angreji saahitya

angreji saahitya ke praacheen evam arvaacheen kaal kai aayaamon mein vibhkt kiye ja sakte hain. yeh vibhaajan keval adhyayan ki suvidha ke liye kiya jaata hai; isse angreji saahitya pravaah ko akshunnata par koi prabhaav naheen padna chaahiye. praacheen yug ke angreji saahitya ke teen spasht aayaam hai: ainglo-saiksan; naarman vijay se chausar tak; chausar se angreji punarjaagaran kaal tak.

anukram

ainglo-saiksan

England mein basane ke samay ainglo-saiksan kabeele barbarata aur sabhyata ke beech ki sthiti mein the. aakhet, samudra aur yuddh ke atirikt unhe krushi jeevan ka bhi anubhav tha. apne saath ve apne veeron ki kathaaeain bhi lete aae. tyootan jaati (Teutons) ke saare kabeelon mein ye kathaaeain saamaanya roop se prachalit theen. ve deshon ki seemaaon mein naheen baindhi theen. inheen bhaashaaon se saataveen shataabdi mein kavita ke roop mein angreji saahitya ka praarambh hua. isliye dablyoo.pi. kar ke shabdon mein ainglo-saiksan saahitya puraani duniya ka saahitya hai. lekin is samay tak ainglo-saiksan log isaai ban chuke the.[1] in bhaashaaon ke rachayita bhi aam taur se purohit hua karte the. isliye in bhaashaaon mein varnit shaurya aur paraakram par dhaarmik rahasya, vinaya, karuna, seva ityaadi ke bhaav bhi aaropit hue. ainglo-saiksan kavita ka shuddh dharmavishyak ansh bhi in gaathaaon ke roop se prabhaavit hai

in gaathaaon mein shaurya ke saath shaili ka bhi atiranjan hai. ainglo-saiksan bhaasha kaafi anagadh thi. gaathaaon mein kavi use atyant krutrim bana dete the. chhand ke aanupraasik aadhaar ke kaaran bharati ke shabdon ka aa jaana anivaarya tha. mukhar vyanjanon ki prachurata se sangeet ya laya mein kathorata hai. vishyon aur shaili ko sankeernanta ke beech angreji kavita ka vikaas asambhav tha. naarman vijay ke baad iska aisa kaayaakalp hua ki anek vidvaanon ne ismein aur baad ki kavita mein vanshagat sambandh jodna anuchit kaha hai.

doosari or angreji gadya mein, jiska udaya kavita ke baad hua, vikaas ki kramik aur atoot parampara hai. isaai sansaar ki bhaasha laateeni thi aur is kaal ka prasiddh gadya lekhak beed isi bhaasha mein likhta tha. ainglo-saiksan mein gadya ka praarambh alafred ke jamaane mein laateeni ke anuvaadon tatha upadeshon aur vaartaaon ki rachana se hua. gadya ki rachana shiksha aur gyaan ke liye hui thi. isliye ismein ainglo-saiksan kavita ki krutrimta aur anya shaileegat dosh naheen hain. unki bhaasha lokabhaasha ke adhik sameep thi. ainglo-saiksan kavita ki tarah baad vaale yugon mein usaka sambandh vichhed karna asambhav hai. lekin is yug ke poore saahitya mein laalitya ka abhaav hai

naarman vijay se chausar tak

chausar poorv madhyadesheeya angreji kaal na keval England mein hi balki Europe ke anya deshon mein bhi France ke saahityik netrutv ka kaal hai. 12veen se lekar 14veen shataabdi tak France ne in deshon ko vichaar, sanskruti, kalpana, kathaaeain aur kavita ke roop diye. dharmayuddhon ke is yug mein saare isaai deshon ko bauddhik ekta sthaapit hui. yeh saamanti vyavastha tatha shaurya aur audaarya ki keindreeya maanyataaon ke vikaas ka yug hai. naari ke prati prem aur poojaabhaav, saahas aur paraakram, dharm ke liye praanotsarg, asahaayon ke prati karuna, vinaya aadi isaai naaiton (sooramaaon) ke jeevan ke abhinn ang maane gaye. isi samay France ke chaaranon ne praacheenakaaleen paraakram gaathaaon (chanson dageste) aur prem geeton ki rachana ki, tatha laateeni, tyootanon, kelti, aayari, kaarni aur French gaathaaon ka vyaapak upayog hua. France ki gaathaaon mein karm ki, Britain ki gaathaaon mein bhaavukata aur shrungaar ki or laateeni gaathaaon mein in sabhi tatvon ki pradhaanata thi. saahitya mein komalata, maadhurya aur geeton par jor diya jaane laga.

is yug mein angreji bhaasha ne apna roop sanvaara. usamein romance bhaashaaon, visheshat: French ke shabd aae, usane kavita mein karnakatu aanupraasik chhand rachana ki jagah tukon ko apnaaya, uske vishay vyaapak hue. sankshep mein, usane chausar yug ki poorvapeethika taiyaar ki.

gadya ke liye bhaasha ke mainje-mainjaae aur sthir roop ki aavashyakta hoti hai. puraani angreji ke roop mein vightan ke kaaran is yug ka gadya puraane gadya jaisa santulit aur svasth naheen hai. lekin roopagat asthirta ke baavajood is yug ke dhaarmik aur romaani gadya mein vichaaron ki drushti se ainglo-saiksan gadya ki parampara ko viksit kiya.

chausar se punarjaagaran tak

jyofre chaasar

chausar ne is yug ki kaavya parampara ko aadhunik yug se samanvit kiya. usane French kavita se laalitya aur Italy ki samakaaleen kavita se 'aadhunik bodh' liya. kavita mein yathaarthavaad ko janm dekar usane angreji kavita ko Europe ki kavita se bhi aage kar diya. isliye use samajhne ke liye puraani ainglo-saiksan duniya aur usaki kavita ki jagah madhyayugeen France aur aadhunik Italy ki saahityik halachal ko jaan lena jaroori hai. uske baad tatha Elizabeth yug se pehle koi bada kavi naheen hua.

is yug mein laateeni aur French saahitya ke anuvaadon aur maulik rachanaaon ke maadhyam se gadya ka roop nikhr chala. lekhakon ne laateeni aur French gadya ki vaakya rachana aur laya ko angreji roop mein utaara. 1350 mein angreji ko raajabhaasha ka sammaan mila aur dharm ke ghere ko todkar gadya ka roop aam logon ki or hua. gadya ne vigyaan, darshan, dharm, itihaas, raajaneeti, katha aur yaatra varnan ke dvaara vividhta praapt ki. 15veen shataabdi ke ant tak aate-aate maindevil, chausar, viklif, faarteskyoo, kaikstan aur mailori jaise prasiddh gadya nirmaataaon ne angreji gadya ki neenv majaboot bana di.

15veen shataabdi angreji naatak ka shaishav kaal hai. dharmopadesh aur sadaachaar shiksha ki aavashyakta, nagaron ke vikaas aur shaktishaali shreniyon (shield) ke udaya ke saath naatak girjaaghar ke praacheeron se nikalkar Janpath par aa khada hua. in naatakon ka sambandh baaibil ki kathaaon (mistreej), kumaari meri aur santon ki jeevaniyon (miraikils), sadaachaar (morailiteej) aur manoranjak prahasanon (intaralyoods) se hai. dharm ke sankuchit kshetr mein rahane vaale aur roop mein anagadh in naatakon ko elijaabeth yug ke mahaan naatakon ka poorvaj kaha ja sakta hai.

angreji punarjaagaran

vichaaron aur kalpana ke aviraam manthan, vidhaaon mein prayogon ki vividhta aur krutitv ki praudhta ki drushti se angreji punarjaagaran kaal angreji saahitya ka svarn yug hai. saanskrutik drushti se yeh yug aadhibhautikta ke viruddh bhautikta, madhyayugeen saamanti ankushon ke viruddh mananasheel vyaktivaad, andhavishvaas ke viruddh vigyaan ke sangharsh ka yug hai. punarjaagaran ne England ko Italy, France, Spain aur Germany ke kaafi baad aandolit kiya. 1500 se 1580 tak ka samay maanavataavaad ke vikaas aur praacheen yoonaan tatha Italy ke saahityik aadarshon ko aatmasaat karne ka hai. lekin 1580 aur 1660 ke beech kavita, naatak aur gadya mein adbhut utkarsh hua. 1580 ke poorv mahaan vyaktitv keval chausar ka hai. 1580 ke baad speinsar, sheksapiyr, bekan aur miltan ki mahaan pratibhaaon se kuchh hi neeche star par naatak mein maarlo, ben jaunsan aur bebstar, gadya mein hookar, barten aur taumas brown, kavita mein ben jaunsan aur dan hain. shaili aur vastu mein chitr-vichitrata ki drushti se naatakon mein lili, peel aur green ki 'darabaari kaamedi', sheksapiyr ki 'romaani kaamedi', bomaant aur Fletcher ki 'traiji kaamedi' aur ben jaunsan ki 'yathaarthavaadi kaamedi', kavita mein anek kaviyon ke prem sambandhon kathaabaddh saunet, speinsar ki romaani kavita, dan aur anya aadhyaatmik (metaafijikl) kaviyon ki durooh kalpanaapoorn kavitaaeain, ben jaunsan aur darabaari kaviyon ke praanjal geet tatha miltan ke bhavya aur udaatt mahaakaavya, gadya mein Italy aur Spain se prabhaavit lilo aur Sydney ko alankrut shaili ki romaani kathaaeain tatha naish aur deloni ke saahasiktaapoorn yathaarthavaadi upanyaas, bekan ke nibandh (esse), baaibil ka mahaan anuvaad, bartan ka manovaigyaanik, sookshm kintu suhrud sa antarang gadya, Sydney aur ben jaunsan ki gadya aalochanaaeain, miltan ka ojapoorn aur aakroshapoorn pralanbit vaakyon ka bhavya gadya, taumas brown ka chintanapoorn kintu sangeet taral gadya is yug ki ullekhaneeya upalabdhiyaaain hain. maanav buddhi aur kalpana ki tarah hi yeh yug abhivyakti ke mahatvaakaankshi prasaar ka yug hai.

arvaacheen kaal

1660 aur 1700 E. ke ant tak

John miltan

1660 aur 1700 E. ke ant ke beech vaale varsh buddhivaad ke ankuran ke hain. parantu punarjaagaran ka prabhaav shesh rahata hai; uske antim aur mahaan kavi miltan ke mahaakaavya 1660 ke baad hi likhe gaye; swayam draaidan mein maanavataavaadi pravruttiyaaain hain. lekin ek naya mod saamane hai. buddhivaad ke atirikt yeh Charles dviteeya ke punarraajyaarohan ke baad French reetivaad ke udaya ka yug hai. French reetivaad tatha 'prem aur sammaan' (love aind onar) ke darabaari moolyon se prabhaavit is yug ka naatak anubhooti aur abhivyakti mein nirjeev hai. doosari or madhyavargeeya yathaarthavaad se prabhaavit vikrli aur kaangrov ke saamaajik prahasan apni sajeevata, parishkrut kintu paini bhaasha aur teekhe vyangya mein adviteeya hai. ooainche madhyavarg ke yaantrik buddhivaad aur anaitikta ke virooddh nimn madhyavargeeya naitikta aur aadarsh ka prateek John vanyan ka roopak upanyaas 'di pilgrims proses' hai. aalochna mein reetivaad ka prabhaav sheksapiyr ke romaani naatakon ke virooddh raaimar ki aalochna se spasht hai. us yug ki sabse mahattvapoorn aalochanaakruti maanavataavaadi svatantrata aur reetivaad ke samanvaya par aadhaarit draaidan ka naatak-kaavya-sambandhi nibandh hai. varnan mein yathaarthavaadi gadya ke vikaas mein saimuel pepeej ki daayari ki bhoomika bhi smaraneeya hai. sankshep mein, 17veen shataabdi ke in antim varshon ke gadya aur padya mein svachhata aur santulan hai, lekin kul milaakar yeh mahatta-virl-yug hai.

18veen shataabdi

reetivaadi yug (klaasisijm) – yeh shataabdi tark aur reeti ka utkarshakaal hai. laayabaneej, dakaart aur nyootan ne kaarya-kaaran ki paddhati dvaara tarkavaad aur yaantrik bhautikvaad ka vikaas kiya tha. unke anusaar srushti aur manushya niymaanushaasit the. is drushtikon mein vyaktigat ruchi ke pradarshan ke liye kam jagah thi. is yug par haavi frainch reetikaaron ne bhi saahityik prakriya ko reetibddh kar diya tha.

is yug ne dharm ki jagah par rakha aur manushya ke saadhaaran saamaajik jeevan, raajaneeti, vyaavahaarik naitikta ityaadi par jor diya. isliye iska saahitya kaam ki baat ka saahitya hai. is yug ne baat ko saaf-suthare, seedhe, nape-tule, paine shabdon mein kehna adhik pasand kiya. kavita mein yeh Pope aur praayar ke vyangya ka yug hai.

tark ki pradhaanata ke kaaran 18veen shataabdi ko gadyayug kaha jaata hai. sachmuch yeh aadhunik gadya ke vikaas ka yug hai. dalagat sangharshon, kaufeehaauson aur clubon mein apni shakti ke prati jaagruk madhyavarg ki naitikta ne is yug mein patrakaarita ko janm diya. saahitya aur patrakaarita ke samanvaya mein edisn, steel, difo, swift, feelding, smaalet, Johnson aur goldasmith ki shaili ka nirmaan kiya. isse kavita ke vyaamoh se mukt, rachana ke niyamon mein drudh, baatcheet ki aatmeeyata liye hue chhote-chhote vaakyon ke pravaahamaya gadya ka janm hua. jahar mein bujhe teer ki tarah swift ke gadya ko chhodkar adhikaansh lekhakon mein vyangya ki udaar shaili hai.

aalochna mein pehli baar chausar, speinsar, sheksapiyr, miltan ityaadi ko vivek ki kasauti par kasa gaya. reeti aur tark ki paddhati romaintik saahityakaaron ke prati anudaar ho jaaya karti thi, lekin aaj bhi edisn, Pope aur jaunsan ki aalochanaaon ka mahatva hai. gadya mein shaili ki anekaroopata ki drushti se is yug ne lalit patralekhan mein chestarafeeld aur vaalapol, sansmaranon mein gibn, faini barni aur baujvel, itihaas mein gibn, darshan mein Berkeley aur hyoom, raajaneeti mein bark aur dharm mein butler jaise shaileekaar paida hue.

yathaarthavaadi drushtikon ke vikaas ne aadhunik angreji upanyaason ki chaar prasiddh dhuriyaaain Dean : difo, richrdsan, folding aur smaulet. upanyaas mein yahi yug swift, Stern aur goldasmith ka bhi hai. angreji katha saahitya ko yathaarthavaad ne hi, goldasmith aur sheridn ke maadhyam se, krutrim bhaavukata ke daladal se ubaara. kintu yeh yug madhyavargeeya bhaavuk naitikta se bhi achhoota na tha. iske spasht lakshan bhaavuk kaamedi aur Stern, richrdsan ityaadi ke upanyaason mein maujood hai. shataabdi ke antim varshon mein romaintik kavita ki jameen taiyaar thi. blek aur barns is yug ki sthirta mein aaaindhi ki tarah aae.

19veen shataabdi

romaintik yug – punarjaagaran ke baad romaintik yug mein fir vyakti ki aatma ka unmeshapoorn aur ullasit svar sun padta hai. praaya: romaintik saahitya ko reetiyug ki pratikriya kaha jaata hai aur usaki visheshataaon ka is prakaar ullekh kiya jaata hai- tark ki jagah sahaj geetimya anubhooti aur kalpana; abhivyakti mein saadhaaraneekaran ki jagah vyakti nishthata; nagaron ke krutrim jeevan se prakruti aur ekaant ki or mudna; sthoolata ki jagah sookshm aadarsh aur svapn; madhyayug aur praacheen itihaas ka aakarshan; manushya mein aastha; lalit bhaasha ki jagah saadhaaran bhaasha ka prayog; ityaadi. nishchaya hi inmein se anek tatv romaani kaviyon mein milte hain, lekin unki mahaan saanskrutik bhoomika ko samajhne ke liye aavashyak hai ki 19veen shataabdi mein Germany, France, Spain, Italy, England, roos aur Poland mein janavaadi vichaaron ke ubhaar ko dhyaan mein rakha jaae. is ubhaar ne saamaajik aur saahityik roodhiyon ke viruddh vyakti svaatantrya ka naara lagaaya. roosi aur fraanseesi kraanti usaki keindreeya prerana the. England mein 19veen shataabdi ke poorvaardh ke kavi- vardsvarth, kolarij, sheli, keets aur baayaran — isi nae unmesh ke kavi hain. lainb, hant aur haijlit ke nibandhon, keets ke premapatron, Scott ke upanyaason, di kvinsi ke 'kanfeshans ov ain opiym itar' mein gadya ki bhi anubhooti, kalpana aur abhivyakti ka vahi ullaas praapt hua. aalochna mein kolarij, lainb, haijlit aur di kvinsi ne reeti se mukt hokar sheksapiyr aur uske charitron ki aatma ka udghaatan kiya. lekin vyaktitv aaropit karne ke svabhaav ne naatak ke vikaas mein baadha pahuainchaai.

Victoria ke yug mein jahaaain ek or janavaadi vichaaron aur vigyaan ka atoot vikaas ho raha tha, vahaaain abhijaat varg kraantibheeru bhi ho utha. isliye is yug mein kuchh saahityakaaron mein yadi svasth saamaajik chetna hai to kuchh mein niraasha, sanshaya, anaastha, samanvaya, kalaavaad, vaayavi aashaavaad ki pravruttiyaaain bhi hain. vyaktivaad shataabdi ke antim dashak tak pahuainchate-pahuainchate kaithaalik dharm, rahasyavaad, aatmarati ya aatmapeedn mein is tarah lipt ho gaya ki is dashak ko khal dashak bhi kehte hain. janavaadi, yathaarthavaadi aur vaigyaanik vichaaradhaara ka pratinidhitv mauris ne kavita mein, raskin ne gadya mein aur braante bahanon, thaikare, dikens, kingsali, reed, George iliyt, taumas haardi, butler aadi ne upanyaas mein kiya. niraasha aur peeda ke beech mein inmein maanav ke prati gahari sahaanubhooti aur vishvaas hai. shataabdi ke antim varshon mein Victoria yug ke rikt aadarshon ke viruddh anek svar uthane lage the.

20veen shataabdi

19veen shataabdi ke antim varshon mein madhyavargeeya vyaktivaad ke ubharate hue antarvirodh 20veen shataabdi mein sankat ki sthiti mein pahuainch gaye. yeh is shataabdi ke saahitya ka keindreeya tathya hai. is shataabdi ke saahitya ko samajhne ke liye uske vichaaron, bhaavon aur roopon ko prabhaavit karne waali shaktiyon ko dhyaan mein rakhana aavashyak hai. ve shaktiyaaain hain neetshe, shaupenaaavar, spinoja, karkagaard, fraayad aur maarks, ibsan, chekhav, French abhivyanjanaavaadi aur prateekavaadi, gorki, saartr aur iliyt; do ho chuke yuddh aur teesare ki aashanka, faasijm, roos ki samaajavaadi kraanti, kai deshon mein samaajavaad ki sthaapana aur paraadheen deshon ke svaatantrya sangraam; prakruti par vigyaan ki vijay se saamaajik vikaas ki amit sanbhaavanaaeain aur unke saath vyakti ki sangati ki samasya.

20veen shataabdi mein vyaktivaadi aadarsh ka vightan teji se hua hai. sha, vels aur gaarlsavardi ne shataabdi ke praarambh mein Victoria yug ke vyaktivaadi aadarshon ke prati sandeh prakat kiya aur saamaajik samaadhaanon par jor diya. haardi ki kavita mein bhi uske vightan ka chitr hai. lekin kisi tarah pehle yuddh ke pehle kavita ne Victoria yug ke paistaral aadarshon ko jeevit rakha. do yuddhon mein vyaktivaad samaaj se bilkul tootakar alag ho gaya. apni hi seemaaon mein sankuchit saahityik ne prayogon ka sahaara liya. ti.S. iliyt ke 'vestalaind' mein vyakti ki kuntha aur deekshaagamya kavita ka janm hua aur aaj bhi vyaktivaad se prabhaavit angreji kavi usaka netrutv sveekaar karte hain. 1930 ke baad maarksavaadi vichaaradhaara aur Spain ke gruhayuddh ne angreji kavita ki nai sfoorti di. lekin doosare yuddh ke baad teevr saamaajik sangharshon ke beech is kaal ke anek kavi fir vyaktivaadi pravrutti ke upaasak ho gaye. saath hi, aise kaviyon ka bhi udaya hua jo apni vyaktigat maanasik ulajhanon ke baavajood yug ki maanav aastha ko vyakt karte rahe.

aadarshavaad ke tootane ke saath hi upanyaason mein vyakti ki maanasik gutthiyon, visheshat: yaun kunthaaon ke viruddh bhi aavaaj uthi. Lawrence, James, jvauyas aur varjeeniya vulf isi dhaara ki pratinidhi hain. naatakon ke kshetr mein bhi yathaarthavaadi pravruttiyon ka vikaas hua hai. naatakon mein kaavya aur romaani kraantikaari vichaaron ko vyakt karne mein sabse adhik safalta angreji mein likhne vaale Ireland ke naatakakaaron ko mili hai. aalochna mein shodh se lekar vyaakhya tak ka bahut bada kaarya hua. prayogavaadi saahityakaaron ke pradhaan shikshak ti.S. iliyt, richrds, empasan aur livis hai. inhonne jeevan ke moolyon se adhik mahatva kavita ki rachana prakriya ko diya hai. saadhaaranat: kaha ja sakta hai ki 20veen shataabdi ke saahitya mein vichaaron ki drushti se chinta, bhaya aur dishaaheenata ki aur roop ki drushti se vightan ki pradhaanata hai. usamein svasth tatv bhi hai aur unheen par usaka aage ka vikaas nirbhar hai.

gadya

upanyaas

kahaani

kavita

naatak

sandarbh

  1. [ Henry Mayr-Harting, The Coming of Christianity to Anglo-Saxon England. (Pennsylvania: University Press Pennsylvania, 1992).]

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