angreji vyaakaran

saaaincha:Grammar series

yahaan angreji vyaakaran ko angreji bhaasha ke lakshanon ka varnan karne vaale niyamon ke samooh ke roop mein samjha gaya hai. bhaasha kuchh aisi hoti hai ki uske tatvon ko kisi khaas dhaanche ke anusaar sanyukt kiya ja sake. yeh lekh roopim-vigyaan, yaani bhaasha nirmit karne vaale khand aur vaakyavinyaas, arthaat roopim aur shabdon ke prayog se saarthak vaakyaansh, vaakyakhand aur vaakya nirmaan se sambandhit (aur us tak seemit) hai.

kisi bhi bhaasha ke vyaakaran ko aam taur par do alag tareekon se padha ja sakta hai: pehla vivranaatmak, jo aam taur par ek bade paath sangrah ke vyavasthit vishleshan par aadhaarit hai, jiske baad vyaakaran ki sanrachana ka varnan hota hai; aur doosra nirdhaarak, jo vaktaaon ke bhaashaai vyavahaar ko nirdhaarit karne ke liye us bhaasha ke niyamon ko ek upakaran ke roop mein istemaal karta hai (bhaashaai nirdhaaran aur varnanaatmak bhaasha-vigyaan dekhein). nirdhaarak vyaakaran ka sambandh angreji vyaakaran ke jaahir vivaadon se hai, jo aksar samay-samay par prayogon mein hone vaale parivrtanon ka dyotak hota hai.

angreji bhaasha ke kai aitihaasik, saamaajik aur kshetreeya svaroop hain. udaaharan ke liye, british angreji aur ameriki angreji mein kai shaabdik matabhed hain; lekin vyaakaran sambandhi matabhed utane spasht naheen hain aur unka ullekh aavashyakataanusaar hi kiya jaaega. iske alaava, angreji ki kai boliyon ka yahaan varnit vyaakaran se virodh hai; keval sarasari taur par unka ullekh kiya gaya hai. yeh lekh ek saamaanya vartamaan maanak angreji ki vyaakhya karta hai, bhaasha ka vah svaroop jo saarvajanik vaartaaon mein paaya jaata hai jismein prasaaran, shiksha, manoranjan, sarkaari aur samaachaar reporting shaamil hain. maanak angreji mein aupachaarik aur anaupachaarik donon bhaashaaen shaamil hain.

anukram

shaabdik shreniyaan aur padabandheeya vaakyavinyaas

sanjnyaaatmak

sanjnyaa vaakyaansh aur sarvanaam, donon ka ek sandarbhagat kaarya ho sakta hai jahaan ve vaastavik duniya mein (ya sambhaavit duniya mein) kisi vyakti ya vastu ko "ingit" (yaani, sandarbhit) karte hain. iske alaava, ve kai samaan vyaakaranik kaaryon ko saajha karte hain, jismein vaakyakhand ke bheetar donon hi, karta, karm aur vidheyak ke roop mein kaarya kar sakte hain.

sanjnyaa pad keval ek sanjnyaa se mil kar ban sakte hain ya ve vibhinn tatvon (jaise visheshan, poorvasargeeya vaakyaansh, aadi) se roopaantarit kisi sanjnyaa (jo sanjnyaa pad ke pramukh ka kaarya karta hai) se mil kar jatil ho sakte hain.[1]

sarvanaam ve shabd hain jo sanjnyaa pad ke pratisthaapan ka kaarya kar sakte hain. udaaharan ke liye, nimnalikhit vaakya mein

Professor Plum kicked the very large ball with red spots over the fence.

sanjnyaa pad the very large ball with red spots ko it sarvanaam se pratisthaapit kiya ja sakta hai

Professor Plum kicked it over the fence.

sarvanaam naam ke baavajood, sarvanaam, sanjnyaa pad ke bheetar sanjnyaa ki jagah naheen le sakte (jab tak ki sanjnyaa, sanjnyaa pad ka poori tarah se nirmaan naheen karte)- ve sirf poorn sanjnyaa pad ka sthaan lete hain. ise uparyukt vaakya se hi darshaaya ja sakta hai: sanjnyaa ball, sarvanaam it se (ya kisi anya sarvanaam se) pratisthaapit naheen ki ja sakti, jaisa ki avyaakaranaatmak[2] vaakya mein

*Professor Plum kicked the very large it with red spots over the fence.

in maamalon mein, ek vyakti one shabd ka prayog sanjnyaa ke sthaan par kar sakta hai.

Professor Plum kicked the very large one with red spots over the fence.

nimn khand angreji sanjnyaaaon (unke roopim-vigyaan aur vaakyavinyaas ko), sanjnyaa pad aur sarvanaam ki sanrachana ka varnan karte hain.

sanjnyaa

sanjnyaa dhaaranaatmak roop se (yaani shabdaarth) vyakti, vastu, sthaan, athva vichaar ko paribhaashit karti hai. yeh kaalpanik paribhaasha kosh vargeeya sanjnyaa ke kendreeya sadasyon ki ganana karti hai. haalaanki, kaalpanik paribhaasha kai sanjnyaaaon ki ganana mein asafal hoti hai, udaaharan ke liye deverbal sanjnyaaaen jaise jump ya destruction (jo dhaaranaatmak roop se mukhyat: kriya ki tarah hain). is kaaran se, angreji ke kai vyaakaranik vivran sanjnyaa ko vyaakaran ki drushti se paribhaashit karte hain (arthaat unke roopim aur vaakyaatmak vyavahaar ke anusaar). fir bhi, paaramparik angreji vyaakaran aur kuchh shaikshanik vyaakaran, ek kaalpanik paribhaasha se sanjnyaa ko paribhaashit karte hain.

gair-vyaktivaachak sanjnyaa, saamaanyat:, ling athva vibhkti ke liye chihnit naheen hoti hai, balki vachan aur nishchayavaachak (jab sandarbhit hoti hai) ke liye chihnit hoti hai.

gair-vibhkti pradhaan roopim-vigyaan
inhein bhi dekhein: English compound

angreji sanjnyaaaon ke kuchh roopaatmak prakaar ho sakte hain:

  • saral sanjnyaa
  • dhaatuj pratyaya ke saath sanjnyaa
  • mishrit sanjnyaa
  • dhaatuj pratyaya ke saath mishrit sanjnyaa

saral sanjnyaa ekal dhaatu se banti hai, jo praatipdik ka kaarya bhi karta hai jismein vibhkti lagaai ja sakti hai. udaaharan ke liye, shabd (ya aur adhik spasht roop se shabdim) boy ek saral sanjnyaa hai jo ek dhaatu (boy) se bana hai. dhaatu boy, praatipdik boy ka kaarya bhi karta hai, jiska vibhkti laga hua bahuvachan pratyaya ho sakta hai -s usamein jodne par vibhkti wala shabd-roop boys banta hai.

adhik jatil sanjnyaaaon ka ek sanjnyaa praatipdik ke alaava dhaatuj upasarg ya pratyaya ho sakta hai. udaaharan ke liye, sanjnyaa archenemy ek dhaatuj upasarg arch aur ek dhaatu enemy se bani hai. yahaan dhaatuj roop archenemy praatipdik ke roop mein kaarya kar raha hai jiska prayog vibhkti shabd roop archenemies banaane ke liye kiya ja sakta hai. dhaatuj pratyaya ke saath ek udaaharan hai kingdom jo dhaatu king aur dom pratyaya se bana hai. angreji ki kuchh sanjnyaaaen kai dhaatuj upasargon aur pratyaya ke saath jatil ho sakti hain. ek kaafi jatil udaaharan hai antidisestablishmentarianism jiska dhaatu establish hai aur anti-, dis-, -ment, -ary, -an, aur -ism pratyaya hain.

angreji sanyukt sanjnyaaaen aisi sanjnyaaaen hain jo ek se adhik praatipdik se bani hoti hain. udaaharan ke liye, sanyukt paperclip, praatipdik paper aur praatipdik clip se bana hai. angreji mein samaas ko upayogi tareeke se, pratyek praatipdik ke shaabdik varg ke aadhaar par vibhinn shreniyon mein aur arthagat varg ke aadhaar par tatpurush (endocentric), bahuvreehi (exocentric), dvandv (copulative) aur karmadhaaraya (appositional) up prakaaron mein (bauyar 1983 ke anusaran mein) pravibhaajit kiya ja sakta hai.

vachan

vachan ke liye angreji sanjnyaaaon mein aam taur par vibhkti lagti hai, jisse ekavachan aur bahuvachan ke bhinn roop bante hain. bahuvachan roop aam taur par ekavachan roop se bana hota hai jismein -s ya -es judta hai, lekin kai aniyamit sanjnyaaaen bhi hain. saadhaaranat:, ekavachan roop ka prayog tab kiya jaata hai jab sanjnyaa se sandarbhit ek drushtaant ki charcha ki jaati hai aur bahuvachan roop ka prayog tab hota hai jab koi anya drushtaanton par charcha ki jaati hai, lekin is niyam ke kai apavaad hain. yahaan kuchh udaaharan hain:

vachan udaaharan
ekavachan The girl talks.
Every girl talks.
No girl talks.
bahuvachan The girls talk.
All girls talk.
No girls talk.
ghatak

jo shabd, sanjnyaa shaabdik varg (ya shabd-bhed) se sambandhit hain, mukhya roop se sanjnyaa varg ke saral shabd ho sakte hain. ismein man, dog, rice, vagairah, jaise shabd shaamil hai.

anya sanjnyaaaon ko anya shaabdik shreniyon se sambandhit shabdon se varg-parivrtanasheel vibhkti pratyaya ke yog dvaara vyutpann kiya ja sakta hai. udaaharan ke liye, pratyaya -ation, -ee, -ure, -al, -er, -ment, ko kriya aadhaaron mein kriya-rahit sanjnyaa banaane ke liye joda jaata hai.

vex (kriya) > vexation (sanjnyaa)
appoint (kriya) > appointee (sanjnyaa)
fail (kriya) > failure (sanjnyaa)
acquit (kriya) > acquittal (sanjnyaa)
run (kriya) > runner (sanjnyaa)
adjust (kriya) > adjustment (sanjnyaa)

fir bhi anya pratyaya (-dom, -hood, -ist, -th, -ness) visheshan se vyutpann visheshan-rahit sanjnyaa banaate hain:

free (visheshan) > freedom (sanjnyaa)
lively (visheshan) > livelihood (sanjnyaa)
moral (visheshan) > moralist (sanjnyaa)
warm (visheshan) > warmth (sanjnyaa)
happy (visheshan) > happiness (sanjnyaa)

in dhaatuj pratyaya ko (mishrit) padabandheeya dhaatu mein bhi joda ja sakta hai jaise stick-it-to-itiveness sanjnyaa mein, jise [ stick it to it ] + -ive + -ness vaakyaansh se praapt kiya gaya hai.

dhaatuj pratyaya ke alaava, anya shaabdik shreniyon ke shabdon ko seedhe sanjnyaa mein parivrtit kiya ja sakta hai (bina kisi spasht roopim sanket ke) ek "roopaantaran" prakriya dvaara (jo shoonya dhaatuj ke roop mein bhi jaana jaata hai). udaaharan ke liye, shabd run ek kriya hai, lekin ise ek sanjnyaa run "besabaul khel mein arjit ank (aadhaaron ke chaaron or ghoom kar)" mein parivrtit kiya ja sakta hai, jaisa ki nimn vaakya mein:

The team won with five runs in the ninth inning.

yahaan yeh spasht hai ki run ek sanjnyaa hai kyonki ise vibhkti bahuvachan pratyaya -s se bahuvachan ka roop diya gaya hai, yeh apne poorv maatraatmak five dvaara sanshodhit hai aur yeh sanjnyaa pad five runs ke pramukh ke roop mein maujood hai jo poorvasargeeya pad with five runs mein poorvasarg with ke poorak ke roop mein kaam kar raha hai. anya shaabdik shreniyon ko bhi parivrtit kiya ja sakta hai:

if (subordinator) > if (noun) as in no ifs, ands, or buts about it [idiomatic]
daily (adjective) > daily (noun) [= "newspaper"] as in did you buy a daily for me?
down (preposition) > down (noun) [in American football] as in they made a new first down

iske atirikt, kai vaakyaansh aise hain jinko sanjnyaa mein parivrtit kiya ja sakta hai, jaise jack-in-the-box, love-lies-bleeding (fool ka prakaar). inhein samaas (sanjnyaa roopim-vigyaan bhaag dekhein) ke roop mein dekha ja sakta hai. roopaantaran ki aisi prakriyaaen bhi hain jo ek sanjnyaa upavarg se doosare upavarg mein parivrtit hoti hain (sanjnyaa upavarg roopaantaran anubhaag dekhein).

upavarg

vaakyavinyaas maanadand ke anusaar angreji mein teen mool sanjnyaa varg pahachaane ja sakte hain:

  • proper nouns (vyaktivaachak naam)
  • countable nouns (gananeeya sanjnyaa)
  • uncountable nouns (agananeeya sanjnyaa)

yeh vaakya-sanrachanaatmak upavarg, shabdaarth shreniyon ke kaafi anuroop hai (joki unke naam se prakat hai aur neeche vyaakhyaayit hai).

Countable and uncountable nouns - jaise dog (gananeeya), rice (agananeeya) - pravisheshan (article) ke virodhaabhaas ko dikhaati hain: a dog, the dog, dogs, the dogs sabhi sambhav hain jaise ki rice, the rice donon sambhav hain.

gananeeya sanjnyaaaen, agananeeya sanjnyaaaon se is prakaar alag hain ki ve na to akele rah sakti hain[3] aur na hi some ke dvaara visheshit ho sakti hain jab tak ki ve bahuvachan roopon mein na hon, inhein a se visheshit kiya ja sakta hai aur inka bahuvachan ban sakta hai. shabdaarth roop se aam taur par inka taatparya aasaani se pahachaani jaane waali vaiyaktik vastuon se hai. gananeeya sanjnyaa ke udaaharan nimnalikhit hain: remark, book, bottle, chair, forest, idea, bun, pig, toy, difficulty, bracelet, mountain, ityaadi.

agananeeya sanjnyaaaen, iske vipreet, akele rah sakti hain, some dvaara visheshit ho sakti hain, a dvaara visheshit naheen ho sakti aur inka bahuvachan naheen banaaya ja sakta. shabdaarth roop se agananeeya sanjnyaaaen, pruthak na kiye jaane vaale ek samooh ko ankit karti hain. agananeeya sanjnyaaaon ke udaaharanon mein shaamil hain: rice, furniture, jewelry, scenery, gold, bread, grass, warmth, music, butter, homework, baggage, sugar, coffee, luck, sunshine, water, air, Chinese (bhaasha), soccer, literature, rain, walking, ityaadi.

gananeeya aur agananeeya sanjnyaaaon ke beech roopim-shabdaarthik antar neeche taalika mein dikhaaya gaya hai.

gananeeya sanjnyaa agananeeya sanjnyaa
svasanpoorn *remark rice
some + sanjnyaa *some remark some rice
a + sanjnyaa a remark *a rice
bahuvachan remarks *rices
some + bahuvachan sanjnyaa some remarks *some rices

doosari or, vyaktivaachak sanjnyaa, jismein vyaktigat naam shaamil hain- jaise ki Peter, Smith aur sthaanon ke naam jaise Paris, Tokyo - pravisheshan (article) virodhaabhaas naheen dikhaate. vishisht roop se, ek pravisheshan unka agragaami naheen ho sakta.is prakaar, *a Peter, *the Peter, *a Tokyo, *the Tokyo sabhi avyaakaranik hain (keval Peter aur Tokyo pravisheshan ke bina sambhav hain). haalaanki kai vyaktivaachak sanjnyaaaon ke aage (udaaharan, Peter, Smith, Paris, Tokyo) ek pravisheshan naheen lagaaya ja sakta, kuchh vyaktivaachak sanjnyaaaon ke aage aparihaarya roop se pravisheshan lagaaya jaata hai. inmein vyaktivaachak sanjnyaa shaamil hain jaise The Hague, The Dalles, the Netherlands, the West Indies, aur the Andes . haalaanki, vyaktivaachak sanjnyaaaon ki tarah hi, bina pravisheshan sanshodhan ke, pravisheshan waali in vyaktivaachak sanjnyaaaon mein bhi pravisheshan virodhaabhaas ki kami hai. is prakaar, jabki The Hague vyaakaranik hai, *a Hague aur *Hague avyaakaranik hain. shabdaarth roop se vyaktivaachak sanjnyaaaon ke anoothe sandarbh hain.

jaisa ki oopar dekha gaya hai, vibhinn upavarg, vyaakaran ki sankhya aur parimaanaatmakata ko prabhaavit karte hain.

dvandv ghatak, roopaantaran

oopar varnit mool upavargon ke ghatak ko jatil karne waali jo baat hai, vah kuchh aisi sanjnyaaaon ki maujoodagi hai, jinke ek se adhik upavargon mein dvandv ghatak hain aur ek sanjnyaa ka uske mool upavarg se doosare upavarg mein roopaantaran. (sanjnyaa ghatak anubhaag dekhein.)

brick aur cake jaisi sanjnyaaaon ke dohare ghatak hain. udaaharan ke liye, brick ke saath nimnalikhit vaakyon ko dekhiye:

The house was made of brick brick agananeeya
The house was made of bricks bricks gananeeya =

pehle vaakya mein brick ek agananeeya sanjnyaa hai. brick se pehle kisi pravisheshan ke na hone se aisa nirdhaarit kiya ja sakta hai, jo ki ek agananeeya sanjnyaa ka lakshan hai (aur is prakaar, yeh vaakya, The ball was made of rice jaise vaakyon ke samaantar hai). doosare vaakya mein bricks ek gananeeya sanjnyaa hai kyonki yeh bahuvachan hai, jo ki sirf gananeeya sanjnyaa ki ek visheshata hai (aur is prakaar, yeh vaakya The toy house was made of matches' jaise vaakyon ke sadrush hai).anya sanjnyaaaen jinke gananeeya aur agananeeya donon upavargon mein dohare ghatak hain, ve hain stone, paper, beauty, difficulty, experience, light, sound, talk, aur lamb .

jaisa ki oopar ullekh kiya gaya hai, kai sanjnyaaaen ek upavarg se doosare upavarg ke liye roopaantaran se gujr sakti hain. vyaktivaachak sanjnyaa se gananeeya sanjnyaa, roopaantaran ka ek prakaar hai. ek vyaktivaachak naam, pikaaso laakshanik vistaar ke maadhyam se ek gananeeya sanjnyaa ho sakta hai, jaisa ki is vaakya mein:

Did you see the Picassos hanging on the wall?

haalaanki Picasso mein aksar ek khaas sandarbh hota hai (jo ki vyakti paablo pikaaso hai), ise laakshanik roop se prayog kiya ja sakta hai jahaan iska arth hoga,"pikaaso dvaara banaai gayi ek peinting". is parivrtit sanjnyaa ko is tathya ke dvaara ki yeh bahuvachan hai aur iske pehle pravisheshan the laga hai, gananeeya upavarg ke antargat dekha ja sakta hai. do muhaavaredaar nirmaan bhi hain jo vyaktivaachak sanjnyaa se gananaatmak sanjnyaa roopaantaran par aadhaarit hain:

Excuse me ma'am, a Mr. Smith is on the phone.
  
You don't mean THE Margaret Thatcher, do you?

yahaan Mr. Smith ke aage pravisheshan a ke kaaran pehle vaakya mein yeh arth milta hai ki "ek khaas vyakti shri smith jo ki anyatha aapse anajaane hain" jabki doosare vaakya mein anutaan balaaghaat ke saath (yahaan bade aksharon se ankit) pravisheshan the ko is andaaj mein padha jaata hai "the well-known person called Margaret Thatcher".

sanjnyaa pad

poorv-sanshodhan
nirdhaarak (Determiners)

nirdhaarak[4][5] mein pravisheshan shaamil hain (udaaharan: the, a/an), sanketavaachak (udaaharan: this, these, that, those), maatraatmak (jaise: all, many, some, any, each), sankhyaatmak (jaise: one, two, first, second), sanbandhakaarak[6] (jaise: my, your, his, her, its, our), prashnavaachak (jaise: which, what) aur vismayaadibodhak (jaise: such, what) jo sanjnyaa padon mein sanjnyaa pramukh ko visheshit karta hai.

nirdhaarak aise shabdon ka kaarya karte hain jo anya sanjnyaaaon ko "nirdhaarit" karte hain, jahaan "nirdhaarit" karne ko saamaanyat:, maatraatmak jaankaari ke sanket ke roop mein, vyaakaranik vachan (aur/ya shabdaarth), sandarbh se sambandhit mudde aur sanjnyaa upavarg ghatak (yaani ganana, aganit aur vyaktivaachak sanjnyaa upavarg) se sambandhit samjha jaata hai. "nirdhaarit" karne vaale aise kaarya nirdhaarak ko visheshanon se ekdam alag karte hai jo ki aam taur par sanjnyaa ki gunaatmak jaankaari pradaan karte hain, lekin nirdhaarit karne ka kaarya naheen kar sakte.

sanjnyaa pad ke bheetar, nirdhaarak, sanjnyaa pad ke baayein kinaare ki or sanjnyaa pramukh ke aage aur kisi vaikalpik visheshan sanshodhak (yadi maujood hain) ke pehle hote hain:

+ Adjective(s) + Noun

udaaharan nimn hain:

the balloon
det noun
 many 
balloons
det noun
all balloons
det noun
the big red balloon
det adj adj noun
many big red balloons
det adj adj noun
all big red balloons
det adj adj noun

nirdhaarak aur visheshan ki ek doosare ke saapeksh aur sanjnyaa mool ke saapeksh sthiti is baat se spasht ho jaati hai ki visheshan kabhi nirdhaarak se pehle naheen aa sakta.is prakaar, nimnalikhit, avyaakaranik angreji sanjnyaa pad hain: *big the red balloon, *big red the balloon (saath-hi-saath *big many red balloons, *big red many balloons, *big all red balloons, *big red all balloons).

ek-doosare ke saapeksh apni sthiti ke anusaar nirdhaarakon ko teen upavarg mein vibhaajit kiya ja sakta hai:

  • poorv-nirdhaarak
  • keindreeya-nirdhaarak
  • uttar-nirdhaarak

poorv-nirdhaarak, keindreeya nirdhaarak ke aage aa sakte hain lekin keindreeya nirdhaarak ke peechhe naheen. uttar-nirdhaarak, keindreeya nirdhaarak ke baad aate hain lekin aarambh mein naheen.keindreeya-nirdhaarak, poorv-nirdhaarak ke baad aane chaahiye aur uttar-nirdhaarak se pehle. is prakaar, ek keindreeya-nirdhaarak udaaharan the ke roop mein

the red balloons
det adj noun

ek poorv-nirdhaarak pehle aa sakta hai jaise nimn mein all

all the red balloons
predet cent.det
det adj noun

ya keindreeya-nirdhaarak the ke baad uttar-nirdhaarak prayog kiya ja sakta hai, jaisa nimn mein many hai

the many red balloons
cent.det postdet
det adj noun

poorv-nirdhaarak + keindreeya-nirdhaarak + uttar-nirdhaarak ka saamanjasya is roop mein bhi ho sakta hai

all the many red balloons
predet cent.det postdet
det adj noun

haalaanki, sanyukt karne ki sambhaavnaaon par kai pratibandh hain. ek saamaanya pratibandh yeh hai ki keval ek nirdhaarak teen nirdhaarak padon mein se pratyek mein ho sakta hai. udaaharan ke liye, uttar-nirdhaarak many aur seven nimnalikhit mein ho sakte hain

''many smart children
''seven smart children
the many smart children
  
the seven smart children

lekin many aur seven, donon uttar-nirdhaarak ki sthiti mein prayukt naheen ho sakte, kyonki isse nimnalikhit sanjnyaaapad avyaakaranik ho jaaega: *many seven smart children, *seven many smart children, *the many seven smart children, *the seven many smart children . iske atirikt, aksar doosare shaabdik pratibandh hote hain. udaaharan ke liye, poorv-nirdhaarak all ekal prayukt ho sakte hain (ekamaatr nirdhaarak ke roop mein) ya ek keindreeya-nirdhaarak se pehle (jaise, all children, all the children, all these children, all my children); baharahaal, poorv-nirdhaarak such akele ya keindreeya-nirdhaarak a se pehle ho sakta hai such nuisance! such a nuisance!

poorv-nirdhaarak ke udaaharan hain all, both, half, double, twice, three times, one-third, one-fifth, three-quarters, such, vismayaadibodhak what .keindreeya nirdhaarak se pehle poorv-nirdhaarak ke aane ki sthiti ke udaaharan:

all the big balloons
both his nice parents
half a minute
double the risk
twice my age
three times my salary
one-third the cost
one-fifth the rate
three-quarters the diameter
such a big boy
what a clever suggestion

keindreeya-nirdhaarak ke udaaharan hain the, a/an, this, that, these, those, every, each, enough, much, more, most less, no, some, either, neither, which, what .

visheshan sanshodhit sanjnyaa pramukh ke poorv, keindreeya-nirdhaarak ke prayog ke udaaharan hain:

the big balloon
a big balloon
this big balloon
that big balloon
these big balloons
those big balloons
every big balloon
each big balloon
no big balloon
some big balloons
either big balloon

jahaan ek or the, a/an, no, aur every keval nirdhaarak ke roop mein kaarya karte hain, vaheen doosari or[7] anya keindreeya-nirdhaarak bhi anya shaabdik shreniyon ke ghatak ke roop mein kaarya kar sakte hain, vishesh roop se sarvanaam ke roop mein. udaaharan ke liye, nimn mein that ek nirdhaarak ke roop mein kaarya kar raha hai

That item is our belonging.

lekin sarvanaam ke roop mein

That is our belonging

uparokt nirdhaarak ke alaava, -'s[8] vaale sanbandhakaarak sanjnyaaapad ka kaarya sanbandhakaarak nirdhaarak his, her, its, their ki tarah nirdhaarak wala ho sakta hai. yeh sanbandhakaarak nirdhaarak sanjnyaa pad, keindreeya nirdhaarak ki jagah prayukt hote hain:

[ my stepmother's ] friendly children
both [ my stepmother's ] friendly children
[ my stepmother's ] many friendly children
all [ my stepmother's ] many friendly children
vachan anuroopata, chayanaatmak pratibandh
pravisheshan

pravisheshan shabd hain, 'a','an','the'.'A' anishchit hai (jaise, a dog). yeh anishchit hai kyonki yeh kisi vishesh ikaai ka ullekh naheen karta, jise vakta ya shrota jaanta ho."The" nishchit hai kyonki yeh jis vishesh ikaai ka ullekh karta hai, vah shrota dvaara vakta ko pratilbhya maana jaata hai.

pravisheshan a/an, aur the aise shabd hain jo sanjnyaa ko visheshit karte hain. ve keindreeya-nirdhaarak ki sthiti mein hote hain. pravisheshan ke kai kaarya hain jinmein nishchitta ankan, vishisht/saamaanya sandarbh, bhaashan mein di gayi/nai jaankaari aur sanjnyaa upavarg ghatak (yaani, gananeeya, agananeeya aur vyaktivaachak sanjnyaa upavarg).

nishchit pravisheshan "the" ka prayog aksar kai baar pehle se hi varnit kiye gaye ya aasaani se pahachaane jaane waali sanjnyaa ke vishisht udaaharan ko sandarbhit karne ke liye kiya jaata hai. nishchit pravisheshan, sanketavaachak se thoda bhinn hain, jo aksar vakta aur darshakon ke sandarbh mein sanjnyaa ke sthaan ka sanket deta hai.

  • "Let us look for a good restaurant."
  • "What about the restaurant at which we ate last week?"
  • "That restaurant was terrible. What about this one on the corner here?"
visheshan sambandhi sanshodhan

visheshan aam taur par sanjnyaa se poorv mein hote hain, yaani the blue car, jahaan blue visheshan hai. haalaanki, kuchh visheshan jaise lyonnaise sanjnyaa ke baad aate hain (jaise, the potatoes lyonnaise).jab ek visheshan angreji mein sanjnyaa ke baad aata hai to sampoorn roop se vaakyaansh, saamaanyat: romance bhaasha, vishisht roop se French se grahan kiya gaya hota hai.

sanshodhan-pashchaat
  • visheshan sambandhi sanshodhan (jokes galore)
  • poorvasargeeya vaakyaansh sanshodhan (men in tights)
  • vaakyakhand sanshodhan planes flying overhead, jokes that I love, vagairah)

sarvanaam

inhein bhi dekhein: English relative clauses
ling

vyaakaranik ling ke avashesh anya purush sarvanaam mein sanrakshit hai. jaivik ling, (jahaan gyaat) ke aadhaar par sajeev vastuon ka aur saamaajik paranparaaon ke aadhaar par maanaveekrut vastuon ka ling nirdhaaran hota hai (udaaharan ke liye ships, ko aksar angreji mein streeling ke roop mein maana jaata hai). "He" ka prayog puling sanjnyaaaon ke liye kiya jaata hai; "She" ka prayog streeling sanjnyaaaon ke liye kiya jaata hai; aur "it" ka prayog anishchit ling aur nirjeev vastuon waali sanjnyaa ke liye kiya jaata hai. manushyon ka ullekh karne ke liye it ka prayog aam taur par avyaakaranik aur asabhya maana jaata hai, lekin kabhi-kabhi aparaadh ya apamaan ke roop mein jaanboojhkar prayog kiya jaata hai kyonki isse yeh arth niklata hai ki vah vyakti anishchit ling ka ya ghatiya manushya hai.

paramparaagat roop se, puling he ka prayog anya purush (third person) ko sandarbhit karne ke liye hota tha jiska ling agyaat ya sandarbh ke liye apraasangik tha; haal hi mein, ling-aadhaarit maanadandon ke samarthan karne ke liye is upayog ki aalochna ki gayi aur ise badhte prayog ke taur par anuchit maana jaata hai (dekhein, ling-tatasth bhaasha).pratisthaapan par koi aam sahamati naheen hai. angreji bolne vaale kuchh log bojhil "he ya she" ya "s/he" ka prayog pasand karte hain; anya log they (anyapurush bahuvachan) ka prayog pasand karte hain (ekavachan they dekheinekavachan ve). is sthiti mein shaayad hi kabhi bhram hota hai, kyonki ichhit arth, sandarbh se nikla ja sakta hai, udaaharan ke liye, "This person has written me a letter, but they have not signed it."haalaanki, yeh abhi bhi kuchh logon dvaara vyaakaran ke hisaab se galat maana jaata hai. Spivak sarvanaam ka bhi prastaav kiya gaya hai jo anivaarya roop se pramukh ko bahuvachan samakaksh se ghataakar nirmit kiye jaate hain, lekin anya samaadhaan ki tulana mein unka istemaal apekshaakrut durlabh hai. tulana ke liye, jarman bhaashi log, samadhvanik shabd sie ("she"), sie ("they") aur Sie ("you", vinmr) ke beech ka antar bina kisi pareshaani ke pehchaan lete hain.

sanjnyaa ka vargeekaran aam taur par ek ya adhik tatvon dvaara vyakt kiya jaata hai jise deictic, numerative, epithet, and classifier kehte hain.

kaarak

aitihaasik roop se, angreji kaarak ke liye sanjnyaa ko ankit karti thi aur is kaarak ankan ke do avashesh hain saarvanaamik pranaali aur sanbandhakaarak klitik (jinhein saiksan sanbandhakaarak kaha jaata tha). sanbandhakaarak, visheshit sanjnyaaapad ke ant mein ek klitik dvaara chihnit hota hai. ise nimnalikhit tareeke se samjha ja sakta hai:

The president of the company's daughter was married yesterday.

company se juda 's klitik company ko visheshit naheen karta balki samooche sanjnyaaapad president of the company ko visheshit karta hai. ise koshthak ke upayog se aur adhik spasht roop se dikhaaya ja sakta hai:

[ The president of the company ] 's daughter was married yesterday .

angreji sarvanaam ka roop, vachan, purush, kaarak aur kaalpanik ling ke anusaar badalta rahata hai (keval anyapurush ekavachan mein). vachan aur purush bhed, maanak aupachaarik bhaasha mein madhyam purush mein dhah gaye hain, haalaanki anaupachaarik boli ke roopon mein vachan bhed hai (udaaharan ke liye ekavachan you banaam bahuvachan y'all, youse, vagairah.).

kaarak 1st 2nd 3rd
sg. pl. sg. pl. prashnavaachak
male female neutar
karta-kaarak I we you he she it they who
karm-kaarak me us him her them whom (colloq. who)
sanbandhakaarak nirdhaarak my our your his its their whose
nominal mine ours yours hers theirs
not
  1. kuchh boliyaan, madhyam purush bahuvachan sarvanaam ke liye alag-alag roopon ka upayog karti hain: jismein shaamil hain you-all ya y'all,[9] you guys, yu'uns,[10] youse,[11] ya ye .[12] in roopon ko aam taur par bolachaal wala aur gair maanak ke roop mein maana jaata hai.
  2. sarvanaam thou poorv madhyam purush ekavachan sarvanaam tha; yeh adhikaansh sandarbhon mein aprachalit maana jaata hai, haalaanki yeh abhi bhi England ke uttar mein kuchh boliyon mein prayog kiya jaata hai. thou moolat: aupachaarik you ka anaupachaarik roop tha, bahut durlabh hai aur yeh dhaarmik, kaavya lekhan aur boliyon tak hi seemit hai. aadhunik maanak angreji mein, iske bajaay madhyam purush bahuvachan you ka prayog kiya jaata hai.
  3. Mine (aur thine) bhi pehle kanthadhvani viraam se bachane ke liye svar se pehle istemaal hote the. jaise, "Do mine eyes deceive me?” "Know thine enemy." yeh prayog ab puraane pad chuke hai.
  4. karm kaarak roop whom aksar aupachaarik angreji mein paaya jaata hai (lekhan mein), jabki saamaanya karm kaarak roop who kam aupachaarik lekhan mein aur adhikaansh bhaashan mein paaya jaata hai. nirdhaarak (Prescriptivists) ki rai hai ki who jab karm kaarak sandarbh mein prayog kiya jaata hai to "galat" hota hai.

nijvaachak sarvanaam, sanyukt roop (compounds) hain jo sanbandhakaarak nirdhaarak sarvanaam aur uske baad -self se bante hain, jiska apavaad hai anya purush ekavachan puling roop jo karm kaarak him + -self se banta hai aur anya purush bahuvachan roop jo karm kaarak them + -self + -(e)s se banta hai. bahuvachan mein, in nijvaachak mein niyamit bahuvachan pratyaya -s lagta hai (f > v ke svar ke saath jaisa ki self > selves ke svatantr roop ke saath) bahuvachan vibhkti sarvanaam roop ke saath.

kaarak 1st 2nd 3rd
sg. pl. sg. pl. sg. pl.
male female neuter
nijvaachak myself ourselves ya ourself yourself yourselves himself herself itself themselves

shabdaarth roop se we ke kisi bhi roop ke saath ourselves ke bajaay Ourself istemaal hota hai jaise the royal "we".

kuchh boliyon mein anya purush puling aur anya purush bahuvachan nijvaachak ka nirmaan sanbandhakaarak nirdhaarak his > hisself aur their > theirself se banta hai. is prakaar, in boliyon ne sanbandhakaarak roop mein poori pratimaan ko niyamit kar diya hai.

kriya

kriya varg

angreji kriyaaen do mukhya prakaar ki hoti hain:

  • mukhya kriya (full verbs bhi)
  • sahaayak kriya auxiliaries (auxiliary verbs, helping verbs bhi)

mukhya kriyaaen ve kriyaaen hain jaise jump, catch hit aur take . ve prakruti se shaabdik hain, kriya kshetr ke bheetar mukhya shabdaarth ki jaankaari rakhate hain aur ek open class hain arthaat (mukhya kriya svatantr roop se aur saarthak roop se shabd-nirmaan prakriya dvaara nae sire se banaai ja sakti hai. vaakya mein

Halil is helping his brother.

helping kriya mukhya kriya hai.

sahaayak kriya (Auxiliaries) aisi kriya hai jo aam taur par vaakya mein mukhya kriya se pehle aati hai. ve seemit sankhya mein hain, kriya kshetr mein vyaakaran ki jaankaari dete hain aur klosd class ke hain. vaakya mein

Halil is helping his brother.

kriya is sahaayak hai.

angreji mein teen kriyaaen - be, have, aur do - mukhya kriya aur sahaayak kriya, donon ke roop mein kaarya kar sakti hain[13] Quirk et al. (1985) ne in kriyaaon ko primary (praathamik) kriya ke roop mein uddhrut kiya hai. nimnalikhit udaaharan unki dohari kaaryakshamata ko darshaate hain:

Halil will be a student (be ek mukhya kriya ke roop mein)
Halil is helping a student (be ek sahaayak ke roop mein)
The girls have many books. (have ek mukhya kriya ke roop mein)
The girls have helped many students (have ek sahaayak ke roop mein)
The girls may do their homework. (do ek mukhya kriya ke roop mein)
The girls do not help many students. (do ek sahaayak ke roop mein)

teen praathamik kriya ke alaava, anya sahaayak kriya hain kriyaarthadyotak (modals), jismein shaamil hain, {{1}can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, aur would . sahaayak ke roop mein kaarya karne ki unki seemitta ke alaava, maudals sirf samaapika vaakyakhand mein aa sakte hain aur kaal, vachan aur purush ke liye unamein vibhkti naheen lagaai ja sakti.

kriyaarth dyotak varg mein adhik seemaant kriya hai ought aur british kismon mein need aur dare bhi hai. inmein kriyaarth dyotak ke kai gun dikhte hain magar saare naheen aur isliye inhein Quirk et al dvaara seemaant kriyaarth dyotak kaha gaya. (1985).

ant mein, kriya used (jaise She used to call me every day) Quirk et al. (1985) dvaara seemaant model maana gaya. lekin hadalastan aur pullum (2002) ne ismein aur anya model aur seemaant model ke beech kai matabhed paae aur yeh nishkarsh diya ki yeh sabse seemaant prakaar ki ek sahaayak kriya hai. shabdaarth roop se used ka sandarbh samay ya kaal se hai, jo ise model se alag pehchaan deta hai jinke mukhya shabdaarth ghatak ke roop mein roopaatmakata hai.

vibhkti roopim-vigyaan

angreji kriya ke keval aath sambhav vibhkti roop hain:

  • non-finite[14] (ya bina-kaal) roop:
(1) base roop (jise plane firm bhi kehte hain)[15]
(2)-ing [16] roop
(3) -en roop[17]
  • finite (ya kaal) prakaar:
gair-bhootakaal prakaar:
(4) general nonpast roop
(5) 1st person singular nonpast roop
(6) 3rd person singular nonpast roop
bhoot prakaar:
(7) general past roop
(8) 1st/3rd person singular past roop

yojak be ke aath vibhkti roop hain jaisa ki neeche udaaharan ke vaakyon mein dekha ja sakta hai:

The girl wants to be in school (base form: be)
The girl is being a nuisance (-ing form: being)
The girl has been a great help (-en form: been)
The girls are students (general nonpast form: are)
I am a student (1st sg. nonpast form: am)
The girl is a student (3rd sg. nonpast form: is)
The girls were students (general past form: were)
The girl was a child (1st/3rd sg. past form: was)

haalaanki, adhikaansh kriya ke (jismein sabhi niyamit kriya aur kuchh aniyamit kriya shaamil hain) keval chaar vibhinn vibhkti prakaar hai:

The girl wants to jump in the lake (base form: jump)
The girl is jumping in the lake (-ing form: jumping)
The girl has already jumped in the lake (-en form: jumped)
The girls jump in the lake every day (general nonpast form: jump)
I jump in the lake every day (1st sg. nonpast form: jump)
The girl jumps in the lake every day (3rd sg. nonpast form: jumps)
The girls jumped in the lake yesterday (general past form: jumped)
The girl jumped in the lake yesterday (1st/3rd sg. past form: jumped)

yojak be ke vipreet, jump kriya ka, aadhaar, saamaanya gair-bhoot aur pratham ekavachan gair-bhoot roop mein (jahaan yojak mein kramash: be, are, am, hai) samaan samanvayi shabd-roop aadhaar jump hai aur samaan samanvayi shabd-roop aadhaar jumped -en, saamaanya bhoot aur 1st/3rd sg. bhoot roop (jahaan yojak mein kramash: been, were, was ke liye hai). yojak ke saath anya kriya ki tulana karne par yeh pata chalta hai ki keval ek yojak ka 1st/3rd sg. bhoot roop hai jo saamaanya bhoot se alag hai, ek 1st sg. gair-bhoot roop hai jo ki saamaanya gair-bhoot se alag hai aur ek aadhaar roop hai jo saamaanya gair-bhoot roop se alag hai - anya sabhi kriyaaen in roopon mein samanvayata darshaati hain.[18] yojak aur ek niyamit jump ki tulana ek doosare se aur teen prakaar ki aniyamit kriya se neeche taalika mein ki ja sakti hai.

angreji kriya vibhkti pratimaan
yojak be Regular verb Irregular verb with 5 inflections Irregular verb with 4 inflections Irregular verb with 3 inflections
-ing form being jumping taking building hitting
3rd Sg. Nonpast is jumps takes builds hits
1st Sg. Nonpast am jump take build hit
General Nonpast are
Base be
General Past were jumped took built
1st/3rd Sg. Past was
-en form been taken

sabhi kriya (yojak sahit) -ing roop, dhaatu mein -ing pratyaya lagaakar banaati hain:

BASE FORM + -ing

sabhi niyamit kriyaaen aur adhikaansh aniyamit kriyaaen, dhaatu mein -(e)s pratyaya lagaakar, anya purush ekavachan roop banaati hain.

BASE FORM + -(e)s

oopar, koshthakeeya (e) yeh ingit karta hai ki is pratyaya ko -es ya -s ke roop mein likhte hain.-es roop (uchchaarit [ɪaaz]) ooshm vyanjan ke baad aata hai. -s vartani, anya sabhi svaron ke baad aati hai.[19] udaaharan:

  • push-es [pʊaaʃ-ɪaaz] (sh ooshm vyanjan ka pratinidhitv karta hai [ʃ])
  • catch-es [kæaatʃ-ɪaaz] (ch, dge ooshm vyanjan ka pratinidhitv karta hai[tʃ])
  • (judge-es) > judges [dʒaaʌaadʒ-ɪaaz] (dge ooshm vyanjan ka pratinidhitv karta hai [dʒ]
  • fit-s, dig-s, bathe-s, pan-s, pay-s (t, g, the, n, ay gair-ooshm vyanjan ka pratinidhitv karte hain [t, ɡ, ð, n, eɪ]

sabhi niyamit kriyaaen bhoot/-en roop ka nirmaan (saath-hi-saath samadharmi 1st/3rd bhoot) -ed pratyaya lagaakar hota hai:

BASE FORM + -ed
aniyamit kriya roopim-vigyaan

aniyamit kriyaaon[20] mein niyamit kriyaaon ki tarah hi samanvayata ho sakti hai (jaise catch) athva paanch alag roopon ke saath alp samanvayata dikha sakte hain (udaaharan ke liye take) ya sirf teen alag roopon ke saath adhik samanvayata (jaise hit). (inhein bhi dekhein: angreji aniyamit kriyaaen.) bhinn vibhkti roopon ki sankhya ke antar ke saath teen prakaar ke udaaharan:

  • irregular verbs with 5 forms: take, break, swim, grow, drive, do
  • irregular verbs with 4 forms: catch, build, have, feel, tell, say }
  • irregular verbs with 3 forms: hit, put, hurt, bet, cut, cast

paanch alag vibhkti roop waali aniyamit kriyaaen, saamaanya bhoot aur -en roopon ke saath samanvayi naheen hai. keval teen roopon waali aniyamit kriyaaen, sabhi roopon mein samanvayi hain, sirf -ing roop aur anya purush gair-bhoot mein naheen hain.[21]

paanch aur chaar vibhkti roop waali aniyamit kriyaaon ka vibhinn tareekon se bhoot aur -en nirmaan hota hai. kai tareekon mein svar apashruti shaamil hai (yaani aantarik svar parivartan) aur/ya pratyaya sanyojan.[22] adhik saamaanya tareekon mein se kuchh ka, neeche sankshep mein ullekh kiya gaya hai. dhyaan dein ki vartani hamesha aantarik svar mein uchchaaran badlaav ko pratibinbit naheen karti hai, at: uchchaaran ka lipyaantaran dhvanyaatmak roop se kiya gaya hai:

  • dhaatu aur bhoot/-en roopon ke beech, aakhiri vyanjan mein dhvani parivartan (d ghosh varn hai,t aghosh):
bend ~ bent
build ~ built
  • dhaatu aur bhoot/-en roopon ke beech t svar parivartan aur pratyaya prayog:
sleep [sliːaap] ~ slept [slɛaapt] (slep + -t)
deal [diːaal] ~ dealt [dɛaalt] (deal + -t)
  • bhoot/-en roopon mein dhaatu mein [ɔaaːaat] svar aur antim vyanjan (s) pratisthaapan:
sochana [θaaɪaaŋaak] ~ socha [θaaɔaaːaat]
pakadna [kæaatʃ] ~ pakada [kɔaaːaat]
  • dhaatu aur bhoot/-en roopon ke beech aur -(e)n pratyaya ke beech svar parivartan:
tootana [breɪaak] ~ toot gaya [broʊaak] ~ toota hua [broʊaakəaan] (tod + - (N E))
chori [stiːaal] ~ chura liya [stoʊaal] ~ chori [stoʊaaləaan] (churaaya + N)
aansoo [tɛaaəaar] ~ faad [tɔaaəaar] ~ fate [tɔaaːaarn] taur ((E) +-n)
  • dhaatu/-en aur bhoot svaroopon aur -(e)n pratyaya ke beech svar parivartan:
kheenchna [drɔaaː] ~ aakarshit [druː] ~ taiyaar [drɔaaːaan] (aakarshit +-n)
girna [fɔaaːaal] ~ gira [fɛaal] ~ gir [fɔaaːaaləaan] (gir + N)
lena [teɪaak] ~ liya [tʊaak] ~ liya [teɪaakəaan] (le + - (N E))
  • dhaatu, bhoot aur -en roopon mein svar parivartan:
tairana [swɪaam] ~ taira [swæaam] ~ swum [swʌaam]
  • -(e)n pratyaya se dhaatu, bhoot aur -en roopon mein svar badlaav:
chalaana [drаaaɪaav] ~ gaadi [droʊaav] ~ chaalit [drɪaavəaan] (drive + - (N E))
udna [flаaaɪ] ~ ud [fluː] ~ vimaan [floʊaan] (pravaah +-n)

kuchh kriyaaon ke saamaanya vartamaan aur anya purush ekavachan ke beech aniyamit parivartan hota hai:

have [hæaav] ~ has [hæaaz] (aur esaji 3 ummeed naheen. ameer * [hæaavz]
karna [duː] ~ karta hai [dʌaaz] (aur 3 esaji ki ummeed naheen hai. * daus [duːaaz]
kehna [seɪ] ~ kehte hain, [sɛaaz] (aur 3 esaji ki ummeed naheen hai. [seɪaaz]

yojak pratimaan mein bhi pratyaya aur svar apashruti hai, lekin yeh atirikt poorak dvaara chihnit hai.[23] (aath vibhkti roopon ke liye oopar taalika dekhein.)

doshapoorn kriyaaen

ullekh ke liye ek antim baat yeh hai ki kuchh kriyaaen is roop mein doshapoorn hain ki ve roopaantarit naheen hain ya roopaantaran ki kami ke shikaar hain. kriya beware ka dhaatu roop beware hi hai. yeh aam taur par aadeshaatmak vaakyon mein paaya jaata hai:

Beware of the dog.

bewaring, bewares, bewared roop aadhunik angreji mein asaamaanya hain.

used kriya aam taur par bhootakaal mein prayukt hoti hai, jaise ki

We used to go to the beach every day when I was young.

ya aadhaar roop mein keval do ke baad, jaise

We did not use to go the beach every day.

used kriya, niyamit ki jaane waali kisi kriya ki dyotak hai ya bhootakaal ki baat karti hai aur ek anya kriya use jo niyamit kriya hai, ke saath bhramit naheen hona chaahiye.

kai vaktaaon ke liye stride kriya ke vibhkti pratimaan mein bhootakaalik krudant ki kami hai (kuchh vaktaaon ke liye jinke liye bhootakaalik krudant roop hota hai, vah vibhinn roop se stridden, strid, ya strode ho sakta hai.

afavaah aur pratishthit kriyaapad karm-vaachya mein keval -en roop mein hote hain:

Halil is rumored to have participated in the scandal.
Halil is reputed to have connections with the scandal.

sabhi model (kriyaarth dyotak) (can, could, should, might, vagairah) doshapoorn hain.

sahaayak vibhkti

sahaayak kriyaaon mein se be, have, aur do ka, kaal, vachan aur purush ke liye roopaantaran kiya jaata hai. sahaayak kriya be ke ek mukhya kriya (yojak) ke roop mein samaan aath vibhkti roop hain aur have aur do ke bhi vaise hi paanch vibhkti roop hain jab mukhya kriya ke roop mein ve kaarya karte hain. iske vipreet, vyaakaran ke in maanakon ke aadhaar par, model, gair-roopaantarit sahaayak kriyaaen hain (aur is prakaar doshapoorn hain).

haalaanki, adhikaansh sahaayak kriyaaen nishedh ke atirikt roopaantaran ko saajha karti hain. nakaaraatmak vibhkti -n't pratyaya se banti hai jo sahaayak se judi hoti hai. is prakaar, roopaantarit sahaayak kriyaaon ke prakaar nimnalikhit hain:

to be[24]
aren't (are + -n't)
isn't (is + -n't)
weren't (were + -n't)
wasn't (was + -n't)
ain't [dialectal, prescriptively "incorrect"]

have '''

haven't (have + -n't)
hasn't (has + -n't)
hadn't (had + -n't)
to do
don't (do + -n't)
doesn't (does + -n't)
didn't (did + -n't)

model (kriyaarth dyotak)
can't (can + -n't)


couldn't (could + -n't)


mayn't (may + -n't) [very rare]


mightn't (might + -n't)
mustn't (must + -n't)


shan't (shall + -n't)


won't (will + -n't)


wouldn't (would + -n't)

seemaant sahaayak kriyaaen
daren't (dare + -n't) [rare, mostly British]
needn't (need + -n't) [rare, mostly British]
oughtn't (ought + -n't) [ungrammatical in some varieties]
usedn't (used + -n't) [ungrammatical in some dialects, mostly British]

nakaaraatmak roop don't [doʊaant] (aur apekshit [dunt] naheen) aur won't [woʊaant] (aur apekshit [wɪaalnt] naheen) aantarik svar mein apne parivrtanon mein aniyamit hain aur shan't [ʃaaæaant, ʃaaɑaaːaant] antim vyanjan ke apne vilopan mein aniyamit hai (aur R.P. mein iska svar, [æ]to[ɑaaː] mein sthaanaantarit ho jaata hai. mayn't aur shan't roop ab durlabh hain (vishesh roop se mayn't ke saath aisa hai) aur ameriki angreji ke maanak kismon mein lagbhag anupasthit hain.

paramparaagat vyaakaran -n't ko ek vibhkti pratyaya ke roop mein naheen balki vyaakaranik shabd not ke keval ek dhvanik roop mein dekhta hai (paaramparik shabdaavali mein sankuchit). is drushtikon ke mutaabik, haven't, asankuchit 'have + not, doesn't = does + not , ityaadi ke baraabar hai. ye sankuchit nakaaraatmak roop, is prakaar, anya sahaayak kriyaaon ke laghu (sankuchit) roopon, yaani are > 're, is > 's, am > 'm, have > 've, has > 's, had > 'd, does > 's, will > 'll, would > 'd . ke samatulya ban gaye hain yadyapi yeh nakaaraatmak roop ka aitihaasik janm hai, spasht roop se aadhunik bhaasha mein, in shabdon mein -n't pratyaya hai jo ek ekal avibhaajya shabd banaata hai choonki nakaaraatmak sahaayak kriya, + not nirmit vinyaas ki tulana mein alag vaakyaatmak vyavahaar pradarshit karti hai.

Didn't Charlotte bring the tea?
  
*Did not Charlotte bring the tea?
  
*Did Charlotten't bring the tea?
  
Did Charlotte not bring the tea?
Harry brought the coffee, didn't he?
  
*Harry brought the coffee, did not he?
  
*Harry brought the coffee, did hen't ?
  
Harry brought the coffee, did he not ?

iske atirikt, yeh bhi dikhaaya ja sakta hai ki anya sahaayak kriya ke laghu roop, nakaaraatmak sahaayak kriya se samaan vyavahaar naheen karte:

Shouldn't Halil go to the store? (cf. Halil shouldn't go to the store .)
*Should've Halil gone to the store ? (cf. Halil should've gone to the store.)
*He'dn't go to the store if she asked him.
He'd've gone to the store if she had asked him .[25]

ant mein, nakaaraatmak vibhkti gun aam taur par sahaayak kriya par laagoo hota hai, lekin mukhya kriya par naheen. tathaapi, "praathamik" kriya ko lekar iske do apavaad hain. mukhya kriya ke roop mein be kriya mein nakaaraatmak vibhkti lagaai ja sakti hai jaisa ki nimnalikhit udaaharan mein dikhaaya gaya hai:

The student wasn't being considered fairly . (sahaayak ke roop mein nakaaraatmak vibhkti)
The student wasn't a sophomore . (mukhya kriya ke roop mein nakaaraatmak vibhkti)

british kismon mein have ka mukhya kriya ke roop mein nakaaraatmak roop ho sakta hai, jabki jyaadaatar ameriki kismon ke liye yeh avyaakaranik hai:

The student hasn't been treated fairly . (sahaayak ke roop mein nakaaraatmak vibhkti)
The student hasn't enough time . (mukhya kriya ke roop mein nakaaraatmak vibhkti- british)

tathaapi, anya "primary" (praathamik) kriyaaon ka, mukhya kriya ke roop mein kaarya karte hue nakaaraatmak roop naheen ho sakta.

sahaayak kriya ke gunon ka, be aur have par laagoo hone ka yeh maamala, anya vaakyaatmak vyavahaar bhi mein dekha jaata hai jaise ki karta ke vyutkram aur sahaayak kriya ke oparetar mein. (oparetar anubhaag dekhein.)

is prakaar, 've, 'm, 's, aadi dhvanyaatmak roop se pruthak shabdon ke chhote kiye gaye roop hain (yaani, sankuchit) jabki nakaaraatmak -n't ek sankuchit kiya hua pruthak shabd naheen hai balki ek (vibhkti) pratyaya hai.[26]

anvaya

jyaadaatar angreji kriyaaen (apne karta ke saath anvaya mein) keval gair-bhootakaal, indicative mood mein vachan ko ingit karti hain. is sandarbh mein, anya purush aur anya sabhi purushon mein (yaani, uttam aur madhyam purush) virodhaabhaas hai: anya purush -(e)s pratyaya ke saath chihnit hai jabki anya sabhi purush achihnit hain (arthaat, bina prakat ankan ke). iske alaava, vibhkti pratyaya -(e)s ekavachan ko darshaata hai arthaat -(e)s anya purush ekavachan karta ko ingit karta hai. isi tarah, ekavachan keval anya purush mein darshaaya jaata hai - baaki purushon mein vachan achihnit rahata hai. anya purush mein bahuvachan achihnit hai. anya purush ekavachan pratyaya, saamaanya vartamaan kaal ke roop mein joda jaata hai jabki atichihnit roop, saamaanya vartamaan kaal roop hai. is tarah, saamaanya vartamaan roop aur anya purush ekavachan roop ke beech sirf ek bhed hai.

saamaanya anya purush ekavachan
listen listen-s
push push-es

nijvaachak sarvanaam karta ke saath sanyukt, karta-kriya ke nimnalikhit sambhav yugm hain:[27]

saamaanya anya purush ekavachan
I/we/you/they push he/she/it pushes

haalaanki, yojak be, gair-bhootakaal mein uttam purush ekavachan mein atirikt bhed banaata hai aur bhootakaal mein uttam ya anya purush ekavachan mein.anya kriyaaon ke vipreet, be ke ye roopaantarit roop ek anupoorak sambandh mein rahate hain.

switching ek satat kriya hai.

Non-past Past
General 1st Singular 3rd Singular General 1st/3rd Singular
are am is were was

sarvanaam karta-kriya sanyojan:

Non-past Past
General 1st Singular 3rd Singular General 1st/3rd Singular
we/you/they are I am he/she/it is we/you/they were I/he/she/it was

sanbhaavya kriyaarth mein purush aur vachan ke sabhi bhed tatasth ho jaate hain (neeche dekhein).

angreji kriyaaen, pramukh roop se karta ke saath anvaya karti hain, jaise nimnalikhit mein:

A girl is in the park.
Girls are in the park.

lekin, angreji, kriya ko un sanjnyaaapad se anvaya ki anumati deti hai jo vishisht roop se karta ki sthiti mein naheen hain:

There is a girl in the park.
There are girls in the park.


There is likely [ to be a girl in the park ].
There are likely [ to be girls in the park

kriya "kshetr" ki sanrachana

oparetar

kriya kshetr mein pratham sahaayak kriya ko oparetar kaha jaata hai. yeh vibhinn vaakyaatmak aur roopim visheshataaon ko pradarshit karta hai.

  • subject-operator inversion
[ The large man with a cane ] has been coming your way .
Has [ the large man with a cane ] been coming your way?
[ The woman ] has been flying a kite, and [ her son ] has been flying a kite, too .
[ The woman ] has been flying a kite, and so has [ her son ]. (with coordination ellipsis)

samay, kaal aur paksh

saaaincha:None exists

angreji mein kaal parivartan, aakhir mein badlaav karke aur sahaayak kriya "to be" aur "to have" ke prayog se aur sahaayak "will" "shall" "would" ka prayog karke praapt kiya ja sakta hai. (ye sahaayak, anya kriyaarth dyotak jaise can must aur may ke saath sah-prastut naheen ho sakte hain.) nimn udaaharan niyamit kriya to listen ka upayog karte hain:

vartamaan kaal

vartamaan kaal us kriya ka varnan karta hai jo vartamaan mein ho rahi hai . kriya ko abhi hona chaahiye, ya vartamaan kaal dvaara usaki vyaakhya naheen hogi.

    • saamaanya vartamaan (ya keval "present"): "I listen." yeh kaal aam taur par abhyast kriya ko vyakt karta hai. shaayad hi kabhi, iska upayog apratyaksh shaili ki baatcheet ke ullekh ke liye kiya jaata hai.
    • taatkaalik vartamaan (ya "present progressive"): "I am listening." yeh kaal aisi kriya ka varnan karta hai jo vakta ke bolte samay vartamaan mein ho rahi hai ya bhavishya mein.
    • taatkaalik aasann vartamaan : "I have been listening."iska prayog yeh vyakt karne ke liye kiya jaata hai ki ek ghatna kuchh samay pehle ateet mein shuroo hui thi aur vartamaan mein jaari hai.
    • aksar vartamaan kaal ke sabhi roopon ka prayog, uske bhavishya kaal ke samakakshon ke sthaan par kiya jaata hai. vishesh roop se, vibhinn prakaar ke aashrit upavaakya - aam taur par bhavishya kaal ka prayog naheen kar sakte, iski jagah vartamaan kaal prayog kiya jaata hai.
bhoot kaal

bhoot kaal aisi kriya ka varnan karta hai jo ateet mein hui hai .kaarya poora ho sakta hai ya adhoora.

    • aasann ya vartamaan aasann : "I have listened."yeh bhoot kaal poorn kaarya ko vyakt kaarya hai jo ateet mein shuroo hue the lekin vartamaan mein abhi bhi jaari hain: "I have known her for six years" (and I still know her). ek poorn hui kriya jo ateet mein kisi gair-vishesh kshan mein ghatit hui ho use is kaal dvaara vyakt kiya jaata hai. yeh kaal jo bhootakaalik krudant par nirmit hai, hamesha aisi kriya ko vyakt karta hai jo ateet mein hui ho.is kaal ko sirf bhoot kaal ke roop mein varnit kar sakte hain kyonki yeh ateet ki kisi kriya ka varnan karta hai, jo ki bhoot kaal ki paribhaasha hai. is kaal ko poorn bhoot kaal aur poorn bhavishya kaal se alag pehchaan dene ke liye aksar poorn "vartamaan" kaha jaata hai, is baat par bal dete hue ki sahaayak kriya vartamaan mein hai jo mukhya kriya ke bhootakaalik krudant se pehle aati hai. durbhaagya se yeh sheershak kuchh logon ko bhramit karta hai jo vyaakaran ki paryaapt samajh na hone ke kaaran ise vartamaan kaal samajh lete hain. yeh vartamaan kaal naheen hai kyonki yeh kisi vartamaan kriya ka varnan naheen karta jo ki vartamaan kaal ki paribhaasha hai. yadi yeh vartamaan kaal hota to poorn kaal (perfect tense) mukhya kriya ke bhootakaalik krudant se utpaadit naheen hota.
    • saamaanya bhoot "I listened." iska prayog kisi poorn kaarya ko vyakt karne ke liye kiya jaata hai jo ateet mein kisi vishisht kshan par hua ho.
    • taatkaalik bhoot (anyatha apoorn ya pragatisheel bhoot ke roop mein gyaat): "I was listening." iska prayog, ateet mein ek adhoore kaarya ko vyakt karne ke liye kiya jaata hai. (is prakaar, ek "apoorn" kaarya, poorn ke vipreet aur isliye "poorn" kriya.)
    • poorn bhoot ya pluperfect : "I had listened." yeh aisi kriya ko vyakt karta hai jo ateet mein kisi doosari kriya se pehle hi poorn ho gayi ho (aksar saamaanya bhoot dvaara vyakt). pluperfect is prakaar aur bhi zyaada ateet ki kriya ko vyakt karte hain jaise ""He realized he had lost his way", "I was going to town because he had spoken to me".
    • taatkaalik poorn bhoot ya sirf "poorn taatkaalik": "I had been listening."aam taur par ek spasht avadhi ke saath prayukt, yeh ingit karta hai ki ek ghatna ek vishesh samay ke liye chal rahi thi, jaise, "When Peter entered my room, I had been listening to music for half an hour."
    • "I used to listen" ke gathan mein "used to" ka istemaal ek sahaayak ke roop mein kiya gaya hai. yeh apoorn roop mein nirdisht hai aur hone waali anya gatividhiyon ke bajaay ghatna ke ant par saamayik dhyaan dete hue, poorn bhoot wala arth hi ismein samaahit hai. yeh kade roop mein ek kaal naheen hai aur "to use" ek kaal sahaayak kriya naheen hai, lekin is gathan ko aksar, saadagi ke liye ek kaal ke roop mein prastut kiya jaata hai.
bhavishya kaal

bhavishya kaal aisi kriya ka varnan karta hai jo bhavishya mein hone waali ho .kriya abhi tak ekdam na hui ho, ya use bhavishya kaal dvaara vyakt naheen kiya gaya hai.

    • saamaanya bhavishya: "I shall/will listen." iska prayog yeh vyakt karne ke liye hota hai ki ek ghatna bhavishya mein ghatit hogi, ya ki vakta kuchh kaarya karne ka iraada rakhata hai.
    • taatkaalik bhavishya: "I shall/will be listening" iska prayog kisi nirantar ghatna ko vyakt karne ke liye kiya jaata hai jo abhi tak shuroo naheen ki gayi hai.
    • poorn bhavishya: "I shall/will have listened." yeh aisi kriya ko ingit karta hai jo bhavishya mein kisi anya ghatna se pehle hogi: aam taur par do ghatnaaen vyakt ki jaati hain aur poorn bhavishya aisi kriya ko vyakt karta hai jo bhavishya mein hone waali hai par, mukhya bhavishya kriya ko vyakt karte samay, ateet mein hogi (jaise, "I shall/will know the tune next week because I shall/will have listened to it").
    • poorn taatkaalik bhavishya ya apoorn bhavishya : "I shall/will have been listening." ek chal rahi kriya ko vyakt karta hai jo bhavishya mein hoti hai, bhavishya mein vyakt ki gayi kisi anya ghatna se pehle.
    • "I am going to listen" ek gathan hai jismein "to go" ka prayog ek sahaayak ke roop mein kiya gaya hai. ise going to future, futur proche ya immediate future bhi kaha jaata hai aur yeh saamaanya bhavishya ke samaan hi arth deta hai kabhi-kabhi taatkaalikta ke nihitaarth ke saath. yeh poorn roop se kaal naheen hai aur "to go" poorn roop se ek kaal sahaayak kriya naheen hai, lekin is gathan ko aksar saadagi ke kaal ke roop mein prastut kiya jaata hai. sahaayak "to go" ke kaal parivartan se kai anya arth praapt kiye ja sakte hain, jaise, "I am going to be listening" (taatkaalik bhavishya), and "I was going to listen" (hetuhetumadbhoot poorn taatkaalik).
Conditional tenses (hetumad kaal)
    • vartamaan hetumad ya sirf hetumad : "I would listen." iska prayog aisi ghatna ko vyakt karne ke liye hota hai jo kai baar hui ho ya ateet mein chal rahi ho (jaise, When I was younger, I would listen. [kai baar]), ya kuchh aisa jise abhi ya bhavishya mein poorn kiya jaaega sakta hai jab anya shart par nirdisht kiya jaaega (jaise, "“aIf I had the time, I would listen to you.” [yeh sthiti sandarbh se jaani ja sakti hai aur hetumad vaakya se hataai ja sakti hai.])
    • taatkaalik hetumad vartamaan : "I would be listening." iska prayog vartamaan mein chal rahi aisi ghatna ko vyakt karne ke liye hota hai jo abhi tak shuroo naheen hui hai.
    • hetumad poorn: "I would have listened."ingit karta hai ki ek kriya, kisi doosari kriya ke samaapt ho jaane par hogi.
    • taatkaalik poorn hetumad : "I would have been listening" ek chal rahi kriya ko vyakt karta hai jo ateet mein bhavishya kisi doosari ghatna ke baad hone waali hai.

sahaayak kriya ka prayog kaal, pahaloo, ya ek kriya vaakyaansh ke kriyaarth ko paribhaashit karne ke liye kiya ja sakta hai.

jaisa oopar ullekh kiya gaya hai, "going to" ka prayog kuchh chhadm bhavishya kaal ke liye hota hai:

"do" ke roopon ka upayog, kuchh nakaaraatmak ke saath, prashnon ke liye aur saamaanya vartamaan aur saamaanya ateet par jor dene ke liye kiya jaata hai:

  1. "Do I listen?" "I do not listen.""I do listen

! "

  1. "Did I listen?" "I did not listen." "I did listen

! "

kriya kaal saarani

kuchh logon ko lagta hai ki angreji kriya kaal, nimnalikhit saarani mein behtar dekhe ja sakte hain, jo angreji bhaasha ke samay aur uske teen pakshon, arthaat poorv, poorn aur apoorn.

dhyaan dein ki yeh saarani keval vaastav mein ho rahi kriya ka pratinidhitv karti hai chaahe vah vartamaan, bhoot ya bhavishya ho. choonki avaastavik hetumad, jaahir taur par dhaaranaaen hain, 'would' waali hetumad sanrachanaaen yahaan shaamil naheen ki gayi hain.

PAST PRESENT FUTURE
PRIOR ASPECT Past Perfect Perfect Future Perfect
COMPLETE ASPECT Simple Past Simple Present Simple Future
INCOMPLETE ASPECT Past Continuous Present Continuous Future Continuous

vyaavahaarik drushti se yeh neeche di gayi saarani ka nirmaan karta hai:

Basic Progressive
(main verb present participle)
Perfect
(main verb past participle)
Perfect progressive
(second auxiliary in past participle
plus main verb present participle)
Auxiliary verb in Present I write I am writing I have written I have been writing
Auxiliary verb in Past I wrote I was writing I had written I had been writing
Auxiliary verb in Future I will write I will be writing I will have written I will have been writing

vaachya

angreji mein kriya ke liye do vaachya hain: kartru vaachya aur karm vaachya. mool roop kartru kriya hai aur yeh SVO paddhati ka anugaman karti hai. karm vaachya, sahaayak kriya "to be" aur mukhya kriya ke -en roop ka prayog karte hue kartru vaachya se liya gaya hai.

karm vaachya ke udaaharan hain:

kartru vaachya
I am seen by John John sees me
You will be struck by John John will strike you
It was stolen by John John stole it
We were carried by John John carried us
They have been chosen by John John has chosen them

Furthermore, the agent and patient switch grammatical roles between kartru and karm vaachya so that in karm the patient is the subject, and the agent is noted in an optional prepositional phrase using by, for example:

  1. kartru vaachya : I heard the music .
  2. karm vaachya : The music was heard (by me) .(Note: me, not I)

kriya ke karm vaachya svaroop ka nirmaan, samaan kaal aur pahaloo mein kriya ko to be se sthaanaapann karke aur mukhya kriya ke -en svaroop ko sanlagn karke kiya jaata hai. is prakaar:

kartru vaachya karm vaachya se samaan arth ki abhivyakti
Simple present I hear the music. The music is heard by me
Present progressive I am hearing the music. The music is being heard by me
Past progressive I was hearing the music. The music was being heard by me.
Past perfect I had heard the music. The music had been heard by me.
Simple future I shall/will hear the music. The music will be heard by me.

yeh paddhati sabhi samagr kaalon mein bhi jaari hai. kartru se karm ke parivartan ka shabdaarth prabhaav, kisi kriya ka avaiyaktikran hai. kabhi-kabhi iska prayog kisi vaakya ke pratyaksh karm ke prakaranikran ke liye hota hai, ya jab agent ya to agyaat hai ya mahatvaheen, tab bhi, jab shaamil kiya gaya ho, jaise:

  1. The plane was shot down.
  2. Dozens were killed.
  3. Bill was run over by a bus.

strank aur white sahit kai lekhan shaili guide angreji mein karm vaachya ke upayog ko nyoonatam karne ki sifaarish karte hain, lekin kai anya naheen karte hain.

angreji mein ek teesara 'vaachya' hai, classic "madhyam" vaachya se sambandhit. ismein, pesheint, karta ban jaata hai jaisa ki karm vaachya mein lekin jaahira taur par kriya kartru vaachya mein rahati hai, pratyaksh roop se koi agent naheen diya ja sakta aur aam taur par, ek kriya visheshan poore nirmaan ko visheshit karta hai. is prakaar:

  1. She does not frighten easily.
  1. This bread slices poorly.
  1. His novels sell well.

model aur kriyaarth dyotakata

angreji kriya ke "kriyaarth" (mood) hain. inmein hamesha ghoshanaatmak/sanketaatmak aur sanbhaavya kriyaarth shaamil hote hain aur saamaanya roop se aadeshaatmak ko kriyaarth ke roop mein shaamil kiya gaya hai. kuchh log hetumad ya prashnavaachak roop ko kriyaamoolak kriyaarth ke roop mein shaamil karte hain.

sanketaatmak ya ghoshanaatmak kriyaarth
  • ghoshanaatmak kriyaarth ya sanketaatmak kriyaarth sabse saral aur sabse buniyaadi kriyaarth hai. sanbhaavya ko kriya ke apavaad svaroop rakhate hue, pramukh roop se adhikaansh kriya ke prayog sanketaatmak mein hai, jise kriya ka "saamaanya" roop maana ja sakta hai. (yadi kisi anya prakaar ko kriyaarth maana jaata hai (udaaharan ke liye aajnyaa soochak ko), to unhein bhi kriya roopon ke apavaadasvaroop maana ja sakta hai.)

sabse adhik prayukt kriya roop udaaharan hain, jaise:

  • I think
  • I thought
  • He was seen
  • I am walking home.
  • They are singing.
  • He is not a dancer.
  • We are very happy.
sanbhaavya kriyaarth
  • sanbhaavya kriyaarth ka prayog pratitthyaatmak (ya hetumad) bayaan ke liye hota hai aur aksar ise if-then vaakyon mein paaya jaata hai aur kuchh faarmoolaabaddh abhivyakti mein. vartamaan kaal mein yeh saamaanyat: sahaayak "were" ke saath kriya ke -ing roop se chihnit hota hai.
    1. Were I eating, I would sit.
    2. If they were eating, they would sit.
    3. Truth be told…
    4. If I were you...I would do that.

in kriyaarth ka sanyojan tab aur adhik jatil ho jaata hai jab unka prayog alag-alag kaalon ke saath hota hai. haalaanki, anaupachaarik taur par boli jaane waali angreji mein shaayad hi kabhi sanbhaavya ka upayog hota hai aur aam taur par hetumad kriyaarth, saamaanya vartamaan aur saamaanya bhoot tak seemit rahata hai. iska ek ullekhaneeya apavaad hai aajnyaaasoochak ya ichhaasoochak vaakyakhand mein vartamaan sanbhaavya ka prayog jo ek ya do tareekon se chihnit kiya jaata hai: (1) yadi anya purush ekavachan, ghoshanaatmak kriyaarth dvaara apekshit sanyojan "-s" anupasthit aur (2) bhoot kaal ka prayog naheen kiya gaya hai. udaaharan ke liye, "They insisted that he go to chapel every morning" ka arth hai ki usaka chaipal jaana unki maang thi athva aavashyakta thi. tathaapi, "They insisted that he went to chapel every morning" ka arth hai ki ve us bayaan ko fir kah rahe hain ki, ateet mein, vah har subah chaipal mein shaamil hota tha. is tarah ke antar mein antarnihit vyaakaran ko "ameriki sanbhaavya" kaha gaya hai. british angreji aisa antar naheen karti. doosari or, ichha aur aajnyaa ko vyakt karne ke liye anya nirmaan jo sanbhaavya ka prayog naheen karte, utane hi aam hain, jaise "They required him to go..."

aadeshaatmak kriyaarth
  • aadeshaatmak kriyaarth ka prayog aajnyaa ya nirdesh ke liye kiya jaata hai. ise svat: mein hamesha ek kriyaamoolak kriyaarth naheen maana jaata hai. kriya ke saralatam, gair-sanyugman roop ka prayog, iska nirmaan karta hai:"Listen

! Sit! Eat!" angreji mein aadeshaatmak kriyaarth keval madhyam purush mein hota hai aur karta ("you") aam taur par spasht roop se naheen kaha jaata, kyonki yeh nihit hota hai. jab ek vakta kisi aur ke baare mein aadesh deta hai, to vah tab bhi madhyam purush ko nirdeshit hota hai, jaise ki yeh anumati ke liye anurodh kiya gaya hai, yadyapi yeh ek aalankaarik bayaan ho sakta hai.

    1. Let me do the talking.
    2. Come here.
    3. Give him an allowance.
    4. Let sleeping dogs lie.
model roop

kriya ke hetumad roopon ka prayog if-then bayaanon ko vyakt karne ke liye hota hai, ya pratitthyaatmak prastaav ke javaab mein (oopar sanbhaavya kriyaarth dekhein), bhavishya ki anishchit kriya ko ingit ya sanket dene ke liye.hetumad ko kaal ka roop maana ja sakta hai lekin kabhi-kabhi inhein ek kriyaamoolak kriyaarth yaani hetumad kriyaarth maana jaata hai.

hetumad ko kriyaamoolak sahaayak could, would, should, may and might ke saath kriya ke praatipdik roop ke sanyojan ke prayog se vyakt kiya jaata hai.

  1. He could go to the store.
  2. You should be more careful.
  3. I may try something else.
  4. He might be heading north.

dhyaan dein ki kai vaktaaon ke liye "may" aur "might" ek arth mein ("might" ke roop mein) samaahit ho gaye hain, jo soochit karta hai ki kathan ka nishkarsh anishchit hai. "may" mein nihitaarth anumati keval madhyam purush tatha anya purush ke saath katipya prayogon mein hi seemit lagti hai, udaaharan ke liye"You may leave the dinner table", ya "she may leave the dinner table."

do mukhya sashart tenses angreji mein pahachaana ja sakta hai:

I would think = Present Conditional
I would have thought = Conditional Perfect

not

  1. angreji mein ek lambe samay se nirdeshaatmak niyam yeh maanata hai ki shall pratham purush mein saamaanya bhavishya vyakt karta hai aur will madhyam aur anya purush mein saamaanya bhavishyakaal vyakt karta hai. ameriki angreji mein, yeh antar mukhyat: gaayab ho gaya hai; saamaanya roop se donon hi maamalon ke liye will ka prayog kiya jaata hai aur sirf prashnavaachak roopon ko chhodkar rojmarra ki bhaasha mein shall ka prayog durlabh hai, jaise "shall we go?", ya "shall we give her some money?", ityaadi, haalaanki yahaan bhi aksar 'shall' ki bajaay, sanbhaavya 'should' prayog kiya jaata hai. donon aam hain. (ameriki prayogon mein aaj bhi sanbhaavya 'should' aur 'would' ka upayog saamaanya roop se apne paramparaagat arth mein hota hai."I would go if you gave me some money", jaane ki paristhiti aadhaarit ichha ingit karta hai aur,"I should visit him if he comes to town" yeh vaakya ek hetumaya aadesh ya kartavya ka sanket deta hai.) british angreji mein, niyamon ke paalan mein 20veen sadi ke dauraan kami I hai (adhik vistrut charcha ke liye Shall aur will dekhein), haalaanki pratham purush mein saamaanya bhavishya ko vyakt karne ke liye shall ka prayog jaari hai.
  2. kaal, paksh aur kriyaarth ke beech ka antar spasht naheen hai ya saarvabhaumik star par sahamati naheen mili hai. udaaharan ke liye, kai vishleshakon ko yeh sveekaar naheen hai ki angreji ke baarah kaal hain. oopar soochi ke chh: "taatkaalik" roopon ("progressive" bhi kaha jaata hai) ko kaal ki bajaay aksar "pahaloo" sheershak ke tahat dekha jaata hai aur taatkaalik bhoot is najriye se usi kaal ke udaaharan hain. iske alaava, angreji ke kai aadhunik vyaakaran is baat par sahamat hain ki angreji mein bhavishya kaal naheen hai (ya poorn bhavishya). inmein haal ke do bade vyaakaran shaamil hain:
  1. Biber, D., S. Johansson, G. Leech, S. Conrad & E. Finegan. 1999.Longman grammar of spoken and written English. Harlow, Longman.
  2. Huddleston, R. and G. Pullum. 2002.The Cambridge grammar of the English language . Cambridge, CUP.

hadalastan aur pulam (pp 209–10) dvaara angreji mein bhavishya kaal naheen hai ke liye diya gaya mukhya tark yeh hai ki apne vyaakaran aur apne arth, donon mein "will" ek model kriya hai. Biber et al. isse aur aage jaate hain aur kehte hain ki angreji mein sirf do kaal hain, bhoot aur vartamaan: ve "have" vaale poorn roop ko "pahaloo" (aspect) ke adheen dekhte hain. hadalastan aur pulam, doosari taraf, "have" vaale roopon ko " "dviteeyak kaal" ke roop mein maanate hain.

kriya pad

visheshan

visheshan aise shabd hain jo sanjnyaa pad mein visheshan ki tarah prayog kiye ja sakte hain jahaan ve sanjnyaa pramukh ko (poorv) sanshodhit karte hain aur kriya pad mein visheshata ke taur par jahaan ve yojak kriya ke poorak hote hain. udaaharan ke liye, neeche vaakya mein visheshan tall sanjnyaa pad the tall man mein sanjnyaa pramukh man ko visheshit kar raha hai. visheshan nice kriya pad is nice ke bheetar kriya pramukh is ke poorak (yojak) ke roop mein aata hai.

[ The tall man ] [ is nice ]

visheshan, visheshan pad ke pramukh ke roop mein bhi kaarya karta hai jaise nimnalikhit mein:

The [ very tall ] man is [ rather nice ]

yahaan visheshan tall aur nice visheshan pad very tall aur rather nice ke pramukh hain.

shabdaarth roop se visheshan unke baare mein adhik jaankaari pradaan karte hain. visheshan, apne se sambaddh sanjnyaa ki pehchaan aur varnan karne ke liye istemaal kiye jaate hain.

visheshan ki ek aur roopim visheshata, jo kriyaavisheshan ke saath saajha bhi hoti hai, vah hai tulanaatmak roop mein unki roopaantaran ki kshamata: tall-er, tall-est . tulana anubhaag bhi dekhein.

visheshan pad

shabdaarth kram

kriya visheshan

paramparaagat vyaakaran se upajane wala shabd adverb (kriyaavisheshan) ki vyaapakata shabdon ki vistrut shrunkhala par hai jinke vibhinn kaarya aur vibhinn vaakyaatmak vyavahaar hai. isliye, kriyaavisheshan ko vibhinn upavargon mein vibhaajit karna aur pratyek upavarg ke vyaakaran ki alag se charcha karna behtar hai.

tulana anubhaag bhi dekhein.

degree kriyaavisheshan

tulanaatmak kriyaavisheshan (ya intensifiers) ek shreneebaddh shabdaarth visheshataaon par kisi bindu ko visheshit karta hai. neeche kuchh tulanaatmak kriyaavisheshan hain:

  • very[28]
  • extremely
  • et cetera

vaakya-rachana ke anusaar, tulanaatmak kriyaavisheshan visheshan ya kriyaavisheshan ko poorv-sanshodhit karte hain:

The very fast car is running smoothly . (very, visheshan fast ko visheshit kar raha hai)
The very kindly gentleman fixed my car . (very, visheshan kindly ko visheshit kar raha hai)
The fast car is running very smoothly . (very, kriyaavisheshan smoothly ko visheshit kar raha hai)
The kindly gentleman is driving my car very fast . (very, kriyaavisheshan fast ko visheshit kar raha hai)

poorvasarg

poorvasarg aise shabd hain jo ek sanjnyaa aur kisi aur ke beech sambandhon ko darshaate hain. aam taur par sanjnyaa se pehle rakhe jaate hain: udaaharan, on, to, with, by.

khand vaakyavinyaas

shabd kram

angreji ek karta kriya karm (SVO) bhaasha hai: yeh apne saralatam, achihnit ghoshanaatmak kathyon mein subject–verb–object ka anukram pasand karti hai. is prakaar, "Tom [subject] eats [verb] cheese [object]" aur "Mary sees the cat"

haalaanki, in saral udaaharanon se pare, shabd kram angreji mein ek jatil maamala hai. vishesh roop se, pratyek khand mein vakta ya lekhak ka prasthaan bindu, sandesh ke gathan mein ek mahattvapoorn kaarak hai. is prakaar, ek sandesh mein tatvon ko is tarah se kramit kiya ja sakta hai ki jo paathak ya shrota ko sandesh ke nihitaarth ka sanket de.

  • The duke gave my aunt that teapot. (i.e., I am going to tell you about the duke).
  • My aunt was given that teapot by the duke. (i.e., I am going to tell you about my aunt).
  • That teapot was given to my aunt by the duke. (i.e., I am going to tell you about that teapot).

prasthaan ke bindu ko bhi ek sameekaran ke roop mein nirdhaarit kiya ja sakta hai, jo vishyagat samaanata ke roop mein gyaat hai. is tarah se, vaastav mein kisi bhi tatv ko ek khand mein pehle kiya ja sakta hai.

  • "What the duke gave my aunt was a teapot" (i.e., I am going to tell you what the duke gave my aunt)
  • "What happened was that the duke gave my aunt a teapot" (i.e., I am going to tell you what happened).

aam taur par, prasthaan ka bindu ek ghoshanaatmak khand ka vishay hai; yeh achihnit roop hai. prasthaan ka bindu jab karta naheen hota to chihnit kiya jaata hai - is prakaar, kabhi-kabhi vah karm hota hai ("You I blame for this dilemma") aur jyaadaatar ek kriyaavisheshan vaakyaansh ("This morning I got up late").

prashnon mein, prasthaan ke bindu se thode alag dhang se vyavahaar kiya jaata hai. angreji prashn do prakaar mein aate hain: wh-prashn aur haan-na prashn.saadhaaran (achihnit) prashn ka koi bhi prakaar aise shabd se shuroo hota hai jo ingit karta hai ki vakta kya jaanana chaahata hai.

  • " Where is my little dog?" (I want you to tell me where.) [wh-question]
  • "Is John Smith inside?" (I want you to tell me whether he is or is not). [yes-no question]

vishesh (chihnit) prashn is kunji "what I want to know" shabd ko kisi anya tatv se visthaapit kar dete hain.

  • "After tea, will you tell me a story?"(Still "will you or will you not?")
  • "In your house, who does the cooking?"(Still "who?")

donon hi aajnyaaasoochak khand ka prakaar hai "I want you to do something" ya "I want you and me to do something." doosra prakaar aam taur par let us ke saath shuroo hota hai, pehle prakaar ke achihnit roop mein, you garbhit hai aur spasht naheen kiya gaya hai ("Improve your grammar!") aur chihnit roop mein shaamil kiya gaya ("You improve your grammar!");ek anya chihnit roop hai "Do improve your grammar."nakaaraatmak mein, "Do not argue with me" achihnit hai aur "Do not you argue with me" chihnit hai.

bolachaal ki angreji mein, prasthaan ka bindu svar-shaili dvaara baar-baar chihnit hota hai.

aam taur par, angreji ek head-initial bhaasha hai, arthaat vaakyaansh ka enkar (vaakya ka khand), vaakyaansh ki shuruaat mein aata hai.

  • Ran quickly (kriya pad)
  • To the store (poorvasargeeya pad)

mukhya apavaad yeh hai ki saamaanya visheshak, sanjnyaa vaakyaansh se pehle aate hain:

  • A dog (article + noun)
  • Blue house (adjective + noun)
  • Fred's cat (possessive + noun) but man of the house (noun + prepositional phrase)

isse jo vaakya prerit hota hai vah hai "Fred's sister ran quickly to the store." jaisa ki is udaaharan se anumaan lagaaya ja sakta hai, ek mool vaakya ka anukram (pravisheshan aur anya nirdhaarak saath hi saath poorvasargeeya vaakyaansh ko chhod kar): Adjective1 - Subject - Verb - Adverb - Adjective2 - Indirect Object - Adjective3 - Direct Object.

prashnavaachak vaakya, shabd kram ko ulata kar dete hain ("Did you go to the store?").ek vaakya ka kartru se karm vyaakaranik vaachya parivartan, shabd kram ko badal deta hai, nae karta ko saamane laate hue ("John bought the car" ban jaata hai "The car was bought by John") aur shaabdik ya vyaakaranik balaaghaat (topicalization) ise kai maamalon mein bhi badal deta hai (oopar duke-aunt-teapot udaaharan dekhein).

angreji mein kuchh OSV shabd kram (object-subject-verb) upayog bhi hain, khaaskar jab un sarvanaam ke prayog se tulana ki jaati hai jo kaarak ke liye chihnit hote hain. udaaharan ke liye, "I hate oranges, but apples I will eat."haalaanki bahut kam, lekin fir bhi kabhi-kabhi OVS prayog hota hai, "If it is apples you like, then apples like I," haalaanki yeh aakhiri prayog mool vaktaaon ko kaalpanik aur kaaladoshayukt lag sakta hai.

prashnavaachak vaakya

prashnavaachak shabd kram, savaal poochhane ke liye prayog kiya jaata hai, kisi javaab ki ummeed athva bina ummeed ke. adhikaansh samay, iska gathan ek ghoshanaatmak vaakya mein karta aur sahaayak kriya (ya "helping") ke sthaan ko parivrtit kar ke kiya jaata hai, jaisa ki nimn mein:

  1. Are you going to the party?
  2. Is he supposed to do that?
  3. How much do I owe you?
  4. Where is the parking lot?

baharahaal, jab maangi gayi jaankaari, javaab ka karta hogi to shabd kram ulata naheen hoga aur prashnavaachak sarvanaam karta ki jagah le leta hai, jaisa ki nimn mein:

  1. Who helped you with your homework?
  2. What happened here?

jab bola jaata hai, to is badlaav par jor dene ke liye laya parivartan ka aksar prayog kiya jaata hai, ya poori tarah se kuchh maamalon mein poochh-taachh pradarshit kar sakte hain (jaise, "John ran?"). prashnavaachak vaakyaansh ka nirmaan is tarah se ek ghoshanaatmak vaakya ke vidheya ko sahaayak kriya ke saamane laakar use ek sanketavaachak, sambandhavaachak sarvanaam aur parimaan vaachak ityaadi mein badla jaata hai. ek prashnavaachak chinh ke saath vaakya samaapt karna, prashnavaachak vaakyaansh ka dyotak hai < ?>.

aalankaarik savaal ka nirmaan sahaayak kriya-karta yugm ko prashn ke ant mein rakh kar kiya ja sakta hai, udaaharan ke liye ""You would not really do that, would you?"

prashnavaachak vaakya ke prakaar

angreji mein teen prakaar ke prashnavaachak vaakya (savaal) hote hain:

  1. Yes/no savaal ko “aYes/No” javaab ki aavashyakta hoti hai. udaaharan ke liye: Do you like modern music? Is he a driver?
    • vaikalpik prashn virodh vyakt karte hain aur vaakya ke kisi bhi bhaag se poochhe ja sakte hain (vishesh savaalon ki tarah).udaaharan ke liye: Do you prefer tea or coffee? Did you or your mother tell him the truth?
  2. jaankaari ke savaalon (ya Wh- prashn) ke javaab mein vishesh jaankaari ki aavashyakta hoti hai. sabse pehle ve ek prashnavaachak sarvanaam ki upasthiti dvaara chitrit hote hain (Why? When?How much? ityaadi) aur vaakya ke kisi bhi hisse se poochhe ja sakte hain. udaaharan ke liye: Where did you spend last summer? Why have you done it?
    • karta se kiye gaye prashnon ke javaab mein kriya ko sanpaadit karanevaale ka ullekh aavashyak hai. udaaharan ke liye: Who has broken the window? Who was talking to you when I saw you?
  3. taig prashn (viyojak savaal) dyotak hain taig vaale bayaan ke jo ek alpaviraam dvaara alag hote hain. udaaharan ke liye: You were at home yesterday, weren't you (were you not)? He will not come tomorrow, will he?

Yes/No prashn

Yes/No prashn ko aavashyakta hoti hai 'yes' ya 'no' javaab ki. yadi vahaan ek model kriya (can, must, should, may), ek sahaayak kriya (will, shall, have) ya vaakya mein kriya ka 'to be' roop hai to use karta ke saamane rakhein .

  • Mary is drinking tea. – Is Mary drinking tea?
  • The friends have come. – Have the friends come?
  • The houses were built last year. – Were the houses built last year?
  • You must do it. – Must you do it?
  • She will come in ten minutes. – Will she come in ten minutes?
  • They are from Ireland. – Are they from Ireland?

agar vaakya mein koi model kriya, sahaayak kriya ya 'to be' kriya naheen hai to yes/no savaal, sahaayak kriya 'do' ki madad se bante hain. sahaayak kriya 'do' ka koi matlab naheen hai. yeh vaakya mein sirf mukhya kriya ke anusaar roop leta hai.

'do' - vartamaan kaal mein: agar vaakya ka karta uttam purush ekavachan ya bahuvachan mein sanjnyaa hai (I ya We), madhyam purush ekavachan ya bahuvachan (you) aur anya purush bahuvachan (they).

  • We go to the country every weekend. – Do we go the country every weekend?
  • You like swimming. – Do you like swimming?
  • They play football. – Do they play football?

'does' - vartamaan kaal mein: agar yadi vaakya ka karta, anya purush mein sanjnyaa hai (he, she, it).

  • She cooks well. – Does she cook well?

'did' - bhoot kaal mein

  • They arrived yesterday. – Did they arrive yesterday?

not : yes/no savaal mein mukhya kriya bina kisi ant ke aati hai (-es, -s, ed) ya bhoot kaal ke maamale mein - apne pratham roop mein (arrived – arrive, came – come).

nakaaraatmak yes/no savaal ke gathan ke liye aapko karta ke saamane nakaaraatmak model kriya daalani hogi, nakaaraatmak sahaayak kriya ya 'to be' kriya ka nakaaraatmak roop.

  • Can't you help him?
  • Aren't you waiting for me?

yadi aapko sahaayak kriya 'do' ki madad se nakaaraatmak yes/no savaal banaane ki jaroorat hai, to aapko 'do' does, ya did ke bajaae 'don't'(do not), doesn't (does not), didn't (did not) ka upayog karna hoga.

  • Don't you know him?
  • Didn't you tell him the truth?

sanyukt nakaaraatmak aur adhik aupachaarik angreji mein prayog kiya jaata hai:

  • Can you not help him?
  • Are you not waiting for me?
  • Do you not know him?
  • Did you not tell him the truth?

soochana prashn

soochana ya Wh- savaalon ko javaab ke liye atirikt jaankaari ki aavashyakta hoti hai (sirf haan ya naheen ke vipreet jaisa ki yes/no prashn mein).is tarah ke savaal banaane mein aapko prashn shabd daalne hote hain (why? when? where? what? how? who? whom?) vaakya ke saamane saare shabd usi vaakyaansh mein ek saath. agar prashn shabd karta ka hissa hai to aapko shabd kram badalne ki jaroorat naheen hai. shabd kram veesa hi rahata hai jaisa vaktavya mein hain.

  • Who is playing the piano in the room now?
  • Which car is hers?

agar prashn shabd karta ka hissa naheen hai to aapko prashn shabd ke baad aur karta ke saamane ek model kriya (can, must, should, may), ek sahaayak kriya (will, shall, have) ya 'to be' kriya ka prayog karna hoga.

  • Where is Tommy?
  • Where will you be waiting for me tomorrow?

agar vaakya mein koi model kriya, sahaayak kriya ya 'to be' kriya naheen hai to aapko prashn shabd ke baad aur karta ke saamane sahaayak kriya 'do' ka upayog karna hoga.

  • Where do your parents live?
  • Why did he do it?

Note : soochana prashn mein mukhya kriya bina kisi ant ke aati hai (goes – go, plays – play, talked - talk) ya bhoot kaal ke maamale mein – iske pratham roop mein (arrived – arrive, came – come).

taig

inhein bhi dekhein: #Negation, negative polarity, and assertion.

Reversed polarity tags

viyojak prashn (taig prashn) taig savaal aise vaktavya hain jinke ant mein taig hota hai. taig do ya teen bhaagon se bana hota hai.

pehla bhaag : ek model kriya, ek sahaayak kriya, ya 'to be' kriya ka ek roop (yadi ve vaakya mein hain) sarvanaam ke liye aavashyak roop mein teesare bhaag mein.

doosra bhaag : nipaat 'not' agar bayaan sakaaraatmak hai. yadi bayaan nakaaraatmak hai, to nipaat ka lop ho jaata hai.

teesara bhaag : vaktavya ka karta, ek sanjnyaa dvaara vyakt kiya gaya ho.

  • She is having a shower now, isn't she?
  • You can't swim, can you?

vaakya mein agar koi model kriya, sahaayak kriya ya 'to be' kriya naheen hai to aapko taig mein sahaayak kriya 'do' ka prayog karna hoga.

  • Henry played tennis well, didn't he?
  • We go to work by bus, don't we?

not

(a) BrE mein mukhya kriya 'to have', ek sahaayak ke roop mein vyavahaar karti hai.

  • You have a brother and a sister, haven't you? (BrE)
  • You have a brother and a sister, don't you? (AmE)

(b) yadi vaakya ka karta taig mein anishchit sarvanaam 'somebody' hai to ise sarvanaam 'they' dvaara sthaanaapann kiya jaata hai.

  • Someone is knocking at the door, aren't they?

(c) 'nothing', 'never', 'hardly' jaise shabd vaakya ko nakaaraatmak banaate hain, at: taig sakaaraatmak hona chaahiye.

  • You never listen to me, do you?

(d) yadi vaakya 'there' se shuroo hota hai, is shabd ko ek sarvanaam ke roop mein gina jaata hai, to ise taig mein teesare bhaag mein rakha jaata hai.

  • ''There is nothing here, is there?

(e) yadi vaakya ek aajnyaaasoochak hai, to taig hoga 'will you' ya 'won't you'/'will you not'.

  • Be attentive, won't you?
  • Do not be lazy, will you?

(f) yadi vaakya mein 'Let us (let's)', hai to taig hoga 'shall we'.

  • ''Let us go to the cinema, shall we?

(g) adhik aupachaarik angreji mein sakaaraatmak vaakyon ke taig mein sanyukt nakaaraatmak ka upayog hota hai:

  • She is having a shower now, is she not?
 
  • You cannot swim, can you?
 
  • Henry played tennis well, did he not?
 
  • We go to work by bus, do we not?
 
  • You have a brother and a sister, have you not?
 (BrE) 
  • You have a brother and a sister, do you not? (AmE)
 
  • Someone is knocking at the door, are they not?
 
  • Be attentive, will you not?

taig ka arth

taig savaal mein vyakti ko vaktavya par pratikriya dene ki aavashyakta hoti hai. nakaaraatmak taig ko ek 'Yes' javaab ki aavashyakta hoti hai. sakaaraatmak taig ko ek 'No' javaab ki aavashyakta hoti hai.

  • ''We have done the project, haven't we/have we not? – Yes, we have.
  • We have not/haven't done the project, have we? – No, we have not.
Constant polarity tags
So, they read my article, did they?

vaakyaatmak poorak

samaapika poorak

  • Bill thought [ that Halil bought the car ].
  • Bill thought [ Halil bought the car ]. (that vaikalpik roop se maujood hai)
  • Bill thought [ that who bought the car ]? that vaikalpik roop se maujood hai)
  • Bill thought [ who bought the car ]?
    • Who did Bill think [ that bought the car ]? that avyaakaranik hai) (< *Who did Bill think [ that ___ bought the car ]?)
  • Who did Bill think [ bought the car ]? that anivaarya roop se maujood naheen hai () (< Who did Bill think [ ___ bought the car ]?)

Control constructions (niyantran sanrachanaaen)

  • Halil tried [ to win the race ].

Subject (karta) control:

  • Halil promised Sadaf [ to buy the groceries ]. (haleel kiraana saamaan khreedega, na ki sadaaf)

Object (karm) control:

  • Halil persuaded Sadaf [ to buy the groceries ].(sadaaf kiraana saamaan khreedega, na ki haleel)

Raising constructions

  • Sadaf seems [ to be ill ].(< Sadaf seems [ ___ to be ill ].
    • It seems [ Sadaf to be ill ].
cf. *Sadaf seems [ (that) is ill ].(< *Sadaf seems [ (that) ___ is ill ].)
cf. It seems [ (that) Sadaf is ill ].
  • Shizuko is likely [ to be awake ].
cf. It is likely [ (that) Shizuko is awake ].
  • John is unfortunate [ to be sick ].
  • It is unfortunate [ for John to be sick ]. (for is obligatorily present)
    • It is unfortunate [ John to be sick ]. (lupt for avyaakaranik hai)
cf. It is unfortunate [ that John is sick ].
cf. It is unfortunate [ John is sick ].

praasangikran

  • Topicalization
The book, I like. The movie, I do not . (cf. I like the book. I do not like the movie .)
To John, I gave the book .(cf. I gave the book to John .)

non-tensed VP topicaliztion:

Throw the ball, I shall/will . (Cf. I shall/will throw the ball .)

but not

*Threw the ball, I.

instead non-tensed VP movement with do-support

*Throw the ball, I did . (Cf. I threw the ball .)
  • left dislocation (baayaan visthaapan)
The book, I like it (Cf. I like the book .)
Jim, he is here. (cf. Jim is here.)
  • cleft (riktata)
It is the book (that) I like . (Cf. I like the book.)
  • pseudo-cleft (chhadm-riktata)
The book is what I like. (cf. I like the book.)

Negation, negative polarity, and assertion (nakaar, nakaaraatmak dhruveekaran aur abhikthan)

  • Grammatical polarity (vyaakaranaatmak dhruveekaran)
  • Polarity item (dhruveekaran mad)
Halil is going with them.
Halil isn't going with them . (inflectional "contraction" negation)
Halil is not going with them . (periphrastic negation)
Halil went with them
Halil didn't go with them . (do -support, inflectional "contraction" negation)
Halil did not go with them . (do -support, periphrastic negation)
Halil was receiving some help from his friends.
*Halil was receiving any help from his friends.
Halil was receiving no help from his friends.
*Halil wasn't receiving some help from his friends.
Halil was not receiving any help from his friends.
Halil was not receiving no help from his friends . (dialectal, prescriptively "incorrect")
Halil can drive a motorcycle and so can Cherif.
*Halil can drive a motorcycle and neither can Cherif.
*Halil cannot drive a motorcycle and so can Cherif.
Halil cannot drive a motorcycle and neither can Cherif.
Halil almost touched the tree and so did Cherif.
*Halil almost touched the tree and neither did Cherif.
*Halil hardly touched the tree and so did Cherif.
Halil hardly touched the tree and neither did Cherif.
  • syntactic negation vs. lexical negation (clausal vs. subclausal)
Halil was unable to go and so was Cherif.
*Halil was unable to go and neither was Cherif.
*Halil was not able to go and so was Cherif.
Halil was not able to go and neither was Cherif.
  • VP negation vs. non-VP negation
Do not ever accept this job position

! Do not ever accept this job position

Never ever accept this job position

! (negation outside of VP)

restrictions on not :

He did not accept the position . (negation inside of VP)
* He not accepted the position . (negation outside of VP)
It is imperative [ that he not accept the position ]. (negation outside of VP in subjunctive)
  • scope of negation and ambiguity
The streets are not [ safe because of the flood ]
interpretation #1 = the flood is not the reason for the unsafe streets (there is another cause)
The streets are not [ safe ] because of the flood
interpretation #2 = the flood is causing the unsafe streets
All of the streets are not flooded
interpretation #1 = None of the streets are flooded
interpretation #2 = Not all of the streets are flooded

[29]

tulana

shabdaarth kramabaddhata

visheshan aur kriya visheshan mein vishishtat: shreneekaran ka arthagat lakshan hota hai, yaani unke dvaara varnit gun ya avastha, do viruddh dhruvon ke beech kramik paimaane par maujood rahate hain. udaaharan ke liye, vilom shabd cold tatha hot ke beech kramabaddh paimaana maujood hai. vargeekaran yogya is tarah ke shabdon ke kai roopaantaran ho sakte hain, jis vishisht gun ya avastha ke paimaane par visheshit karte hain, vah nimnalikhit par aadhaarit hota hai combinations:

very quick
rather quick
quite quick
too quick
quick

very quickly
rather quickly
quite quickly
too quickly
quickly

adhikaansh visheshan[30] vargeekaran yogya hote hain, lekin kuchh visheshan naheen.udaaharan ke liye, visheshan infinite, vargeekaran yogya naheen hai, jisse very infinite, rather infinite aur more infinite vaakyaansh arthagat roop se atapate hain.

tulana ke prakaar

vargeekaran yogya visheshan aur kriya visheshan ko bhi tulana mein shaamil kiya ja sakta hai jahaan do ya do se adhik tattvon ki kramik paimaane par sthitiyon ki ek doosare se tulana ki jaati hai. arthagat roop se teen prakaar ki tulana ko pahachaana ja sakta hai:

  • uchch star ki (utkrusht)
  • samaan star ki
  • nimn star ki (nikrusht)

ek hi darje ki tulana keval saamaanya mool visheshan roop ka upayog karti hai.

uchch star ki tulana mein, -er, -est (roopim ankan) ka upayog karte hue vibhktipradhaan pratyaya laga kar ya visheshan se poorv (vaakyagat ankan) more, most parivrtakon sahit sanyukt sanrachanaaon dvaara tulana sanketit hoti hai. teen vibhktipradhaan roopon ke naam haintulana ki avastha

  • absolute (ya positive)
  • comparative
  • superlative

nimn stareeya tulana keval less aur least visheshanaatmak parivrtakon se yukt sanyukt sanrachanaaon ka upayog karti hain.

udaaharan:

Inflectional Periphrastic
Same degree (Absolute) tall beautiful
Higher degree Comparative taller more beautiful
Superlative tallest most beautiful
Lower degree -- less tall, less beautiful
-- least tall, least beautiful

tulanaatmak sanrachanaaen

She is taller than Helen is.
She is more tall than short. (note: *She is taller than short avyaakaranik hai)
She is as tall as Helen is.
ityaadi.

padalop

padalop tathya, vaakya ke kuchh hisson ke vilopan ko sandarbhit karta hai, jab kisi kathan ke sandarbh mein ve hisse pratilbhya hain. padalop ke kuchh prakaar anivaarya hain, jabki padalop ke anya prakaar vaikalpik hain. fir bhi, kinheen vyaakaranik parivesh mein kuchh anya prakaar vaikalpik hain, to kinheen vyaakaranik pariveshon mein anivaarya hain. udaaharan ke liye, nimnalikhit vaakya mein rekhaankit shabdon ko vaikalpik roop se chhoda ja sakta hai:

The red sock and red shoe are in the hamper.
  
The red sock and shoe are in the hamper . (red is omitted)


Halil can drink coffee and John can drink coffee, too.
  
Halil can drink coffee and John can, too . (drink coffee is omitted)
Victoria borrowed one of my CDs, but I cannot remember which CD.
Victoria borrowed one of my CDs, but I cannot remember which . (CD is omitted)
This boy always has done bad things and always will do bad things.
This boy always has and always will do bad things . (done bad things is omitted)


Anne is drinking tea at the table and George is drinking tea at the bar.
  
Anne is drinking tea at the table and George at the bar . (is drinking tea is omitted)

uparokt udaaharanon mein ek samanvit ghatak ke doosare ghatak mein padalop shaamil hai. is prakaar ka padalop bahut hi saamaanya hai. anya prakaar ke gair-samanvit vaikalpik padalop nimnalikhit hain:

Do you want a drink?
Want a drink? (do you omitted)
Do you want a drink?
You want a drink? (do omitted)
It looks fine to me.
Looks fine to me . (it omitted)
Is the machine still broken?
Machine still broken? (is the omitted)
We meet on Wednesday mornings.
We meet Wednesday mornings . (on omitted)

padalop ke kuchh khaas prakaar, bhaasha ki ek bahut hi anaupachaarik ya parichit shaili ka sanket dete hain, jabki is pahaloo se anya prakaar tatasth hain.

padalop ka prakaar jo sada anivaarya hota hai, niyantran sanrachanaaon ko shaamil karta hai.[31] in vaakyon ka aam taur par vishleshan, ek mukhya vaakyaansh se yukt hota hai, jahaan vaakyaansh ki kriya apne poorak ke roop mein samaapika kriya ko leti hai.

Henry tried [ to paint his house ].

uparyukt vaakya mein Henry tried [ X ] mukhya vaakyaansh hai aur sannihit (arthaat aashrit up-vaakya) samaapika kriya hai to paint his house . samaapika kriya ka vishleshan karta se yukt ke roop mein kiya jaata hai, jise prushth vaakya mein anivaaryat: chhoda gaya hai. is maamale mein, vilupt karta hai Henry (kyonki henari hi rangane ka prayaas kar raha hai). is prakaar, antarnihit sanrachana hai

Henry tried [ Henry paint his house ].(sannihit kriya mein Henry avyaakaranaatmak hai)

jismein ek karta hai jiska lop hona chaahiye (asamaapika ankan to ke saath, jise joda jaae) taaki mil sake:

Henry tried to paint his house . (Henry ko chhoda gaya hai)

padalop ke prakaar, jo kuchh sanrachanaaon ke liye anivaarya hain, lekin doosaron mein vaikalpik aur jismein that poorak shaamil hai:

Post-nominal modification:
The man that I love will be there . (that is optionally present)
The man I love will be there . (that is optionally omitted)
Object:
He knows that I love him . (that is optionally present)
He knows I love him . (that is optionally present)
Extraposition:
It is obvious that I love him . (that is optionally present)
It is obvious I love him . (that is optionally omitted )
Subject:
That I love him is obvious . (that is obligatorily present)
*I love him is obvious . (omitting that is ungrammatical when the clause is in subject position)
WAP

yeh bhi dekhein

  • kaipitlaaijeshan
  • angreji vyaakaran mein vivaad
  • angreji sanjnyaa pad
  • angreji upasarg
  • vyaakaran chekar
  • sanjnyaaatmak samooh
  • vishyagat samaanata

not aur sandarbh

  1. sanjnyaa pad ka haal ka anya vishleshan bataata hai ki ve balki nirdhaarak vaakyaansh hain jismein ek nirdhaarak padabandheeya pramukh ke roop mein aur sanjnyaa (aur iske visheshak) us nirdhaarak ke poorak ke roop mein kaarya karti hai. yeh lekh, sanjnyaa pad ke puraane, paramparaagat drushtikon ka paalan karega, jahaan sanjnyaa aur nirdhaarak, sanjnyaa pramukh ke sanshodhak ke roop mein kaarya karte hain.
  2. avyaakaranik udaaharan vaakyon ko bhaasha-vigyaan saahitya mein aam taur par ek poorvavarti taare * se darshaaya gaya hai. yeh niyam is lekh mein istemaal kiya jaaega.
  3. "akele rahana" (ya "nange") nimnalikhit ki tarah ek vaakyaatmak sandarbh ko sandarbhit karta hai:
    1. I want *book . (book = countable)
    2. I want rice . (rice = uncountable)
    agananeeya chaaval ke saath bina kisi poorv pravisheshan ke vaakya (2) vyaakaranik hai, lekin vaakya (1) avyaakaranik hai, kyonki ekavachan mein book bina kisi poorv pravisheshan ke naheen ho sakta.doosare shabdon mein, chaaval, vaakya (2) mein bina pravisheshan ke svasanpoorn rah sakta hai lekin pustak svasanpoorn naheen rah sakti.
  4. nirdhaarak shabd ka alag-alag lekhakon ke lekhan mein vibhinn arth hai. nirdhaarak shabd ka ek prayog ise vaakyaatmak shaabdik shreni ke naam ke roop mein prayukt karta hai (yaani, part of speech) jabki determinative shabd ka prayog, "nirdhaarit" karne ki kriya vaale shabdon ke liye kiya jaata hai. anya lekhak paribhaasha ko ulat dete hain jahaan determiner ka taatparya kaarya se hai aur determinative ka arth shaabdik shreni se hai. ek teesara upayog determiner shabd ka prayog, shaabdik shreni aur kaaryon ke sandarbh, donon ke liye karta hai (aur is tarah donon ke beech antar naheen karta). is lekh mein, pehla upayog vahaan hoga jahaan nirdhaarak = shaabdik shreni, determinative = kaarya.
  5. kai paaramparik vyaakaran nirdhaarak ka ullekh visheshan shabd se karte hain. haalaanki, nirdhaarak ka spasht roop se alag vaakyaatmak vyavahaar hota hai aur aam taur par visheshan se inki alag pehchaan, bhaasha-vigyaan unmukh vyaakaran vivranon mein hoti hai.
  6. dhyaan dein ki sanbandhakaarak sarvanaam mine, yours, hers, ours, theirs nirdhaarak naheen hain balki vaakyaatmak sarvanaam hain. (sanbandhakaarak sarvanaam his ka roop sanbandhakaarak nirdhaarak his ke samaan hi hai, arthaat, ve samadharmi hain.)
  7. shabd no vismayaadibodhak ka bhi kaam kar sakta hai, jab iska prayog kisi haan-na savaal ke nakaaraatmak javaab ke roop mein hota hai, jaise
    Speaker A: Do you want a pelican ?
    Speaker B: No , I don't eg 'em .
  8. sanbandhakaarak pashchaashrayi ki vartani hai -' kuchh sthitiyon mein ...
  9. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, chautha sanskaran. dekhein http://www.bartleby.com/61/66/Y0026600.html.
  10. [25] ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language , chautha sanskaran. dekhein http://www.bartleby.com/61/94/Y0029450.html.
  11. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language chautha sanskaran. dekhein http://www.bartleby.com/61/91/Y0029150.html.
  12. Dictionary of Newfoundland English dekhein http://www.heritage.nf.ca/dictionary/azindex/pages/5505.html.
  13. ek sahaayak ke roop mein do mein jyaadaatar khaali arth ghatak hai. tathaapi, kuchh vaakyaatmak sanrachanaaon mein iski aavashyakta hai jinka ullekh do-support ke roop mein kiya gaya hai.
  14. kadaai se kaha jaaye to pad gair-parimit ka taatparya un kriyaaon (aur unase sambandhit khand) se hai, jo apne roopaantaran mein purush, vachan aur kaal ke anusaar seemit hain. choonki, kriya ka dhaatu roop aajnyaa soochak vaakyon mein prayog kiya jaata hai, dhaatu roop poori tarah se gair-parimit naheen hota hai jaisa ki aajnyaa soochak vaakyon mein ek maadhyam purush karta hota hai (aamtaur par satahi vaakya mein upasthit naheen). is prakaar, tensed aur non-tensed shabdaavali aadhunik angreji ke lakshan varnan ke liye adhik upayukt hai. haalaanki, yeh lekh paaramparik shabdaavali non-finite ka prayog is chetaavani ke saath karega ki dhaatu roop aagaya soochak vaakyon mein parimit hai aur vaastav mein anya nirmaan mein gair-parimit hai.
  15. paramparaagat vyaakaran shabdaavali mein dhaatu roop ko aksar teen roopon mein vibhaajit kiya jaata hai: infinitive, imperative, present subjunctive .haalaanki, aadhunik angreji mein ye roop hamesha roopim tareeke se samaan hain.
  16. paramparaagat vyaakaran mein -ing roop ko do shabdon dvaara vyakt kiya jaata hai present participle ya gerund haalaanki, ye roop roopim aadhaar par kabhi bhinn naheen hote, inka ullekh krudant-kriyaavaachak sanjnyaa shabd ke saath kiya gaya hai. paaramparik vyaakaran iske vartamaan krudant naam ke baavajood, -ing roop kaal pradarshit naheen karta, vaastav mein, maukhik nirmaan mein prayukt hota hai jo vartamaan, bhavishya aur bhoot samay ko ingit karta hai. parimit khand mein, iska mukhya kaarya pahaluaatmak hai.
  17. paramparaagat vyaakaran se bhoot krudant naam hone ke baavajood, -en roop kaal ya bhoot kaal seema pradarshit naheen karta.parimit khand mein, yeh ya to pahaloo ya karm vaachya ingit karta hai-en roop ka naam -en~-n pratyaya par pada jo kai aniyamit kriyaaon par dikhta hai jaise beat : beaten (beat + -en), sew : sewn (sew + -n), give : given (give + -n) .
  18. dhyaan dein ki yadi yojak vishleshan se baahar rakha jaata hai, to kriya pratimaan ko yoon chitrit kiya ja sakta hai
    angreji kriya vibhkti pratimaan (yojak ko chhodkar)
    Regular verb Irregular verb with 5 inflections Irregular verb with 4 inflections Irregular verb with 3 inflections
    -ing form jumping taking build ing hitting
    3rd Sg.Nonpast jumps takes builds hits
    Base jump take build hit
    Past jumped took built
    -en form taken
  19. vaastav mein -s vartani do alag uchchaaran darshaati hai: ek hai [s] (after voiceless nonsibilants), anya ko [z] ke roop mein after voiced nonsibilants.
  20. aadhunik angreji mein lagbhag 250 aur 300 ke beech aniyamit kriyaaen hain. haalaanki, ek deshi vakta ki bhaasha mein aniyamit kriyaaon ki sankhya mein boli ka kaafi badlaav hai (yaani idiolect). fir bhi angreji ki tathaakathit maanak kismon mein bhi bhinnata hai. udaaharan ke liye, kuchh vakta kehte hain/likhte hain has been mowed jahaan mow mein niyamit kriya ka -en roop hota hai jabki anya vakta bolte/likhte hain has been mown jahaan mow mein aniyamit -en roop hota hai - yahaan niyamit aur aniyamit donon roop nirdhaarak vyaakaranavidon dvaara sveekaarya maane jaate hain. ek anya udaaharan hai drag jahaan kuchh vakta bolte/likhte hain She dragged it yesterday (niyamit bhoot) jabki doosare kehte/likhte hain She drug it yesterday (aniyamit bhoot) - is udaaharan mein aniyamit drug, kuchh nirdhaarak vyaakaranavidon dvaara asveekaar kar diya gaya hai. kai aniyamit kriyaaen puraani aur aprachalit hain (jaise ki smite~smote~smitten).anya, niyamit kriya vibhkti nidrshan mein tabdeel ho gayi hain (jaise ki aniyamit bhoot roop glode sabse aadhunik kismon mein glided ho gaya hai).
  21. aniyamit beat asaadhaaran roop se saamaanya bhoot (beat) ko -en roop (beaten) se alag karti hai lekin aadhaar, saamaanya gair-bhoot aur 1st. sg. gair-bhoot roopon ko lekar syncretism hai, saath hi saath saamaanya bhoot aur 1st/3rd sg. bhoot.
  22. aitihaasik vikaas par aadhaarit aniyamit kriya ki do shreniyaan hain:
    1. samarth kriyaaen ("paaradarshi roop se aniyamit" do aitihaasik prakaar ki)
    2. "satya" aniyamit kriya.
    shabd "paaradarshi roop se aniyamit" ka prayog kabhi-kabhi Jacob grim ki "samarth kriya" ko vyakt karne ke liye hota hai jo pratham drashta aniyamit lagti hai, lekin vaastav mein ek aam pratimaan ka anusaran karti hai. This group of verbs is a relic of the older Germanic ablaut system for conjugation aamtaur par yeh ek vishisht saral bhoot kriya roopon tak hi seemit hai, jaise:
    swim ~ swam ~ swum
    sing ~ sang ~ sung
    steal ~ stole ~ stolen
    ki ek anya shreni "paaradarshi aniyamit verbs" madhya angreji vaapas tithiyaaain. kuchh verbs, vishesh roop se ek ek vaayukosheeya dhvani (ti / mein samaapt hone ke saath stem un /, / gh / ya / / s), ke saath ek bahumoolya padaarth dhvani ya dhvani klastar-d pratyaya gathan kiya. madhya angreji mein, ek dhvani aksar kam ho gaya klastar pehle svar. ke roop mein mahaan svar shift aise nimnalikhit ke roop mein lambe samay svar aur isi laghu svar, paaradarshi aniyamitataon ke beech sambandh chhip paida hui:
    meet ~ met
    lead ~ led
    read ~ read
    lose ~ lost
    keep ~ kept
    kai anya aniyamit kriyaaon mein shaamil hai eat, sit, lend, and keep .kuchh maanadand, aprachalit dhaatu shabdon par ya aise dhaatu par jinka arth badal gaya hai aadhaarit hain. doosaron ke puraane oomalaayoot paitarn ki phonemic sanrachana aur vyaakaran mein badlaav vikrut hai se vyutpann (rakhane ~ rahe hain rakha aise hi ek udaaharan hai). kuchh mool mein spasht naheen hain aur aadya vaapas taareekh-sakta hai Bhaarat aur Europeeya baar.
  23. suppletion ke liye kaaran yojak hai, jo teen alag verbs ke lachakadaar maanadand ke vilay: hooain, ho raha hai, puraane pad chuke kala aur () ek kriya se kar rahe hain ke aitihaasik vikaas ke kaaran hai, ho gaya hai, , ja raha hai ek doosare kriya se hain; gaya tha, ek tihaai puraani angreji kriya se hain.
  24. bhi boli maanak kismon mein firm (+ hooain jo n't asaamaanya) hai amn't hai.
  25. dhyaan dein ki di ki tarah ve kam prakaar ke drushyon (= hoga) aksar likhit bhaasha mein naheen mila hai. fir bhi, ve aksar boli jaane waali bhaasha mein saakshyaankit hai.
  26. behad aupachaarik lekhan haalaanki (jahaan naheen) behtar hoga, hoga 'n ti sabse likhit roop mein sveekaarya hai.
  27. puraane sanskaran doosra vyakti ekavachan too listenest ke roop mein ek stha. pratyaya hai. puraane teesare vyakti ekavachan ek ke roop mein eth pratyaya hai mein vah / ve / yeh listeneth.
  28. ki degree adverb bahut bahut jiska arth hai 'vaastavik visheshan, sateek se pratishthit ho jaata hai "yeh vaakya bahut main aurat ki baat kar raha tha ke roop mein hai.
  29. anymore shabd, vyaakaranik roop se any ke saamaan sirf unheen vaakyon mein hai jismein sandeh ya prashn kiya ja raha hai. haalaanki, sanyukt raajya America ki kuchh boliyon mein yeh suna ja sakta hai jismein iska istemaal lagbhag aajkal ke arth ke saath kiya gaya ho. haalaanki, aise sandarbhon mein aksar ab bhi nishedh ya samaapti ka ek nihitaarth hota hai. udaaharan ke liye, is vaakya mein
    Anymore, people just wear jeans and t-shirts when they travel on a plane
    yeh antarnihit hai ki
    People no longer dress up to fly.
  30. sabhi gatisheel aur sabse stative visheshan gradable hain. haalaanki, kai nongradable visheshan arth mein ek saath badalne ke saath ek gradable aksar arth mein prayog kiya ja sakta. udaaharan ke liye ke baad se aamtaur par gradable, stative visheshan mara naheen hai aur aam taur par mrut apne jeevit poorak paraspar ananya raajyon par vichaar kiya ja raha hai. haalaanki, vaakyon mein jaisa I felt very dead today visheshan ek gradable visheshan ke roop mein istemaal kiya ja raha hai.
  31. niyantran sanrachanaaon ke roop mein bhi samaan-enapi-pehle parivrtanakaari vyaakaran mein vilopan kaha jaata hai.

granth soochi

vyaakaran kitaabein

vinibandh

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