angreji shaasan

Britain ka saamraajya jiska Bhaarat ek bhaag tha. is raajya ko do bhaago me baanta jaata hai 1 company ka raaj 2 taaj ka raaj

anukram

Bengal ke Governor

klaaiv1757-1760

haalavel1760

veinsitaart 1760-1765
klaaiv (doosari baar)1765-67
verlest 1767-69
kaatiryer1769-72
vaaren hestings1772

Bengal ke Governor general

vaaren hestings
laard mekfarasan
laard kaarnavaalis
sar John shor
sar ai Clark
laard velejeli
laard kaarnavaalis
sar jaajr baarlo
arl of minto
laard hestings
John edams
laard emerhast
William baterverth veli
laard William baitink

Bhaarat ke Governor general

laard William baintik
sar chaarl metakaaf
aakalaiङ
laard elanabaro
vilyam bird
laard haarding
dalahauji
laard kening

Bhaarat ke Governor general tatha vaayasaraaya

laard kainnig
laard elgin 1
sar raabart nepiyr
sar William denisn
sar John laareins
meyo
sar John stetchya
nothbrook
litn
ripn
dafrin
elgin 2
laard karjan
laard empirya
laard karjan
minto 2
haarding
chemsaford
reeding
litn 2
iravin
veligantan
sar George Stanley
linlithgo
bairan bebran
linlithgo
laard vevel
laard maauntabetan
chakravarti raajagopaalachaari

Bhaarat par british saamraajyavaad ka aarthik prabhaav

Bhaarat me plaasi ke yuddh se aajaadi tak ka kaal ek aupaniveshik raajya ka kaal tha jiski sthaapana va kaam karne ka tareeka hi shoshan karne ka tha isne Bhaarat ke shram, dhan sabhi ka upayog apne laabh hetu kiya tha Bhaarat ke is nirantar shoshan va dhan nikaas ki prakriya ko upaniveshavaadi shoshan kaha jaata hai is yug ke teen charan maane gaye hai ye vibhaajan kaarl maarks ne kiya hai 1 vyaapaarik pooainji ka vaanijyavaad [1758-1813] is charan me vyaapaar vo maadhyam tha jis se Bhaarat ka shoshan hota tha company is kaal mein ek aikaadhikaaravaadi sangathan ban gayi thi is ne apne saare pratidvandi samaapt kar satta praapt ki thi. vo Bhaarat ke hi dhan se vastu khareed kar niryaat karne lagi is se Bhaarat ka bhugataan santulan bigad gaya, dhan ki nikaasi shuroo hui so alag ! 2 audyogik pooainji ka kaal 1813-1858 is kaal mein mukt vyaapaar neeti apna li gayi ! 3 vitteeya saamraajyavaad 1858-1947

british saamrajyavaad ka bhaarateeya krushi par prabhaav

british saamraajyavaad ka pehla aur sabse bura shikaar Bhaarat ke krushak bane the tatha arthavyavastha nasht ho gayi thi aur unke vinaash ka kaaran bani british neeti
ekamev kaaran the british sarkaar dvaara laagoo kiya gaye bhooraajasv bandobast british shaasan ne teen prakaar ke badobast laagoo kiye the ! 1 jameendaari ya sthaai bandobast- jo 1793 me laard kaarnavaalis ne ki thi ye Bengal, Bihar, udeesa, tatha poorvi uttarapradesh me laagoo kiye gaye the! ye ek nae varg jameendaar ke saath kiye gaye the jameendaar company ko har varsh ek nishit dhanaraashi de dete the is ke badle mein ye log apni jameen tatha kisaanon ke maalik maan liye jaate the yadi dhan nahi chuka paate to company unki jameen neelaam karva deti thi!


iske nateeje ye nikle
1 krushak ab jameen ke maalik nahi the ve ab jameendaar ki daya par nirbhar kiraaye ke krushak the !
2 jameendaar apni marji se bedakhal karte the kiraaya bhi apni marji se vasoolate rahe the!
3 vasooli ke tareeke amaanaveeya the !
4 jameendaari khareed- bech girvi vibhaajan ki vastu ban gayi thi !
5 jameendaar gaaainv se shahar aa gaye the unke sthaan par kaareinde kaam karte the jo poori tarah se laalachi the aur kisaanon ka adhiktam shoshan karte the!
6 krushak ki aamdani to bhooraajasv chukaane mein chali jaati thi aur uske sir par karj rahane laga gaaainvon me gareebi badh gayi, krushi utpaadan bhi gir gaye kyonki kisaan ke liye kuchh prerak kaaran tha hi nahi jo upaj hoti vo jameendaar ki hoti so vo man se kheti karte hi nahi the !
2 raiyyatavaadeen vyavastha british raaj dvaara laagoo doosra bandobast tha ye Tamil Nadu, mahaaraashtr, dakkan me 1820 laagoo kiya gaya tha!
iske andar seedhe kisaanon se sampark kiya gaya tha ye kisaan apni jameen ke maalik the parantu is bandobast me bhooraajasv ki dar bahut ooainchi thi 48-52% kahi kahi to ye 55% thi vasooli behad nirmam tareeke se hoti thi! kisaan jo kar nahi chuka paate the jail me daal diye jaate the jiska kharch bhi unhein khud uthaana padta tha
iske parinaam
1 uchch bhoo raajasv ke chalte in kshetron me jameen ki keemat bahut kam ho gayi thi!
2 adhiktar utpaadan to kar chukaane me chala jaata tha !
3 kisaan majaboori me saahookaar se karj lete the taaki kar chuka sake jo ek baar is jaal me aa jaata tha vo nikal nahi paata tha is tarah yahaaain bhi anoopastith bhoosvaami ban gaye !
4 is bandobast mein sangrhakatr tatha saahookaar donon ne mil kar shoshan kiya tha!
5 graameen karjedaari me sabse jyaada vruddhi inhi kshetron me hui thi !
3 mahaalavaadi vyavastha - british sarkaar dvaara laagoo kiya antim bandobast tha jise 1822 me laagoo kiya gaya tha iske lakshan the !
1 poore gaaainv ke bhooraajasv ka nirdhaaran kiya jaata tha!
2 gram ke agrani parivaar ko mahaaladaar banaaya jaata tha ye har kisaan ke kar ka nirdhaaran karte the tatha vasooli kar ke sarkaar ko jama karavaate the kar ka nirdhaaran bhale he saamhik tha vasuli to vyaktigat star pe hoti thi!
parinaam 1 mahaaladaar ek madhyasth varg ban gaya tha jo neta bhi the aur sabse jyaada laabh utha rahe the !
2 mahaaladaar manamaani karta tha vo apne, rishtedaaron ke karo ka bojh bhi kisaanon pe daal dete the!
3 graameen samaaj ka vightan shuroo ho gaya!
bhooraajasv vyavastha ke parinaam 1 sabhi bandobast adhiktam shoshan ke bhaavana se kiye gaye the kintu sarkaar krushi tatha kisaanon se koi sarokaar nahi rakhana chaahati thi!
2 is se bicholaye vargon ki kadiya banti chali gayi ye sabhi kisaanon ka shoshan kar the, kintu inse raksha ka koi upaaya nahi tha!
3 ye bandobast graameen samaaj ke vightan, sayukt parivaar, panchaayat, jajamaan, sahakaari sambandh, graameen shilpakaari sabhi ka naash ka kaaran bane !
4 dar bahut ooainchi hone se kisaano ke paas gujaare ke laayak bhi kuchh nahi bachata tha ve gareeb hote chale gaye, karj ke bojh se dabate chale gaye!
5 krushi ki dasha khraab ho gayi, kisaan usaki taraf se udaas se the, beecholiya varg ko koi roochi nahi thi, sarkaar ko vasuli se matlab tha !
lagaataar akaal padne ke baad karjan ne 1899 me jaakar krushi vibhaag sthaapit karaaya tha !
vaastav me british sarkaar ki koi krushi neeti nahi thi

krushi ka vaanijyeekaran tatha parinaam

adhik se adhik bhoomi ko vyaapaarik fsalo joot, kapaas, ganna, afeem, neel, chai, kaafi ke adheen laana tha, in fasalon ki kheti jameendaar, british baagaan maalik, saahookaar, tatha madhyast varg kisaanon se jabaran karavaata tha in fasalon ki keemat kisaan ko baajaar bhaav se na de kar ve apni marji ka prayog karte the in fasalon ki kheti na karne par kisaanon ko kathor yaatanaao ka saamana karna hota tha !sabse khraab haalat neel ke kisaanon ki thi unke dvaara 1859-1860 ka prasiddh neel vidroh bhi kiya gaya tha.

british kaal me pade akaal kaaran tatha parinaam


1 british neetiyon ka sabse ghaatak parinaam Bhaarat me padne vaale baar baar ke akaal the! san 1770 ke Bengal akaal se us praant ki 1/3 aabaadi mari thi is ke chalte hi sanyaasi vidroh shuroo hua tha dekhe aanandamath

antim akaal 1943-1944 me fir Bengal me pada tha jismein kam se kam 40 lakh log mare the theek us samay jab hitlar ne yahoodiyo ka narasanhaar karavaaya tha to us par to saari duniya ki najar jaati hai usaki yaad me sangraahalaya bante hai kintu Bengal ke logo ki durdasha par kabhi vishv manch me baat bhi nahi uthi yaha tak ki british sarkaar ne un dinon jamaakhori rokane ki koshish bhi nahi ki, usane jo bhojanaalaya khulavaae the ve theek ek vakt pe khulate aur band hote the taaki koi bhookha vyakti un me do baar na kha le !!!!!
in bade akaalon me har baar 10-40 lakh log marate the inke theek baad mahaamaari aati thi jo bachi kuchi aabaadi ko bhi maar deti thi 19 vi shataabdi ke pramukh akaal the 1868 uttar pashim praant ka akaal, 1866-70 ke beech Madras praant, rajputana, uttar pashim praant, Punjab, sentral praant ka akaal, 1865 Bengal, Bihar, odisa, ka akaal, 1875-76 me litn ke kaal me poore Bhaarat me pada akaal, 1899-1900 ke beech sabse bhayaanak akaal, 1899-1908 ke beech 5 bade akaal in akaalon ki poonraavarti, janakshati, arthavyavastha ke patan ko british raaj ka sabse amaanaveeya parinaam maan sakte hai
kya british sarkaar ne kuchh nahi kiya tha ?nahi kiya tha usane ye kiya akaal pe dher saare aayog bana diye gaye kempabel 1866, strechi 1880, laayal 1896, mekdanal 1900

jinki report par vo khud dhyaan nahi deti thi 

aar .si .datt ke shabdon me 'british shaasan ne Bhaarat ko baar baar padne vaale akaalon ka desh bana diya akaal jo ki Bhaarat ya vishv ke itihaas me kabhi nahi pade the'
akaalon ke kaaran
1 sarkaari taur pe akaal ko praakartik aapada maana gaya tha jin se nipatne me maanav saksham nahi tha !
2 vaastav me kaaran bhinn the karjan ne khud maana tha ki 'akaal ishvar ka prakop nahi the kyonki bina sukha pade bhi anek akaal aae the 'yadhapi akaalon ke gambheerta tatha aavarti ke liye anek saamajik aarthik kaaran jimedaar the yatha upalabdh bhojan bandhaar, yaataayaat ki suvidha, keematon me vruddhi ki maatra, bhojan ke liye kaam kaaryakramon ka abhaav, janta ki bahut durbal khareed kshamataathi !
3 aar.si .datt ne ooainche bhooraajasv ko akaal ka kaaran maana tha !
4 akaal ki vibheeshika ye thi ki anaaj tha, sasta tha aur niryaat bhi hota tha kintu laakhon logo ke paas use khareedne ke liye dhan hi nahi hota tha ve anaaj ki kami se nahi balki khareed kshamata ki kami ke kaaran mare the!
5 kaalaabaajaari, jamaakhori, janavitran vyavastha ke poorn abhaav ne bhi akaal ki vibhitsa ko badha diya tha !
6 prashaasanik kaaran bhi jimmedaar the sarkaar ke paas janasankhya vitran ki soochana, krushit shetrafal, khaadyaan utpaadan maatra, vibhinn shetro me khaad staako ki dasha, logo ke khaaddh vyavahaar, janta ki saamaanya aarthik vyavastha jaan sakane ke liye koi maadhyam nahi the!
7 akaal aayogon ne glat report bhi di laayal aayog ne kaha 'akaal maatr krushak janta ki berojgaari janit samasya hai '!
8 britis bhoo raajasv bandobast ke chalte krushi utpaadan nirantar girta chala gaya tha visheshakar ann utpaadan jo jameen pehle ann paida karti thi vo baad me neel, joot JC fasalein paida karne lagi thi jinko khau nahi sakte the aur unki keemat bhi poori nahi milti thi !
akaalon ke parinaam
1 ye dohari traasadi thi har akaal ke peechhe mahaamaari aati thi jo janakshati ko aur badha deti thi !
2 inke chalte kai varsho tak aabaadi ki dubaara bas hi nahi paati thi tatha aam kriyaakalaap bhi nahi ho paatein the!
3 bhaari janakshati, dhanaabhaav, pashu-beej ke aabhaav ke chalte krushi ke uddhaar mein kai varsh lagte the jis dauraan lagaataar annbhaav se mautein hoti thi is prakaar ye rishte ghaav the!
4 pashu maanav ki ooainchi mrutyu dar janpalyaan, se janaabhaav ho jaata tha akaal se nimn jeevan pratyaasha, atidurbal shram shakti bhi akaal ke kaaran janme nateeje the !
aajaadi ke baad bhi Bhaarat sarkaar ko iske nateeje bhogane pade the jab annbhaav ke chalte use haath felaana pada jismein apamaanakaari pi.L 480 yojana bhi thi

vidyogikran -kaaran tatha parinaam


british neetiyo ka ek ghaatak parinaam Bhaarat ka viudhogeekaran tha yeh ek dohari prakriya thi!

1 Bhaarat ke sadiyo puraane hast udhog ko nasht kiya gaya jo rojagaar ka bada saadhan tha aur hamaari saanskrutik viraasat ka bhaag tha !
2 Bhaarat ko odhogik kraanti ke falo se praytaanpoorn dhang se vanchit rakha gaya tha tatha yeh aadhunik udhog lagne na dena ye prakriya pratham vishv yuddh tak chalti rahi !
denial thaarner jinhonne is saklpana ka aalochnatam vishleshan kiya hai ke parinaamo ka varnan karte hua kaha hai
1 british sarkaar ne sab kuchh sochi samajhi chaal se kiya taaki britn mein odhogik kraanti safal ho sake is hetu hi Bhaarat ko mukt vyaapaar ka sabse bada kshetr banaaya gaya is prakriya ne Bhaarat se dhan nikaasi ko tej kar diya !
2 Bhaarat ki paaramparik aatmanirbharata samaapt ho gayi!
3 kaaryasheel shram bal khaaskar udhigo me kam ho gaya!
4 nirmaan udyong mein bhi rojagaar ki kami aa gayi !
5 bhaarateeya hast tatha kuteer udyong nasht ho gaye nagar ujaad gaye pashchim me odhogik kraanti hone pe kaareegar nae kaamo me lag gaye kintu Bhaarat me unako kisaan banana pada kyonki yaha nae udhog viksit hue hi nahi the !
6 Bhaarat ka baajaar british maal se bhar gaya tha vo sirf kachche maal ka niryaat karta tha!
7 vishvayuddh kaal me Bhaarat ko dikkat ka saamana karna pada kyonki videsh se maal ki aaporati band ho gayi thi !

dhan nikaas sidghaant


dhan nikaas sidghaant ka arth - - british raaj ke sthaapana se poorv Bhaarat vishv ka sabse bada odhogik utpaadak desh tha uske pramukh niryaat the masaale, neel, cheeni, reshmi kapde, dava, keemati pathaar, hastashilp, tatha sooti vastr
aayat kam tha aur niryaat jyaada tha jis se santulan Bhaarat ke paksh me tha desh svarn tatha rajat bhandaaron se paripoorn the. Bhaarat dhan ekatreekaran ka kendra tha, vishv ki maango ka poortikrta tha is prakaar Bhaarat vo saagar tha jismein dhan ki nadiya girti to thi kintu niklata kuchh bhi bahi tha
palaasi tatha baksar ke yuddh ke baad dash badal gayi thi
is ke baad Bhaarat ki arthavyavastha aatmanirbhar na rah kar opniveshik shosan ka shikaar ho gayi thi iska prayog ab Britain ke hiton ke prayog hetu hone laga iska nateeja ye hua ki Bhaarat nirmit vastu noryaat ke sthaan pe kaahhe maal ki aaporati tatha britis odhogik maal ka aayaatak ban gaya mukt vyaapaar neeti jese upaayon se Bhaarat ke udyong barbaad ho gaye ant me Bhaarat ek shaastreeya upanivesh ban gaya kaarl maarks ke shabdon me soot ke ghar ko sooti vastron se bhar diya gaya isne Bhaarat ki arthavyavastha ke charitra ko hi badal diya tha !
dhan nikaasi ka prashn -is shosan ki taraf sabse pehle daada bhaai nauroji ne samjha tatha praradarshit kiya. ऍm. ji. raanaade, aar.si. datt tatha dusare logo ne bhi is kshetr mein kaam kiya !
unki mukhya sakanlpana Bhaarat ki nirdhanata thi daada bhaai ke prashidd patra 'pauvarati end an british rool in India ', ke theek baad Bhaarat ki nirdhanata prakaashit ki gayi jismein vo kehte the Bhaarat se praapt raajasv ka 1/4 bhaag to desh se nikal ke Britain me chala jaata hai aur fir vo britn ke sansaadhanon me hi vruddhi karta hai !
'yeh nirantar dhan ka pravaah hi hai jo Bhaarat ke jeevan rakt ko choos raha hai 'nauroji ne is shoshan ko saari buraaio ki jad tatha Bhaarat ki nirdhanata ka pramukh kaaran maana tha iske baad raanaade ne bhi is baare mein apne vichaar prakaashit kiye the!
sabse achha kaam aar. si. datt ne kiya tha unke granth Bhaarat ke aarthik itihaas ne tahalaka macha diya tha !
in sabhi rachanaaon Bhaarat ki janta ko unki gareebi ke kaaran bataane ka kaam kiya in vichaarako ko pata lag gaya ki desh ki gareebi ka kaaran yeh hai ke desh ki sakal gharelu utpaad ka jyadaataar bhaag Britain chala jaata hai jiske badle desh ko koi bhi laabh nahi mil paat yahi dhan nikaas ka sidhaant hai!
ye kisi seemit sakanlpana se nahi juda tha iska arth maatr dhan tatha maal ka niryaat hi nahi tha !
datt ke anusaar logon dvaara diya gaya kar tatha kiya gaya vyaya unke beech hi rahata hai tatha unka vikaas hi karta hai kintu jab dhan desh se nikal jaata hai to fir us se desh ko koi laabh nahi hota !
datt ke hi anusaar dhan nikaasi ne Bhaarat me pooainji ki kami paida kar di hai jis se desh ka vikaas rook gaya hai unke anusaar bhooraajasv se bhi dhan nikaasi hoti hai jeesase kisaan gareeb ho jaata hai !
datt ne katuta poorn aalochna karte hue kaha ki Bhaarat mein british shaasan ek nirantar loot tatha aakraman ke samaan hai jo taimur, naadirshaah, abdaali tatha kisi bhi aakarmannakaari ke hamle se jyaada bura hai ve to aae loota aur gaye kintu british raaj har roj loot raha hai jiske chalte Bhaarat akaalo ka desh ban gaya hai akaal jo baar baar adhik bheeshan roop se padte hai tatha unki koi tulana Bhaarat ya vishv itihaas me nahi ki ja sakti !
sirf aarthik jaagaran ke saath sidhaant ne raajaneetik jaagaran bhi kiya tha isne Bhaarat ke logon ko british raaj ki asli neeyat bata di bata diya ki usaki prakarti tatha parinaam kya ho sakte hai !,
isne svashaasan ki maang ko janm diya, iski appeal ne madhyam varg ko buddhijeevi varg ko bhi prabhaavit kiya tha !
dhan nikaas ke srotr - aar.si .datt ne dhan nikaas ki prakarti ka vishleshan karte hue un raaston ki baat ki jinse desh se bhaar dhan jaata hai
pratyaksh srotr-1 England ko bheja gaya dhan jo vetan, peinshan grechuiti jo ki civil, senik karmachaariyo ko Britain me di jaati thi
2 East India company ki sthaapana tatha baad mein Bhaarat sachiv kaaryaalaya ka kharch !
3 company ke anshadhaarako ko laabhaansh jo Bhaarat ke raajasv ka 10.5% bhaag tha !
4 sabse bada pratyaksh maarg hom chaarj the, Bhaarat ke liye sainik saajosamaan ki khareed, Bhaarat kaaryaalaya par vyaya, senya vyaya, visheshakar Bhaarat ke kosh se upaniveshavaad ka prasaar karna jese Bhaarat Afghan yuddh, boar yuddh, vishv yuddh!
apratyaksh nikaas 1 sabse bada maarg vyaapaar tha Bhaarat ke dhan se yaha ka maal khareed ke Britain bhej diya jaata tha ! is roop mein Bhaarat ko apne maal ke badle kuchh bhi nahi milta tha krushi ke vyaapaareekaran ke saath hi kachche maal ki nikaasi shuroo ho gayi jo dhannikaas ka hi roop thi !

2 mukt vyaapaar neeti se Bhaarat british maal ka sabse bada khareedadaar ban gaya ye khareed apne aap Bhaarat ke dhan ki nikaasi ka maarg ban gaya!
3 unka prashaasan bahut kharcheela tha jiska saara kharch Bhaarat ko dena padta tha Governor ka vetan hi us jmaane me 2 lakh chaandi ke rupaye saalaana tha
4 Bhaarat ki saanskrutik viraasat jese paandulipi, javaaharaat, chitrakala, moortikla ke namoone jinka moolya lagan bhi samhaav nahi tha Bhaarat se baahar nikal gaye

aarthik raashtravaad

aarthik raashtravaad- aarthik raashtravaad - dhan nikaas sidhaant ne atyant sashakt upanivesh virodhi bhaavanaaon ko janam diya jo
aage chal kar aarthik raashtravaad ke janm ka kaaran bani ye mukhya roop se shosan ke viruddh tha jisne Bhaarat ki nirdhanata tatha durdasha ko badhaaya tha
iske chalte kai aarthik raastvaadi panape jese ki Rajgopal Bose, gopaal hari Deshmukh, navgopaal mitr, raanade, datt, Arvind ghosh, isne hi Bhaarat mi pehli baar savdeshi, baayakaat ko hathiyaar ke roop mi prayog kiya tatha yahi se hamaara raaste aandolan shuroo hua
is bhaavana ko hi ham gaaaindhi ke asahayog, khaadi, ki aatma maan sakte hai
aajaadi ke baad bhi isne desh ko prabhaavit kiya.

baahari kadiyaaainain