फल
anjeer ke patte aur fal
sanrakshan sthiti
Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
khatre se baahar (IUCN3.1)
vaigyaanik vargeekaran
jagat: paadap

anjeer (angreji naam fig, vaanaspatik naam: "fiks kairika", prajaati fiks, jaati kairika, kul moresi) ek vruksh ka fal hai jo pak jaane par gir jaata hai. pake fal ko log khaate hain. sukhaaya fal bikta hai. sookhe fal ko tukade-tukade karke ya peesakar doodh aur cheeni ke saath khaate hain. iska svaadisht jam (fal ke tukadon ka murabba) bhi banaaya jaata hai. sookhe fal mein cheeni ki maatra lagbhag 62 pratishat tatha taaje pake fal mein 22 pratishat hoti hai. ismein kailsiym tatha vitaamin 'A' aur 'bi' kaafi maatra mein paae jaate hain. iske khaane se koshthabaddhata (kabjiyt) door hoti hai.

anjeer madhyasaagareeya kshetr aur dakshin pashchim Asiaee mool ki ek parnapaati jhaadi ya ek chhote ped hai jo Pakistan se yoonaan tak paaya jaata hai. iski lanbaai 3-10 foot tak ho sakti hai. anjeer vishv ke sabse puraane falon me se ek hai. yeh fal raseela aur goodedaar hota hai. iska rang halka peela, gahra sunahara ya gahra baingani ho sakta hai. anjeer apne saundarya evam svaad ke liye prasiddh anjeer ek svaadisht, svaasthyavardhak aur bahu upayogi fal hai. yeh vishv ke aise puraane falon mein se ek hai, jiski jaankaari pracheen samay mein bhi mistr ke fairoh logon ko thi. aajkal iski paidaavaar Iran, madhya Asia aur ab bhoomadhyasaagareeya deshon mein bhi hone lagi hai. praacheen yoonaan mein yeh fal vyaapaarik drushti se itna mahattvapoorn tha aur iske niryaat par paabandi thi. aaj vishv ka sabse puraana anjeer ka ped sisli ke ek bageeche mein hai.[1]

anjeer ka vruksh chhota tatha parnapaati (patajhadi) prakruti ka hota hai. turkistaan tatha uttari Bhaarat ke beech ka bhookhand iska utpatti sthaan maana jaata hai. bhoomadhyasaagareeya tat vaale desh tatha vahaaain ki jalavaayu mein yeh achha falata-foolata hai. nissandeh yeh aadikaal ke vrukshon mein se ek hai aur praacheen samay ke log bhi ise khoob pasand karte the. greesavaasiyon ne ise kairiya (Asia maainar ka ek pradesh) se praapt kiya; isliye iski jaati ka naam kairika pada. romavaasi is vruksh ko bhavishya ki samruddhi ka chinh maankar iska aadar karte the. Spain, Algeria, Italy, Turkey, Portugal tatha grees mein iski kheti vyaavasaayik star par ki jaati hai.

naashapaati ke aakaar ke is chhote se fal ki apni koi vishesh tej sugandh naheen par yeh raseela aur goodedaar hota hai. rang mein yeh halka peela, gahra sunahara ya gahra baingani ho sakta hai. chhilke ke rang ka svaad par koi prabhaav naheen padta par iska svaad is baat par nirbhar karta hai ki ise kahaaain ugaaya gaya hai aur yeh kitna paka hai. ise poora ka poora chhilka beej aur goode sahit khaaya ja sakta hai. ghareloo upachaar mein aisa maana jaata hai ki sthaai roop se rahane waali kabj anjeer khaane se door ho jaati hai. jukaam, fefade ke rogon mein paaainch anjeer paani mein ubaal kar chhaanakar yeh paani subah-shaam peena chaahiye. dama jisme kaf (balagam) niklata ho usamein anjeer khaana laabhakaari hai isse kaf baahar aa jaata hai. kachche anjeeron ko kamre ke taapamaan par rakh kar pakaaya ja sakta hai lekin usamein svaabhaavik svaad naheen aata. ghareloo upachaaron mein anjeer ka vibhinn prakaar se prayog kiya jaata hai.

anukram

paushtik tattv

anjeer ke kachche fal

anjeer kailashiym, reshon va vitaamin A, bi, si se yukt hota hai. ek anjeer mein lagbhag 30 kailari hoti hain. ek sookhe anjeer mein kailari 49, proteen 0.579 gram, kaarb 12.42 gram, faaibar 2.32 gram, kul fait 0.222 gram, saichureted fait 0.0445 gram, pauleeanasaichureted fait 0.106, monosaichureted fait 0.049 gram, sodiym 2 migra aur vitaamin A, bi, si yukt hota hai.[2] ismein 83 pratishat cheeni hone ke kaaran yeh vishv ka sabse meetha fal hai. daayabiteej ke rogiyon ko doosare falon ki tulana mein anjeer ka sevan khaastaur se laabhakaari hota hai. anjeer potaishiym ka achha srot hai, jo raktachaap aur rakt sharkara ko niyantrit karne mein madad karta hai. anjeer mein sthit reshe vajan ko santulit rakhate hue motaape ko kam rakhate hain saath hi stan Cancer aur menopauj ki takaleefon ko door karne mein madadgaar paae gaye hain. sookhe anjeer mein fenol, omega-3, omega-6 hota hai. yeh faiti esid koronari heart dijeej ke khatre ko kam karne mein madad karta hai. anjeer mein kailshiym bahut hota hai, jo haddiyon ko majaboot karne mein sahaayak hota hai. anjeer mein potaishiym jyaada hota hai aur sodiym kam hota hai isliye yeh uchcharaktachaap ki samasya se bhi bachaata hai. anjeer ke sevan karne se madhumeh, sardi-jukaam, dama aur apach jaisi tamaam vyaadhiyon mein bhi laabh dekha gaya hai.[3]

prakaar

anjeer kai prakaar ka hota hai, parantu mukhya prakaar chaar hain:

(1) kaipri fig, jo sabse praacheen hai aur jisse anya anjeeron ki utpatti hui hai,

(2) smaairna,

(3) safed sainapedroo aur

(4) saadhaaran anjeer.

Bhaarat mein maarseleej, black ischiya, poona, baingalor tatha brown tarki naam ki kismein prasiddh hain.

kheti

anjeer ki kheti bhinn-bhinn jalavaayu vaale sthaanon mein ki jaati hai, parantu bhoomadhyasaagareeya jalavaayu iske liye atyant upayukt hai. fal ke vikaas tatha paripkvata ke samay vaayumandal ka shushk rahana atyant aavashyak hai. parnapaati vruksh hone ke kaaran paale ka prabhaav is par kam padta hai. yon to sabhi prakaar ki mitti mein iska vruksh upajaaya ja sakta hai, parantu domat athva matiyaar domat, jismein uttam jal nikaas (drenej) ho, iske liye sabse shreshth mitti hai. ismein praaya khaad naheen di jaati; to bhi achhi fasal ke liye prati varsh prati vruksh 20-30 ser sade hue gobar ki khaad ya kanpost January-February mein dena laabhadaayak hai. ise adhik sinchaai ki bhi aavashyakta naheen padti. greeshm ritu mein fal ki poorn vruddhi ke liye ek ya do sinchaai kar dena atyant laabhaprad hai.

anjeer ke nae paudhe mukhyat krutton (cutting) dvaara praapt hote hain. ek varsh ki avastha ki daal ka is kaarya ke liye prayog kiya jaata hai. krutt January mein lagaae jaate hain aur ek varsh baad is prakaar taiyaar hue paudhon ko sthaayi sthaan par pandrah-pandrah foot ki doori par ropate hain. prati varsh sushupti kaal mein iski kataai-chhaintaai karni chaahiye kyonki achhe fal paryaapt maatra mein nai daaliyon par hi aate hain. fal April se June tak praapt hote hain. lagaane ke teen varsh baad vruksh fal dene lagta hai aur ek svasth, praudh vruksh se lagbhag 400 fal milte hain. pattiyon ke nichle bhaag mein ek prakaar ka rog lagta hai jise mandoor (rast) kehte hain, parantu yeh rog vishesh haanikaarak naheen hai.

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain