angreji gadya

angreji gadya ne angreji kavita, naatak aur upanyaas ke samaan hi angreji saahitya ko samruddh kiya hai. baaibil ke anek vaakya angreji raashtra ke maanas par sada ke liye gahre ankit ho gaye hain. isi prakaar sheksapiyr, miltan, gibn, jaunsan, nyoomain, kaarlaail aur raskin ke vaakya angrej jaati ko smruti mein goonjate hain. angreji gadya anek saahityik vidhaaon dvaara samruddh hua hai. inmein upanyaas, kahaani aur naatak ke atirikt nibandh, jeevani, aatmakatha, aalochna, itihaas, darshan aur vigyaan bhi sammilit hain.

angreji gadya ka sangeet anek shataabdiyon se paathakon ko mohata raha hai. yeh sangeet bahudha romaansavaadi aur bhaavana pradhaan raha hai. is gadya mein kaavya ka gun prachur maatra mein milta hai. angreji gadya ki tulana mein French gadya ki gati adhik santulit aur sanyat rahi hai. ek aalochak ka kehna hai ki kavita bhaavana ko bhaasha deti hai, kintu gadya vivek aur buddhi ki vaani hai.

angreji gadya ainglo-saiksan saahitya ki parampara ka hi vikaas hai. madhya yug ke beed (672-735) angreji gadya ke pitaamah kahe ja sakte hain. beed ki 'eksejiyestikl history' jooliys seejr ke aakraman se lekar 731 E. tak ke England ka praaya: aath sau varshon ka itihaas prastut karti hai. angreji gadya ka sarvapratham mahattvapoorn granth sar John meindevil ki yaatraaeain hain. yaatra varnan ke roop mein yeh pustak vaastav mein kaalpanik gaatha hai. san 1377 mein mool fraanseesi se anoodit hokar yeh angreji mein prakaashit hui. angreji kavita ke janak chausar (1340-1400) ka gadya saahitya bhi parimaan mein kaafi hai. unki kaitarabari tels mein do kahaaniyaaain gadya mein likhi hai.

angreji gadya ko viklif (1324-1384) ki rachanaaon se bahut prerana mili. viklif andhavishvaason par kathor aaghaat karta hai. usane sarvapratham baaibil ka san 1611 ka vikhyaat sanskaran taiyaar hua. viklif dharm ke kshetr mein svatantr vichaarak tha. uske gadya mein badi shakti hai.

15veen shataabdi tak England ke lekhak laateeni gadya mein hi likhna pasand karte the aur shakti tatha pratibha se sampann kam gadya angreji mein likha gaya. aise lekhakon mein sar John faurteskyoo (1394-1476) ka naam ullekhaneeya hai. inhonne angreji vidhaan ki prashansa mein ek pustak 'di gavarnens ov England' likhi. angreji gadya ke itihaas mein kaikstan (1421-91) ka naam vishesh mahattvapoorn hai. unhonne 1476 mein mudran kaarya aarambh kiya aur angreji gadya ko sthaaneeya boliyon ke prabhaav se mukt karke ek nishchit roop dene mein badi madad ki. kaikstan ne madhya yug ke anek romance angreji gadya mein anuvaad karke prakaashit kiye. unhonne French gadya ko apna aadarsh banaaya aur angreji gadya ke vikaas mein bada hissa liya. kaikstan ke mahattvapoorn prakaashanon mein sar taumas mailori ka 'maart the aarthar'bhi tha. mailoli ki pustak angreji gadya ke itihaas mein ek smaraneeya meal stambh hai.

angreji punarjaagaran ke pehle bade lekhak sar taumas mor (1478-1535) hai. unki pustak yutopiya vishvavikhyaat hai, kintu durbhaagya se is pustak ko unhonne laateeni mein likha. angreji mein unki keval kuchh maamooli rachanaaeain hain. unheen ke baad iliyt, cheek, eaiskam aur Wilson ne apni shiksha sambandhi pustakein likheen.

William tindel (1484-1536) ne san 1522 se baaibil ka anuvaad angreji mein karna shu degree kiya. is prashansaneeya kaarya ke badle tindel ko nirvaasan aur matyudand mila.

elijaabeth ke yug ka gadya kavita ke svar ka hi hai. iske udaaharan lili (1554-1606) aur sar Phillip Sydney (1554-86) ki rachanaaon mein ho paate hain. lili ki 'yoofuis'aur Sydney ki 'aarkediya'kaavya ke gunon se samanvit rachanaaen hain. Sydney ki 'defence ov poeji'angreji aalochanaaon ki pehli mahattvapoorn pustak hai.

angreji gadya ke vikaas mein agala kadam green, lodge, naish, dailooni aadi ke upanyaason ka prakaashan hai. in lekhakon ne aatmakathaaeain aur anek vivaadapoorn pustakein bhi likheen. udaaharan ke liye green ke 'kanfeshans' ka ullekh ho sakta hai. 'obaravari'aur arl naam ke lekhakon ne chaaritrik skech likhe, jiski prerana unhein greek lekhak thiyofraustas se mili.

angreji gadya saahitya ka ek mahattvapoorn ansh hamein elijaabethakaaleen naatakon mein milta hai. bhaavana ke gahre kshanon mein sheksapiyr ke paatr gadya mein bolne lagte hain. green, jaunsan, maalon aadi ke naam bhi angreji gadya ke itihaas mein mahattvapoorn hai.

angreji gadya ke mahaan lekhakon mein pehla bada naam richrd hookar (1554-1600) ka hai. unki pustak 'di lodge ov eklejiyestikl pauliti'angreji gadya ki unnaayak hain. isi samay (1611) baaibil ka suprasiddh angreji anuvaad bhi prakaashit hua. baaibil ki bhaasha angreji gadya ke anupam saaainchon mein dhaalati hai. vaastav mein yeh gadya kaavya ke sangeet se anupraanit hai. praansis bekan (1561-1626) angreji nibandh ke janak tatha itihaas ke darshan ke gambhir lekhak the. unki rachanaaon mein 'di aidavaansmeint ov larning', 'di new aitalaintis', 'henari seveinth', 'di esej novam oganim'aadi suprasiddh hai. bekan ki bhaasha thos, gambhir aur sootr shaili ki hai.

richrd bartan (1576-1640) ki pustak 'di enaataumi ov melaikali'angreji gadya ke itihaas mein ek vikhyaat rachana hai. iska paaditya apoorv hai aur ek gahari udaasi pustak bhar mein chhaai rahati hai. is yug ke ek mahaan gadya lekhak 'sar taumas brown'(1605-82) hai. inke gadya ka sangeet paathakon ko shataabdiyon se mugdh karta raha hai. inki mahattvapoorn rachanaaon mein 'rileejio medisi'aur 'haaidrotaifiya'ullekhaneeya hai. jairemi Taylor (1613-77) prasiddh dharm shikshak aur vakta the. unki upamaaeain bahut sundar hoti theen, unka gadya kalpana aur bhaavana se anuranjit hai. unki pustakon mein 'holi living'aur 'holi daaing'prasiddh hai.

is kaal ke lekhakon mein miltan ka janm agraganya hai. tees se lekar pachaas varsh ki aayu tak miltan ne keval gadya likha aur tatkaaleen raajaneetik, saamaajik aur dhaarmik vivaadon mein jamkar bhaag liya. apni prasiddh pustak 'eropaajitika'mein ve vichaaron ki abhivyakti ki svatantrata ke prashn ko ooainche dharaatal par uthaate hain aur aaj bhi unke vichaaron mein satya ki gooainj hai. miltan ke gadya mein shakti aur oj ka adbhut sanyog hai. 17veen shataabdi ke gadya lekhakon mein anya ullekhaneeya naam fular (1608-61) aur vaaltan (1593-1683) ke hain. fular dhaarmik vishyon par likhte the. unki pustak, 'di bardeej ov England'prasiddh hai. vaaltan ki pustak, 'di kanpleet ainglar'angreji saahitya ki amar rachanaaon mein se hai.

draaidan (1631-1700) angreji ke pramukh gadyakaaron mein the. unki aalochna shaili sulajhi hui aur suvyavasthit thi. unki gadya shaili bhi French parampara ke nikat hai. vah chintan ko sahaj aur tarkasangat abhivyakti dete hain. draaidan ki bhoomikaaon ke atirikt unki pustak, 'ese ov draimetik poeji'suprasiddh hai. haubs (1588-1679) ke raajaneetik vichaaron ka aitihaasik mahatva hai aur unki pustak 'di levaayathaan'angreji bhaasha ki ek suprasiddh rachana hai. pepeej (1632-1704) aur evalin (1632-1706) ki daayariyaaain angreji saahitya ki nidhi hain. haubs ke samaan hi lauk (1623-1704) ke raajaneetik vichaaron ka bhi aitihaasik mahatva bahut hai.

18veen shataabdi mein angreji gadya jeevan ki gati ke sabse adhik nikat aaya. iska kaaran French saahitya ka badhta hua prabhaav tha. svift (1667-1745) apni amar kruti 'gulibrg traivels'mein apne samay ke maanaveeya vyaapaaron par kathor vyang karte hain. unke gadya mein bada oj aur bal hai. unki anya prasiddh rachanaaon mein 'A tel ov A tab'aur 'di baitil ov di books'bhi ullekhaneeya hai. 18veen shataabdi ka saahitya uthate hue madhya varg ki bhaavanaaon ko vyakt karta hai aur iske gadya ki shaili bhi is varg ki aavashyakataaon ke anuroop saral aur spasht hai. is yug ke safal gadyakaaron mein difo, edisn aur steel hain. dinfo (1660-1731) ka upanyaas 'raubinsan kooso'angreji bhaasha ki vishesh lokapriya rachanaaon mein se hain. unke anya upanyaas 'mall flaindars', 'A journal ov di pleg igar'aadi yathaarthavaadi shaili mein dhale hain. edisn (1672-1719) aur steel (1672-1729) mukhyat: nibandhakaar hai. unhonne 'di taitalar' aur 'di spektetar' naam ke patra nikaal kar angreji saahitya mein uchch koti ki patrakaarita ki bhi neenv rakhi.

angreji saahitya ke itihaas mein dau॰ jaunsan (1709-84) ka naam avismaraneeya rahega. ve itihaasakaar, nibandhakaar, aalochak, kavi aur upanyaasakaar the. unhonne ek kosh ki bhi rachana ki. inki gadya krutiyon mein 'laaivj ov di poets', 'raaselas'aur 'preefesej tu sheksapiyr' atyant mahattvapoorn hai. jaunsan ki baatcheet bhi, jo baujavel likhit jeevani mein sankalit hai, unke lekhan se kam mahatva ki naheen hoti thi.

18veen shataabdi mein angreji upanyaas ka apoorv vikaas hua. is kaal ke upanyaasakaaron mein goldasmith (1728-1774) bhi the jinhonne jal ke samaan taral gati ka gadya likha aur anek sundar nibandhon ki rachana ki. inki rachanaaon mein 'di sitijn ov di world', 'di vikaar ov bekafeeld'aadi suvikhyaat hai. itihaasakaaron mein hayoom, raubartasan aur gibn ke naam mahattvapoorn hai. gibn (1737-1784) angreji gadya ke itihaas ke amar hain. shaili aur nirmaan shakti ki drushti se unka granth 'diklaain aind faal ov di roman empaayar' ek smaraneeya kruti hai. isi shreni mein prasiddh vichaarak aur vakta vark (1729-1797) ka naam bhi aata hai. unke gadya mein badi pravahamaan shakti thi. unki sabse prasiddh pustak 'riflekshans on di French rivlyooshan'hai.

fraanseesi kraanti se prabhaavit romaintik saahitya mein moolat: kavita pramukh hai. romaintik kaviyon ne apne krutitv ke bachaav mein bhoomikaaeain aadi likheen. unamein sabse mahattvapoorn vaktavya vard savarth ka 'preefes tu di lirikl bailads', kolarij ki 'baayograifiya litreriya'aur sheli ki pustak 'A difeins ov poetri'hai. romaintik yug ka gadya bhaavana aur kalpana se anuranjit hai.

samaajashaastr aur arthashaastr par jeremi beintham, rikaardo aur edas smith ne granth likhe. 19veen shataabdi mein 'edinbara review', 'kvaartarli'aur 'blaikabud' ke samaan patrikaaon ka janm hua jinhonne gadya saahitya ke bahumukhi vikaas mein madad ki. 19veen shataabdi ke pramukh nibandhakaaron aur aalochakon mein lainb, haijlit, li hant aur di kvinsi ke naam agraganya hai. lainb (1775-1834) angreji saahitya ke sarvashreshth nibandhakaar hain. unke nibandh 'esej ov iliya'ke naam se prakaashit hue. haijlit (1778-1830) uchch koti ke nibandhakaar aur aalochak the. di kvinsi (1785-1859) ki pustak 'kanfeshans ov ain opiym itar' angreji saahitya ka anupam ratn hai.

Victoria yug ke praarambh se angreji saahitya adhik santulan aur sanyam ki or agrasar hota hai aur gadya ki shaili bhi adhik sanyat ho jaati hai, yadyapi kaarlaail aur raskin ke se gadyakaaron ki rachana mein ham romantic shaili ka prabhaav fir dekhte hain.

mil (1806-1873) ne anek granth likhkar daarshanik gadya ko samruddh kiya. itihaasakaaron mein maikaale (1800-1859) ka gadya bahurangi aur sabal tha. unke aitihaasik nibandh bahut hi lokapriya hain. saahityaalochan ke kshetr mein Matthew aarnald (1822-88) ka kaarya vishesh mahatva ka hai. aarnald ka chintan suspasht tha aur yahi spashtata unki gadya shaili ki bhi visheshata hai. vichaaron ke kshetr mein bhi daaravin, haksale aur harbart spainsar ki krutiyaaain angreji gadya ko mahattvapoorn den hai.

19veen shataabdi ke gadyakaaron mein kaarlaail, nyoomain aur raskin ka ullekh anivaarya hai. inke lekhan mein hamein angreji gadya ki sarvochch udaanein milti hain. kaarlaail (1795-1881) itihaasakaar aur vichaarak the. unke granth 'di French rivlyooshan, paast aind prejnt, hiroj aind hiro varship'angreji saahitya ke utkrusht namoone hain. unki aatmakatha angreji gadya ka utkrusht roop prastut karti hai. raskin kalaatmak aur saamaajik prashnon par vichaar karte hain. unki krutiyon mein 'modern peintars', 'di sevin laips ov aarkitekchar', 'di stons ov vanis antoo dis laast', aadi vikhyaat hai.

san 1890 ke lagbhag angreji saahitya ek naya mod leta hai. is yug ke pitaamah petar (1839-94) the. unke shishya oscar wild (1856-1900) ne kalaavaad ke siddhaant ko viksit kiya. unka gadya sundar aur bhadkeela tha aur unke anek vaakya avismaraneeya hote the. is yug ke lekhak itihaas mein hraasavaadi kahe jaate hain.

aayarish gadya ke janak yets (1865-1939) the. unka gadya anupam saaainchon mein dhala hai. unke anugaami sinj ki den bhi mahattvapoorn hai. naatak ke kshetr mein in donon ka bada mahatva hai. yets uchch koti ke kavi aur chintak bhi the.

20veen shataabdi yuddh, aarthik sankat aur vidrohi vichaaradhaaraaon ki shataabdi hai. vidrohi svaron mein sabse sashakt svar is yug ke pramukh naatakakaar barnaad sha (1856-1950) ka tha. sha aur vels (1866-1946) donon ko hi samaajavaadi kaha gaya hai. inke vipreet chestaratan, (1874-1936) aur belauk (1870-1953) vaigyaanik darshan ke viruddh khade hue. ve donon hi uchch koti ke nibandhakaar aur aalochak the.

aadhunik angreji gadya anek dishaaon mein viksit ho raha hai. upanyaas, naatak, aalochna, nibandh, jeevani, vividh saahitya, vigyaan aur darshan sabhi kshetron mein ham jaagruti aur pragati ke lakshan dekhte hain. litn straichi (1880-1932) ke samaan jeevani lekhak aur ti.S. iliyt (1888-1965) ke samaan aalochak aur chintak aaj angreji gadya ko nai tejasvita aur shakti pradaan kar rahe hain. aaj ke pramukh nibandhakaaron mein A.ji. gaardinr, E.vi. lyookas aur Robert lind vishesh ullekhaneeya hai. anek kahaaneekaar bhi aadhunik agreji gadya ko bhara-poora bana rahe hain. angreji ka aadhunik gadya suspasht, nirmal aur sugathit hai.

baahari kadiyaaain