angreji vidhi

vishv ke ve kshetr jahaaain poornat: ya aanshik roop se angreji vidhi chalti hai

inglaind aur vels ki kaanoon pranaali ko angreji vidhi (English law) kaha jaata hai. adhikaansh raashtrakul deshon evam sanyukt raajya America ki 'samaan vidhi' (common law) isi pranaali par aadhaarit hai. jab vartamaan raashtrakul deshon mein britaani saamraajya tha, us samay ye kaanoon in deshon mein laagoo kiye gaye aur ab tak chal rahe hain.

parichay

praacheenatam angreji kaanoon keint ke raaja ethelabart ke hain jo san 600 E. ke lagbhag prakaashit hue. aisa anumaan hai ki ethelabart ke kaanoon keval angreji mein hi naheen varan samast tyootani bhaashaaon mein lipibddh kiye jaane vaale sarvapratham kaanoon the. beda ke mataanusaar ethelabart ne apne kaanoonon ko rog ke aadarshon par hi lipibddh kiya tha. dharm sambandhi praniym hi sambhavat: uparyukt kaanoon ke aadhaar the. san 680 E. mein hvothar aur idrik ne tatha san 700 E. ke lagbhag vidrod ne unamein vruddhi ki. san 690 E. mein raaja aain ne vijnyaajanon ki mantrana se kuchh kaanoon prakaashit kiye. taduparaant do shataabdiyon tak koi naya kaanoon naheen bana. is deergh antaraal ke pashchaat san 890 E. mein alafred ke kaanoon ka srujan hua. is samay se kaanoon ko avichhinn shrunkhala ka praarambh hua jo 11veen shataabdi tak bani rahi tatha jismein Edward di eldar, aivelstan, edamand, edagar aur ethelared ne yog diya. kaanoon ki is parampara ki iti deno raaja kainyoot ke kaal mein hui jiski kaanoon ka vishd evam vistrut sangrah prastut karne ka shreya praapt hai.

ainglo-saiksan kaanoon nirantar kai shataabdiyon tak paandulipi ke aaainchal mein chhipe pade rahe. 16veen shataabdi mein unki khoj nikaala gaya aur san 1568 E. mein lainbard ne unki aarakaayonomiya naam se prakaashit kiya. san 1840 mein unka aadhunik angreji bhaasha mein anuvaad esheint laaj aind inscheetyoots ov England sheershak se prakaashit hua.

naarman vijay angreji kaanoon ke itihaas mein sarvopari mahatva ki ghatna hai. 12veen shataabdi mein angreji kaanoon teen vibhinn shaakhaaon mein vibhaajit ho gaya-vest-saiksan, Amreeki tatha deni. naarman logon ke paas apni koi suvyavasthit vidhi pranaali naheen thi aur jo kuchh unka apna kehne ko tha bhi vah angreji vidhi pranaali ke samaksh naganya tha. ataev naarman kaanoon angreji kaanoon ko athakamit na kar saka. falasvaroop angreji vidhi pranaali ke svaroop evam kriyaasheelata mein koi parivartan naheen hua. vijayi William ne angreji kaanoon ki pushti ki; yahi san 1100 E. mein henaro pratham ne kiya. vidhijnyaon ne Edward ke kaanoonon ki samaalochana ko jiske falasvaroop kaanoon ke teen sankalan prakaashit hue. inmein leingis hyoorisaai praaimi atyant mahattvapoorn hai. doosari mahatva ki baat yeh thi ki naarmal vijetaaon ne bhoomi ke sambandh mein unheen vidhi-niyamon ko apnaaya jinka prayog angrej bhoosvaami kiya karte the. iska pramaan prasiddh granth doomsade book tatha naarman samraaton ke ghoshanaapatron mein milta hai. fir bhi naarman vichaaradhaara ka samuchit prabhaav angreji kaanoon par pada. nyaayaalayon mein French bhaasha ka prayog hone laga. kaanooni pustakon ki rachana tatha vidhi prativedan bhi kai shataabdiyon tak French mein hi hota raha. henari dviteeya ko angreji kaanoon ke itihaas mein vishisht sthaan praapt hai. vah mahaan shaasak aur vidhaan nirmaata tha. uske kai vidhi niyam tatha samayaadesh praapt hue hain.

ainglo-saiksan kaanoon mein dharm sambandhi maamalon ko chhodkar anya kisi disha mein roman nyaaya shaastr ka prabhaav dekhne mein naheen aata. nissandeh rom nyaaya pranaali Britain mein jad naheen pakad saki parantu roman paranparaaon ka samuchit prabhaav us par pada. kaanoon ke vikaas mein jis pramukh shakti ne kaarya kiya vah church (dharm) Catholic mataavalanbi hone ke naate roman prabhaav se aachhaadit tha. uhaaharanaarth ichha patra rom ki den tha jiska prachalan church (dharm) ke prabhaav se hua. iske atirikt, dharm sambandhi nyaayaalaya keval dhaarmik maamalon mein hi hastakshep naheen karte the varan unka kshetraadhikaar vivaah, rikthapatr aadi jeevan ke anya mahattvapoorn angon par bhi tha.

11veen shataabdi mein logon ka dhyaan ek baar pun: vidhi granthon ki or aakrusht hua. san 1143 E. mein aarttabishp thiyobaald ki chhatrachhaaya mein varkariys naam ke ek vakeel ne England mein roman vidhipranaali par vyaakhyaan diye jinka pratyaya prabhaav henari ke sudhaaron mein milta hai. henari ke shaasanakaal se nyaayaadhikran ka mahatva uttarottar ksheen hota gaya aur samraat ka niji nyaayaalaya sabhi vyaktiyon evam vaadon ke liye pratham nyaayaalaya ban gaya. iske parinaamasvaroop saamraajya vidhi pranaali ka vikaas hua.

san 1164 E. mein klainreindam ke nishedhaadesh dvaara, jo kuchh samay baad sanshodhanon sahit pun: prakaashit hua, henari ne dand-prakriya-pranaali mein anek mahattvapoorn sudhaar kiye tatha nyaaya sabhya dvaara anveshan pranaali ka sootrapaat kiya. san 1181 E. mein aayudh nishedhaadesh dvaara praacheen sainik shakti ko maanyata di gayi. san 1184 E. mein ek anya nishedhaadesh dvaara raaja ke van sambandhi adhikaaron ki paribhaasha ki gayi. tadanantar ek vyavasthit kar pranaali chaaloo ki gayi.

henari ke kaal ki vidhi kriyaasheelata ke drushtaant do pramukh granthon mein milte hain. pratham granth ka naam hai daayologas di skaikeriyo jiski rachana richrd fitj neel dvaara hui. doosra granth, jiski rachana rainalf glaanabil ne ki, angreji nyaaya pranaali ka pratham praacheen granth hai jismein raajakeeya nyaayaalaya ki kaarravaai ka sahi chitran kiya gaya.

henari ke pashchaat, richrd ke kaal mein bhi nyaaya prashaasan ka kaarya mukhyataya raaja ke niji nyaayaalaya dvaara hota raha. parantu raaja ki anupasthiti mein prashaasan kaarya nyaayaadheeshon dvaara sampann hone laga aur samast kaarravaai ke shaasakeeya abhilekh rakhe jaane lage. henari truteeya ke saaa. san