angreji kahaani

kahaani ki jadein hajaaron varsh poorv dhaarmik gaathaaon aur praacheen dant kathaaon tak jaati hai, kintu aaj ke arth mein kahaani ka aarambh kuchh hi samay poorv hua. angreji saahitya mein chausar ki kahaaniyaaain athva julaahon ke jeevan se sambandhit delaani ki kahaaniyaaain pehle bhi milti hain, kintu vaastav mein kahaani ki lokapriyta 19veen shataabdi mein badhi. patra-patrikaaon ki sthaapana aur aadhunik jeevan ki bhaag-daud ke saath kahaani ka vikaas hua. 18veen shataabdi mein nibandh ke saath hamein kahaani ke tatv lipte hue milte hain. is prakaar ki rachanaaon mein sar Roger di kavarli se sambaddh skech ullekhaneeya hai. 19veen shataabdi mein hamein poornat: viksit kahaani milti hai.

kahaani jeevan ki ek jhaaainki maatr hamein deti hai. upanyaas se sarvatha alag iska roop hai. kahaani ki sabse safal paribhaasha jeevan ka ek ansh hai. Scott aur dikens ne kahaaniyaaain likhi theen. dikens ne apna saahityik jeevan hi 'skechej baai bauj'naam ki rachana se shu degree kiya tha, yadyapi inki vaastavik den upanyaas ke kshetr mein hai. trolop aur misej gaiskel ne bhi kahaaniyaaain likhi theen, kintu kahaani ke sarvapratham bade lekhak Washington aravig, haurthaarn, bret heart aur po amareeka mein hamein milte hain. araving (1783-1859) ki 'skech book'apoorv kahaaniyon ka bhaandaar hai. inmein sabse safal 'rip vaan vinkil'hai. haathaarn (1804-64) ki kahaaniyaaain hamein pareelok ke svapn dikhaati hain. bret heart (1839-1902) ki kahaaniyon mein amareeka ki pashchim ki bastiyon ke avyavasthit jeevan ka digdarshan hai. po (1809-1849) vishv ke sarvashreshth kahaani lekhak kahe jaate hain. unki kahaaniyaaain bhaya, aatank aur aashcharya se paathak ko abhibhoot kar daalati hai.

England mein steevensan (1850-1894) ne kahaani ki praudhta pradaan ki. unki 'maarkheim', 'vil O di mil'aur 'di baatal imp'aadi kahaaniyaaain suprasiddh hain. henari James (1843-1916) upanyaason ke atirikt kahaani likhne mein bhi bahut kushal the. manovaigyaanik vishleshan mein unki safalta apoorv thi. ainbroj beears (1842-1913) komal aur sanshlisht bhaavanaaon ko vyakt karne mein atyant kushal the. Cathrine mainsafeeld (1889-1923) sukumaar kshanon ka chitran vurush ke halke aaghaaton ke samaan karti hai.

20veen shataabdi ke sabhi bade upanyaasakaaron ne kahaani ko apnaaya. yeh 19veen sadi ki parampara mein hi ek aage badha hua kadam tha. taumas haardi ki 'veseks tels'ke samaan H.ji. vels, kaunarad, aarnald benet, John gaalsavardi, di.H. laarens, aaldas haksle, James jvauyas, saumaraset maum aadi ke liye anek safal kahaaniyaaain likheen.

H. ji. vels (1866-1946) vaigyaanik vishyon par kahaani likhne mein siddhahast the. unki 'storeej ov time aind space'bahut khyaati pa chuki hai. kaunarad (1856-1924) Poland nivaasi the, kintu angreji katha saahitya ko unki adbhut den hai. aarnald baienet (1867-1931) paaainch kasbon ke kshetreeya jeevan se sambandhit kahaaniyaaain, jaise 'tels ov di faaiv taauns' likhte the. John gaalsavardi (1867-1933) ki kahaaniyaaain gahari maanaveeya samvedna mein doobi hain. unka kahaani sangrah, 'di kairavan'angreji mein kahaani ke atyant uchch star ka hamein parichay deta hai. di.H. laurens (1885-1930) ki kahaaniyon ka pravaah dheema hai aur ve ulajhi maanasik gutthiyon ke adhyayan prastut karti hain. unka kahaani sangrah 'di woman hoo road ave'suprasiddh hai. aaldas haksle (1894-1963) apni kahaaniyon mein manushya ke charitra par vyang bhare aaghaat karte hain. unhein jeevan mein maano shraddha ke yogya kuchh bhi naheen milta. James jvauyas (1882-1941) apni kahaaniyon 'dablinrs'mein dablin ke naagrik jeevan ki yathaarthavaadi jhaaainkiyaaain paathak ko dete hain. saumaraset maum (1874-1958) apni kahaaniyon mein british saamraajya ke doorasth upaniveshon ka jeevan vyakat karte hain. aaj ki angreji kahaani maanav charitra ke nikrushtatam roopon par dhyaan keindrit karti hai. iske kaaran yuddh ka sankat, paashchaatya jeevan ki vishrrunkhalata aur maanaveeya moolyon ka vightan hain. shilp ki drushti se aaj kahaani ka paryaapt parimaarjan ho chuka hai, kintu saath hi uske bheetar nihit moolyon ka hraas bhi hua hai.

baahari kadiyaaain