angreji naatak

anukram

udaya

yoonaan ki tarah England mein bhi naatak dhaarmik karmakaandon se ankurit hua. madhyayug mein church (dharm) ki bhaasha laateeni thi aur paadariyon ke upadesh bhi isi bhaasha mein hote the. is bhaasha se anbhigya saadhaaran logon ko baaibil aur isa ke jeevan ki kathaaeain upadeshon ke saath abhinay ka bhi upayog kar samajhaane mein suvidha hoti thi. bade din aur istar ke parvon par aise abhinyon ka vishesh mahatva tha. isse dharmashiksha ke saath manoranjan bhi hota tha. pehle ye abhinay mook hua karte the, lekin naveen shataabdi mein laateeni bhaasha mein kathopakathan hone ke bhi pramaan milte hain. kaalaantar mein beech-beech mein lokabhaasha ka bhi prayog kiya jaane laga. angreji bhaasha 1350 mein raajabhaasha ke roop mein sveekrut hui. isliye aage chalakar keval lokabhaasha hi prayukt hone lagi. is prakaar aarambh se hi naatak ka sambandh janajeevan se tha aur samay ke saath vah aur bhi gahra hota gaya. ye saare abhinay girjaagharon ke bheetar hi hote the aur unamein unase sambaddh saadhu, paadari aur gaayak hi bhaag se sakte the. naatak ke vikaas ke liye jaroori tha ki use kuchh khuli hava mile. paristhitiyon ne ismein usaki sahaayata ki.

14veen shataabdi se 16veen shataabdi tak

mistri aur miraikil naatak vishesh manoranjak hone ke kaaran in abhinyon ko dekhne ke liye log girjaagharon ke bheetar umadne lage. vivsh hokar church ke adhikaariyon ne inka prabandh girjaagharon ke maidaanon mein kiya. lekin sadkon par ya baajaar mein in abhinyon ke liye anumati na thi. praarthana bhavan se baahar aate hi abhinyon ka roop badalne laga aur unamein svachhandata ki pravrutti badhne lagi. is svachhandata ne girjaaghar ke bheetar ke abhinyon ko bhi prabhaavit karna aarambh kiya. isliye isa ke sandeh svargaarohan ke drushya ke atirikt praarthana bhavan mein aur abhinay niyam banaakar rok diye gaye. baajaaron mein aur sadkon par aise abhinay karna f paapaf ghoshit kar diya gaya. paadariyon aur church ke anya sevakon par lage is niyantran ne abhinay ko girjaagharon ki chahaaradeevaariyon se baahar la khada kiya. nagaron ki shreniyon (gilds) ne is kaam ko apne haath mein liya. yaheen se mistri aur miraikil naatakon ka udaya aur vikaas hua.

mistri naatakon mein baaibil ki kathaaon se vishay chune jaate the aur miraikil naatakon mein santon keee jeevaniyaaain hoti theen. France mein yeh bhed spasht tha, lekin England mein donon mein koi vishesh antar naheen tha. 14veen shataabdi ke praarambh mein naatak mandaliyaaain apna saamaan bailagaadiyon par laadakar abhinay dikhaane ke liye desh bhar mein bhraman karne lageen. spasht hai ki aise abhinyon mein drushyon ka prabandh naheen ke baraabar hota tha. lekin veshabhoosha ka kaafi dhyaan rakha jaata tha. abhineta praay: asthaayi hote the aur kuchh samay ke liye apne sthaayi kaam-dhandhon se chhutti lekar in naatakon mein abhinay karke punya aur paisa donon hi kamaate the. dheere-dheere janaruchi ko dhyaan mein rakhakar gambheerta ke beech prahasan khand bhi abhineet hone lage. yahi naheen, hajarat nooh ki patni, shaitaan aur kroor herod ke charitron ko haasyaatmak dhang se prastut kiya jaane laga. vibhinn nagaron ki naatak mandaliyon ne apni-apni vishishtataaeain bhi viksit keen- dhaarmik shiksha, prahasan, teevr anubhooti aur yathaarthavaad vibhinn anupaaton mein mishrit kiye jaane lage. ismein sandeh naheen ki in naatakon mein vishay aur roopagat anek dosh the, lekin angreji naatak ke bhaavi vikaas ki neenv inhonne hi rakhi.

morailiti naatak

is vikaas ka agala kadam tha mistri aur miraikil naatakon ke sthaan par morailiti (naitik) naatakon ka udaya. ye naatak sadaachaar shiksha ke liye likhe jaate the. in naatakon par madhyayugeen saahitya ke bhaavavaad aur prateek ya roopak ki shaili ka spasht prabhaav hai. inmein upadesh ke atirikt paatron ke naam tak gunon ya durgunon se liye jaate the, jaise sin (paap), gres (prabhudaya), feloship (sauhaard), envi (irsha), aaidilnes (pramaad), ripeteins (pashchaataap) ityaadi. in naatakon ki keindreeya kathaavastu thi maanav (evreemain) ka paapon dvaara peechha tatha aatma aur gyaan dvaara usaka uddhaar. is prakaar in naatakon ne manushya ke aantarik sangharshon ke chitran ki mahattvapoorn parampara ko janm diya. aise naatakon mein sabse prasiddh f evreemainaf hai jiski rachana 15veen shataabdi ke ant mein hui.

morailiti naatak pehle vaale naatakon se jyaada lambe hote the aur punarjaagaran ke praabhaav ke kaaran unamein se kuchh ka vibhaajan seneka ke naatakon ke anukaran par ankon aur drushyon mein bhi hota tha. kuchh naatak saamanton ki haveliyon mein khele jaane ke liye bhi likhe jaate the. inmein se adhikaansh ka abhinay peshevar abhinetaaon dvaara hone laga. inmein vyaktigat rachana ke lakshan bhi dikhaai padne lage.

intaralyood

praarambh mein morailiti aur intaralyood naatakon ki vibhaajak rekha bahut dhuaindhali thi. bahut se morailiti naatakon ko intaralyood sheershak se prakaashit kiya jaata tha. kore upadesh se paida hui oob ko door karne ke liye morailiti naatakon mein prahasan ke tatvon ka bhi samaavesh kar diya jaata tha. aise hi khandon ko intaralyood kehte the. baad mein yo morailiti naatakon se svatantr ho gaye. aise naatakon mein sabse prasiddh hevud ka f for peejf hai. in naatakon mein aadhunik bhaand (faars) aur prahasan ke tatv the. inmein se kuchh ne ben jaunsan ki yathaarthavaadi Comedy ke liye bhi jameen par taiyaar ki. prasiddh maanavataavaadi chintak sar taumas mor ne bhi aise naatak likhe.

isi yug mein aage aane waali prahasan aur premayukt darabaari romaintik Comedy ke tatv medavaal ki krutiyon f fuljeins aind lookreesaf aur f kailisto aind melebiyaaf mein aur romaani pravruttiyon se sarvatha mukt Comedy ke tatv yoodaal ki rachana f raalf rvaayastar davaayastaraf aur mistar S ki rachana f gaamar gartas needilf mein prakat hue. aitihaasik naatakon ka bhi pranayan tabhi hua.

16veen shataabdi ke madhya tak aate aate punarjaagaran ke maanavataavaad ne angreji naatak ko spasht roop se prabhaavit karna shuroo kiya. 1581 tak seneka angreji mein anoodit ho gaya. saikavil aur naurtan krut angreji ki pehli traijadi f gaurabodakaf ka abhinay elijaabeth ke saamane 1562 mein hua. kaamedi par plaatas aur tereins ka sabse gahra asar pada. laateeni bhaasha ke in naatakakaaron ke adhyayan se angreji naatakon ke rachanaavidhaan mein paaainch ankon, ghatnaaon ki ikaai aur charitrachitran mein sangatipoorn vikaas ka prayog hua.

is vikaas ki do dishaaeain spasht hain. ek or kuchh naatakakaar deshaj parampara ke aadhaar par aise naatakon ki rachana kar rahe the jinmein naitikta, haasya, romance ityaadi ke vividh tatv mile-jule hote the. doosari or laateeni naatyashaastr ke prabhaav mein vidvadvarg ke naatakakaar Comedy aur traijedi mein shuddhataavaad ki sthaapana ke liye prayatnasheel the. angreji naatak ke svarnayug ke pehle hi anek naatakakaaron ne in donon tatvon ko mila diya aur unheen ke samanvaya se sheksapiyr aur uske anek samakaaleenon ke mahaan naatakon ki rachana hui.

is svarnayug ki yavanika uthane ke pehle ki taiyaari mein ek baat ki kami thi. vah 1576 mein shoradich mein pratham saarvajanik (pablik) rangashaala ki sthaapana se poori hui. us yug ki prasiddh rangashaalaaon mein theatre, roj, globe, faarchun aur svaun hain. saarvajanik rangashaalaaeain London nagar ke baahar hi banaai ja sakti theen. 16veen shataabdi ke ant tak keval ek rangashaala blaikafraayars mein sthit thi aur vah vyaktigat (private) kahalaati thi. saarvajanik rangashaalaaon mein naatakon ka abhinay khule aasmaan ke neeche, din mein, bhinn-bhinn vargon ke saamaajikon dvaara ghire hue praaya: nagn rangamanch par hota tha. elijaabeth aur stuart yug ke naatakon mein varnanaatmak anshon, kavita ke aadhikya, svagat, kabhi-kabhi foohad majaak ya bhaindaiti, raktapaat, samasaamayik put, yathaarthavaad ityaadi tatvon ko samajhne ke liye in rangashaalaaon ki rachana aur unke saamaajikon ka dhyaan rakhana aavashyak hai. vyaktigat rangashaalaaon mein rangamanch kaksh ke bheetar hota tha jahaaain prakaash, drushya aadi ka achha prabandh rahata tha aur uske saamaajik abhijaat hote the. inhonne bhi 17veen shataabdi mein aaingreji naatak ke roop ko prabhaavit kiya. in rangashaalaaon ne naatakon ke liye keval vyaapak ruchi hi naheen paida ki balki naatakon ki kathaavastu aur rachana vidhaan ko bhi prabhaavit kiya, kyonki is yug ke naatakakaaron ka rangamanch se jeevit sambandh tha aur ve usaki sambhaavnaaon aur seemaaon ko drushti mein rakhakar hi naatak likhte the.

elijaabeth aur James pratham ka yug

elijaabeth ka yug angrejon ke itihaas mein raashtreeya ekta, adamya utsaah, maanavataavaadi jaagrukta ke utkarsh aur mahaan prayatnon ka tha. iska prabhaav saahitya ki anya vidhaaon ki tarah naatak par bhi pada. sheksapiyr sansaar ko us yug ki sabse badi saahityik den hai, lekin uske atirikt yeh anek badi pratibhaaon ka krutitvakaal hai. us mahaan yug ki bhoomika taiyaar karne mein vishvavidyaalayon mein shikshit hone aur lekhan ko vyavasaaya banaane ke kaaran f university vitsaf kahalaane vaale Robert green (1558-92), John lili (1542-1606), taumas kid (1558-94) aur taumas maarlo (1564-93) ka visheshat: bahut bada haath hai. green aur lili ne geetimya prem aur udaar prahasan, kid ne pratihinsaatmak traijedi aur maarlo ne mahatvaakaanksha aur naitikta ke sangharsh se paida hui vishmata ki traijedi ko janm diya. laateeni aur deshaj paranparaaon ke mishran se unhonne naatak ko kalaatmakata di. George peel (1557-1596) aur green ne naatakeeya atukaant kavita ka vikaas kiya aur maarlo ne unase aage badhkar use uchchakanth aur vegavaan banaaya. maarlo ke naatakon mein kathaasootr shithil hai lekin vah bhayankar antardvandvon ki geetimya akrutrim abhivyakti aur bhavya chitr yojana mein sheksapiyr ka yogya guru hai. maarlo krut tainbaralen, daaktar faastas aur 'di jyoo ov maalta' ke naayak apne abaadh vyaktivaad ke kaaran aadhyaatmik moolyon se takaraate aur toot jaate hain. is prakaar vyakti aur samaaj ke beech sangharsh ko chitrit kar maarlo pehle pahal punarjaagaran ki vah keindreeya samasya prastut karta hai jo sheksapiyr aur anya naatakakaaron ko bhi aandolit karti rahi. maarlo ne angreji naatak ko svarnayug ke dwaar par khada kar diya.

William sheksapiyr (1564-1616) ka praarambhik vikaas inheen paranparaaon ki seemaaon mein hua. uske praarambhik naatakon mein kala mein siddhahastata praapt karne ka prayatn hai. is praarambhik prayatn ke maadhyam se usane apne naatakakaar ke vyaktitv ko pusht kiya. kathaanak, charitra-chitran, bhaasha, chhand, chitr yojana aur jeevan ki pakad mein usaka vikaas us yug ke anya naatakakaaron ki apeksha adhik shramasaadhya tha, lekin 16veen shataabdi ke antim aur 17veen shataabdi ke praarambhik varshon mein usaki pratibha ka asaadhaaran utkarsh hua. is kaal ke naatakon mein punarjaagaran ki saari saanskrutik aur rachanaatmak kshamata pratibinbit ho uthi. is tarah sheksapiyr ne haal aur haulinshed ke itihaas grannthon se England aur Scotland ke raajaaon ki or plutaark se rom ke shaasakon ki kathaaeain leen, lekin unamein usane maanavataavaadi yug ka bodh bhar diya. praarambhik sukhaant naatakon mein usane lili aur green ka anukaran kiya, lekin 'A midsamar nights dreem' (1596) aur uske baad ki chaar aisi hi rachanaaon 'di maracheint ov venis', 'mach aido abaaut nathing', 'tvelfth night' aur 'aij you like it' mein usane angreji saahitya mein romaintik Comedy ko naya roop diya. inka vaataavaran darabaari Comedy se bhinn hai. vahaaain ek aisa lok hai jahaaain svapn aur yathaarth ka bhed mit jaata hai aur jahaaain haasya ki bauddhikta bhi hrudaya ki udaarata se aardr hai. 'mejr for mejr' aur 'aalj vel dait ends vel' mein, jo uske antim sukhaant naatak hain, vaataavaran ghane baadalon ke beech chhipte aur unase nikalte hue sooraj ka sa hai. du:khaant naatakon mein praarambhik kaal ki rachana 'romiyo aind jooliyet' mein naayak-naayika ki mrutyu ke baavajood paraajaya ka svar naheen hai. lekin 16veen shataabdi ke baad likhe gaye 'haimalet', 'liyr', 'aathelo', 'maikaveth', 'aintani aind kliyopetra' aur f koriyolenasaf mein us yug ke shadyantrapoorn dooshit vaataavaran mein maanavataavaad ki paraajaya ka chitr hai. lekin uske beech bhi sheksapiyr ki apratiht aastha ka svar uthata hai. ant mein anubhootiyon se mukti paane ke liye usane 'perikleej', 'sinbeleen', 'di vintars tel' aur 'teinpest' likhe jinmein praarambhik durghatanaaon ke baavajood ant sukhad hote hain. jeevan ke vishd gyaan aur kaavya evam naatya saundarya mein sheksapiyr sansaar ki ini-gini pratibhaaon mein hai.

satrahaveen shati

ben jaunsan (1572-1637) angreji naatak mein 'vikrut' prahasan (kaamedi ov hyoomars) ka janmadaata hai. uske deeksha guru plaatas aur hores the, isliye vah aachaarya naatakakaar hai aur usane sheksapiyr ityaadi ki romaintik Comedy mein virodhi tatvon ke samanvaya ka virodh kiya. usaki f vikrutif ka arth tha kisi charitra ke doshavishesh ko atiranjit roop mein chitrit karna. usaki praathamik rachanaaon 'ebreemain in hij hyoomar' aur 'ebreemain out ov hij hyoomar' mein isi tarah ka prahasan hai. jaunsan ke anusaar Comedy ka kartavya apne yug ka chitr prastut karna aur maanav charitra ki moorkhataaon se 'kreeda' karna tha. is tarah usane vidroopapoorn yathaarthavaadi prahasan naatak ko bhi janm diya jismein usaki prasiddh rachanaaeain ' vaulpon' aur 'aalakemist' hain. jaunsan ka prahasan gudagudaata naheen, dank maarta hai.

James pratham ke shaasanakaal mein samaaj mein badhti hui asthirta aur niraasha tatha darbaar mein badhti hui krutrimta ne naatak ko prabhaavit kiya. sheksapiyr ke paravarti vebstar, turner, midiltan, maastarn chaipamain, maisinjar aur Ford ke du:khaant naatakon mein vyaktivaad asvaabhaavik mahatvaakaankshaaon, bhayankar raktapaat aur kroorata, aatmapeeda aur niraasha mein prakat hua. vebstar ke shabdon mein, inka keindreeya darshan ' fool ke paudhon ke mool mein naramund' ki anivaaryata hai.

Comedy mein midiltan (1580-1627) aur mainsinjar (1583-1639) jaunsan ki parampara mein the, lekin unamein sthool prahasan aur ashleelta ki bhi vruddhi hui. John palechar (1579-1625) aur Francis bomaant (1584/5 - 1616) mein Comedy ka patan svasth romance ya prahasan ki jagah du:khapoorn ghatnaaon, naayak-naayikaaon ke kaalpanik jeevan, atyadhik alankrut aur roodhipriya bhaasha tatha asvaabhaavik ghatnaaon ke roop mein deekh pada. darbaar ki prerana se hi isi yug mein maask ka bhi janm hua jismein bhavya drushyon aur saajasajja tatha sangeet ki pradhaanata thi. isi samay bhaavi vikaas ki drushti se mahattvapoorn paarivaarik samasyaamoolak du:khaant naatakon mein sabse prasiddh f aarden ov feevarashaimaf (1592) hai, jo likha pehle gaya tha par prakaashit peechhe hua.

is tarah darbaar ke prabhaav mein naatak janta se door ho raha tha. vaastav mein bomaant aur Fletcher ki traiji-Comedy ka abhinay f praaivetaf rangashaalaaon mein mukhyat: abhijaatavargeeya saamaajikon ke saamane hota tha. agar naatak ka janta se jeevit sambandh tha to jaunsan ki shishya parampara ke naatakon ke dvaara ya sheksapiyr ke paravarti du:khaant naatakon ke dvaara, jinka abhinay f pablikf rangashaalaaon mein hota tha.

angreji naatak ke vikaas ki shrunkhala sahasa 1642 mein toot gayi jab kaamanavelth yug mein pyooritn sanpradaaya ke dabaav se saari rangashaalaaeain band ki di gain. usaka punarjanm 1660 mein Charles dviteeya ke punarraajyaarohan ke saath hua.

punarraajyaarohan kaal- France mein lui chaturdash ke darbaar mein sharanaarthi ki tarah rah chuke Charles dviteeya ke liye sanskruti ka aadarsh France ka darbaar tha. uske saath yeh aadarsh bhi England aaya. French reetikaar aur naatakakaar angreji naatakakaaron ke aadarsh bane. Charles ke lautane par daÜaari len aur daurset gaarden ki rangashaalaaon ki sthaapana hui. rangashaalaaon par swayam Charles aur Duke ov yaurk ka niyantran tha. in rangashaalaaon ke saamaajik mukhyat: darabaari, unki premikaaeain, chhail-chhabeele aur kuchh aavaaraagard hote the. ab naatak bahusankhyakon ki jagah alpasankhyakon ka tha; isliye is yug mein do tarah ke naatakon ka udaya aur vikaas hua- ek, aise naatak jinki f hiroikaf du:khaant kathaavastu darabaariyon ki ruchi ke anukool f premaf aur f aatmasammaanaf thi; doosare, aise prahasan jinmein charitraheen kintu kushaagrabuddhi vyaktiyon ke saamaajik vyavahaaron ka chitran hota tha (Comedy ov mainars). rangashaalaaon mein drushyon, prakaash ityaadi ke prabandh ke kaaran kaanon se jyaada aaainkhon ke maadhyam se kaam liya jaane laga, jisse elijaabeth yug ke naatakon ki shuddh kavita ki anivaaryata jaati rahi. striyon ne bhi rangamanch par aana shu degree kiya jiski vajah se kathaanakon mein kai-kai stri paatron ko rakhana sambhav hua.

hiroikaf traijedi ka netrutv draaidan (1631-1700) ne kiya. aise naatakon ki visheshataaeain theen-- asaadhaaran kshamata aur aadarsh vaale naayak prem mein asaadhaaran roop se drudh aur atyant sundar naayika, prem aur aatmasammaan ke beech aantarik sangharsh, shaurya, tukaant kavita, oohaatmak bhaav evam abhivyakti tatha teevr aur sookshm anubhooti ki kami. draaidan ka anukaran auron ne bhi kiya, lekin unako naganya safalta mili.

is kaal mein atukaant chhandon mein bhi du:khaant naatak likhe gaye aur unamein hiroik traijedi ki apeksha naatakakaaron ko adhik safalta mili. ye bhi aam taur par prem ke vishay mein the. lekin inki duniya elijaabeth yug ke naatakon ke bheeshan antardvandvon se bhinn thi. yahaaain bhi pradhaanata oohaatmak bhaavukata ki hi thi. draaidan ke atirikt aise naatakakaaron mein keval taumas otave hi ullekhaneeya hai.

is yug ne naatak ke roop ko ek nai den f operaaf ke roop mein di, jismein kathopakathan ke atirikt sangeet bhi rahata tha.

Comedy ov mainars ke vikaas ne angreji prahasan naatak ka punaruddhaar kiya. iske prasiddh lekhakon mein William vikrli (1640-1716), William kaangreev (1670-1729), George itharej (1634-1690), John vhaunabrug (1666-1746) aur George farkuhaar (1678-1707) hain. inhonne jaunsan ke yathaarthavaadi dhang se Charles dviteeya ke darabaariyon jaise aamodapriya, pramad, prem ke liye anek durabhisandhiyon ke rachayita, naitikta aur sadaachaar ke prati udaaseen aur saaf-suthari kintu paini boli vaale vyaktiyon ka nagn chitr tatasthata ke saath kheencha. upadesh ya samaaj sudhaar unka lakshya naheen tha. iske kaaran in lekhakon par ashleelta ka aarop bhi kiya jaata hai. in naatakon mein jaunsan ke charitron ki maanasik vividhta ke sthaan par ghatnaaon ki vividhta hai. inhonne jaunsan ki tarah charitron ko atiranjan ki shaili se ek-ek durgun ka prateek na banaakar unhein unke saamaajik parivesh mein dekha. unka sabse bada kaam yeh tha ki unhonne angreji Comedy ko bomaant aur Fletcher ki krutrim romaani bhaavukata se mukt kar use sachche arthon mein prahasan banaaya. saath hi jaunsan ki parampara bhi shaidavel aur hauvard ne kaayam rakhi.

18veen shataabdi

yeh shataabdi gairik aur shreemati sidans jaise abhineta aur abhinetri ki shataabdi thi, lekin naatak rachana ki drushti se is yug mein keval do bade naatakakaar hue: richrd binrasale sheridn (1751-1816) aur olivr goldasmith (1728-74). is shataabdi ki madhyavargeeya naitikta ne is yug mein bhaavuk (seintimeintal) Comedy ko janm diya, jismein prahasan se adhik jor sadaachaar par tha. paarivaarik sukh, aadarsh prem aur hrudaya ki pavitrata ki sthaapana ke liye aksar madhyavargeeya charitron ko hi chuna jaata tha. aise naatakakaaron mein sabse prasiddh sibr, steel, Kelly aur kanbaralaind hain. sheridn aur goldasmith ne aise ashrusinchit sukhaant naatakon ke sthaan par shuddh prahasan ko apna lakshya banaaya. inhonne romaani tatvon ke sthaan par jaunsan aur kaangreev ke yathaarthavaad, vyangya, chubhati hui bhaasha aur charitra-chitran mein atiranjan ka anusaran kiya. goldasmithkrut f shi stoops tu kaankaraf aur sheridn krut f di school for skaindalaf angreji prahasan naatya ki sarvottam krutiyon mein gine jaate hain.

is shataabdi mein kai lekhakon ne du:khaant naatak likhe, lekin unamein edisn ka f kaitof hi ullekhaneeya hai. paintomaaim, jo ek tarah se shuddh bhaindaiti tha aur bailad-opera (geeti naatya) bhi is yug mein kaafi lokapriya the. gay ka geetinaatya f di begarsaf opera to Europe ke kai deshon mein abhineet hua. Edward moor ka paarivaarik samasyaamoolak naatak 'gemsatar' aise naatakon mein sabse achha hai.

19veen shataabdi- romaintik yug ka poorvaardh naatak ki drushti se praay: shoonya hai. sadi, kolarij, bardsvarth, sheli, keets, baayaran, laindar aur braauning ne naatak likhe, lekin adhiktar ve keval padhne laayak hain. shataabdi ke uttaraardh mein ibsan ke prabhaav se angreji naatak ko nai prerana mili. paarivaarik jeevan ko lekar raubartasan, jons aur pinro ne ibsan ki yathaarthavaadi shaili ke anukaran par naatak likhe. unamein ibsan ki pratibha naheen thi, lekin naatakeeyata aur aadhunik shaili ke dvaara unhonne aage ka maarg saral kar diya.

20veen shataabdi

ibsan ke prachaar ne angreji naatak ko nai disha di. uske naatakon ki kuchh visheshataaeain ye theen- samaaj aur vyakti ki saadhaaran samasyaaeain; puraani naitikta ki aalochna; baahari sangharshon ke sthaan par aantarik sangharsh; rangamanch par yathaarthavaad; vivranaatmak saaj-sajja; svagat ka bahishkaar; bolachaal ki bhaasha se niktata; prateekavaad. ibsan ke naatak samasya naatak hain. 20veen shataabdi ke praarambhik naatakakaaron par ibsan ke atirikt chekhav ka bhi gahra asar pada. aise naatakakaaron mein sabse pramukh shau aur gaalsavardi ke atirikt grainabil baarkar, seint John hainkin, John mesafeeld, seint John arvin, aarnald benet ityaadi hain.

is yug mein Comedy ov mainars ki parampara bhi viksit hui hai. 19veen shataabdi ke ant mein oscar wild ne isko punarujjeevit kiya tha. 20veen shataabdi mein iske pramukh lekhakon mein shau, maum, laansadel, seint arvin, munaro, noel kaaard, traivars, raitign ityaadi hain.

samasya naatakon ki parampara bha aage badhi hai. unke lekhakon mein sabse prasiddh of kaisi ke atirikt sherif, miln, preestale aur John vhaun draten hain.

is yug ke aitihaasik naatakakaaron mein sabse prasiddh dinrakavaatar, baiks aur James bridi hain.

kaavya naatakon ka vikaas bhi anek lekhakon ne kiya hai. unamein steefen filips, yets, mesafeeld, dinrakavaatar, baamli, flekar, abarakrunbi, ti.S. iliyt, oden, isharavud, Christopher fraai, dankan, speindar ityaadi hain.

aadhunik angreji naatak mein Ireland ke teen prasiddh naatakakaaron, yets, ledi gregari aur sinj ki bahut badi den hai. yathaarthavaadi shaili ke yug mein unhonne naatak mein romaani aur geetimya kalpana tatha anubhooti ko kaayam rakha.

is prakaar spasht hai ki 20veen shataabdi mein angreji naatak ka bahumukhi vikaas hua hai. rangamanch ke vikaas ke saath-saath roopon mein bhi anek parivartan hue hain. samasaamayikta ke kaaran moolyaankan mein atiranjan ho sakta hai, lekin jis yug mein shau, gaarlsavardi, O kaisi, yets, iliyt aur sinj jaise naatakakaar hue hain usaki upalabdhiyon ka sthaayi mahatva hai.

baahari kadiyaaain