angreji bhaasha

angreji
English
boli jaati hai sanyukt raajya America, sanyukt raajashaahi, Canada, Australia, dakshin afreeka fiji, nyoojeelaind, jimbaabave samet vishv ke anya kai deshon mein.
kul bolne vaale 53 desh
sanyukt raashtra
Europeeya sangh
raashtramandal
naato
naafta
bhaasha parivaar hind Europeeya bhaasha
  • jarmanik
    • pashchimi jarmanik upashaakha
      • ऍnglo frisiyn
        • angreji
bhaasha koot
ISO 639-1 en
ISO 639-2 eng
ISO 639-3 eng
EN (aaiesao 639, ISO 639-1)

angreji bhaasha (angreji: English hindi uchchaaran: english) hind-Europeeya bhaasha-parivaar mein aati hai aur is drushti se hindi, urdoo, faarasi aadi ke saath iska door ka sambandh banta hai. ye is parivaar ki jarmanik shaakha mein rakhi jaati hai. ise duniya ki sarvapratham antarraashtreeya bhaasha maana jaata hai. ye duniya ke kai deshon ki mukhya raajabhaasha hai aur aaj ke daur mein kai deshon mein (mukhyat: bhootapoorv british upaniveshon mein) vigyaan, computer, saahitya, raajaneeti aur uchch shiksha ki bhi mukhya bhaasha hai. angreji bhaasha roman lipi mein likhi jaati hai.

yeh ek pashchim jarmenik bhaasha hai jiski utpatti englo-seksan England mein hui thi. sanyukt raajya America ke 19 veen shataabdi ke poorvaardh[tathya vaanchhit] aur british saamraajya ke 18 veen, 19 veen aur 20 veen shataabdi ke sainya, vaigyaanik, raajaneetik, aarthik aur saanskrutik prabhaav ke parinaam svaroop yeh duniya ke kai bhaagon mein saamaanya (bolachaal ki) bhaasha ban gayi hai.[1] kai antararaashtreeya sangathanon aur raashtramandal deshon mein bade paimaane par iska istemaal ek dviteeya bhaasha aur adhikaarik bhaasha ke roop mein hota hai.

aitihaasik drushti se, angreji bhaasha ki utpatti 5veen shataabdi ki shuruaat se England mein basane vaale englo-seksan logon dvaara laayi gayi anek boliyon, jinhein ab puraani angreji kaha jaata hai, se hui hai. vaaiking hamlaavaron ki praacheen nors bhaasha ka angreji bhaasha par gahra prabhaav pada hai. naurman vijay ke baad puraani angreji ka vikaas madhya angreji ke roop mein hua, iske liye naurman shabdaavali aur vartani ke niyamon ka bhaari maatr mein upayog hua. vahaan se aadhunik angreji ka vikaas hua aur abhi bhi ismein anek bhaashaaoain se videshi shabdon ko apnaane aur saath hi saath nae shabdon ko gadhne ki prakriya nirantar jaari hai. ek badi maatr mein angreji ke shabdon, khaaskar takaneeki shabdon, ka gathan praacheen greek aur laitin ki jadon par aadhaarit hai.

anukram

mahatva

aadhunik angreji, jisko kabhi kabhi pratham vaishvik saamaanya bhaasha ke taur par bhi varnit kiya jaata hai,[2][3]sanchaar, vigyaan, vyaapaar,[2] vimaanan, manoranjan, radio aur kootaneeti ke kshetron ki pramukh antarraashtreeya bhaasha hai.[4][4]british dveepon ke pare iske vistaar ka praarambh british saamraajya ke vikaas ke saath hua aur 19 veen sadi ke ant tak iski pahuainch sahi maayane mein vaishvik ho chuki thi.[5][6] yeh sanyukt raajya America ki pramukh bhaasha hai. dviteeya vishv yuddh ke baad se America ki ek vaishvik mahaashakti ke roop mein pehchaan aur uske badhte aarthik aur saanskrutik prabhaav ke kaaran angreji bhaasha ke prasaar mein mahattvapoorn gati aayi hai.[3]

angreji bhaasha ka kaam chalaaoo gyaan anek kshetron, jaise ki chikitsa aur computer, ke liye ek aavashyakta ban chuka hai; parinaamasvaroop ek arab se jyaada log kam se kam buniyaadi star ki angreji bol lete hain (dekhein: angreji bhaasha ko seekhana aur sikhaana). yeh sanyukt raashtraki chhah aadhikaarik bhaashaaon mein se bhi ek hai.

David kristal jaise bhaashaavidon ke anusaar angreji ke bade paimaane par prasaar ka ek asar, jaisa ki anya vaishvik bhaashaaoain ke saath bhi hua hai, duniya ke anek hisson mein sthaaneeya bhaashaaoain ki vividhta ko kam karne ke roop mein dikhaai deta hai, vishesh taur par yeh asar ostreleshiya aur uttari America mein dikhta hai aur iska bhaari bharakam prabhaav bhaasha ke sangharshan (ettreeshan) mein ek mahattvapoorn bhoomika nirantar ada kar raha hai.[7] isi prakaar aitihaasi bhaashaavid, jo ki bhaasha parivartan ki jatilta aur gatisheelata se avagat hain, angreji bhaasha dvaara alag bhaashaaoain ke ek nae parivaar ka nirmaan karne ki iski aseem sambhaavnaaon ke prati hamesha avagat rahate hain. in bhaashaavidon ke anusaar iska kaaran hai angreji bhaasha ka vishaal aakaar aur iska istemaal karne vaale samudaayon ka prasaar aur iski praakrutik aantarik vividhta, jaise ki iske kreeols (creoles) aur pijins (pidgins).[8]

itihaas

english ek vest jarmenik bhaasha hai jiski utpatti englo-frishiyn aur loar seksan boliyon se hui hai. in boliyon ko Britain mein 5 veen shataabdi mein jarman khaanaabadoshon aur roman sahaayak senaaon dvaara varttamaan ke uttar pashchimi Germany aur uttari needaralaind[tathya vaanchhit] ke vibhinn bhaagon se laaya gaya tha. in jarmenik janajaatiyon mein se ek thi engles[9], jo sanbhavat: engaln se aaye the. beed ne likha hai ki unka poora desh hi, apni puraani bhoomi ko chhodkar, Britain[10] aa gaya tha.'England'(englaalaind) aur 'english ' naam is janajaati ke naam se hi praapt hue hain.
englo seksans ne 449 E. mein Denmark aur jootalaind se aakraman karna praarambh kiya tha,[11][12] unke aagaman se pehle England ke sthaaneeya log braayothonik, ek seltik bhaasha, bolte the.[13] haalaaainki boli mein sarvaadhik mahattvapoorn parivartan 1066 ke naurman aakraman ke pashchaat hi aaye, parantu bhaasha ne apne naam ko banaaye rakha aur naurman aakraman poorv ki boli ko ab puraani angreji kaha jaata hai.[14]

shuruaat mein puraani angreji vividh boliyon ka ek samooh thi jo ki great Britain ke englo-seksan raajyon ki vividhta ko darshaati hai.[15] inmein se ek boli, let vest seksan, antat: apna varchasv sthaapit karne mein safal hui. mool puraani angreji bhaasha fir aakraman ki do laharon se prabhaavit hui. pehla jarmenik parivaar ke uttari jarmenik shaakha ke bhaasha bolne vaalon dvaara tha; unhonne 8 veen aur 9 veen sadi mein british dveepon ke kuchh hisson ko jeetkar upanivesh bana diya. doosra 11 veen sadi ke normans the, jo ki puraani naurman bhaasha bolte the aur iski englo-naurman namak ek angreji kism ka vikaas kiya. (sadiyaaain beetane ke saath, isne apne vishisht naurman tatv ko pairisiyn French aur, tatpashchaat, angreji ke prabhaav ke kaaran kho diya. antat: yeh englo-French vishisht boli mein tabdeel ho gayi.) in do hamlon ke kaaran angreji kuchh had tak "mishrit" ho gayi (haalaaainki vishuddh bhaashaai arth mein yeh kabhi bhi ek vaastavik mishrit bhaasha naheen rahi; mishrit bhaashaaoain ki utpatti alag alag bhaashaaoain ko bolne vaalon ke mishran se hoti hai. ve log aapasi baatcheet ke liye ek mileejuli jabaan ka vikaas kar lete hain).

skaindineviyans ke saath sahanivaas ke parinaamasvaroop angreji bhaasha ke englo-frisiyn kor ka shaabdik anupooran hua; baad ke naurman kabje ke parinaamasvaroop bhaasha ke jarmanik kor ka sundareekaran hua, ismein romance bhaashaaoain se kai sundar shabdon ko samaavisht kiya gaya. yeh norman prabhaav mukhyataya adaalaton aur sarkaar ke maadhyam se angreji mein pravisht ho gaya. is prakaar, angreji ek "udhaar" ki bhaasha ke roop mein viksit hui jismein lacheelaapan aur ek vishaal shabdaavali thi.

british saamraajya ke udaya aur vistaar aur saath hi sanyukt raajya America ke ek mahaan shakti ke roop mein ubharane ke parinaamasvaroop angreji ka prasaar duniya bhar mein hua.[tathya vaanchhit]

angreji shabdaavali ka itihaas

paaainchaveen aur chhathi sadi mein Britain ke dveepon par uttar ki or se engal aur seksan kbeelon ne hamla kiya tha aur unhonne keltik bhaashaaeain bolne vaale sthaaneeya logon ko Scotland, Ireland aur vels ki or dhakel diya tha.

aathaveen aur naveen sadi mein uttar se vaaikings aur nors kbeelon ke hamle bhi aarambh ho gaye the aur is prakaar vartamaan ingalaind ka kshetr kai prakaar ki bhaasha bolne vaalon ka desh ban gaya aur kai puraane shabdon ko nae arth mil gaye. jaise – dreem (dream) ka arth us samay tak aanand lena tha lekin uttar ke vaaikings ne ise sapane ka arth de diya. isi prakaar skart ka shabd bhi uttari hamlaavaron ke saath yahaaain aaya. lekin iska roop badal kar shart (shirt) ho gaya. baad mein donon shabd alag-alag arthon mein prayukt hone lage aur aaj tak ho rahe hain.

san 500 se lekar 1100 tak ke kaal ko puraani angreji ka daur kaha jaata hai. 1066 isvi mein Duke of nauramandi ne ingalaind par hamla kiya aur yahaaain ke englo-saiksaun kbeelon par vijay pai. is prakaar puraani fraanseesi bhaasha ke shabd sthaaneeya bhaasha mein milne lage. angreji ka yeh daur 1100 se 1500 tak jaari raha aur ise angreji ka vistaar wala daur madhyakaaleen angreji kaha jaata hai. kaanoon aur aparaadh-dand se sambandh rakhane vaale bahut se angreji shabd isi kaal mein prachalit hue. angreji saahitya mein chausar (Chaucer) ki shaayari ko is bhaasha ka mahattvapoorn udaaharan bataaya jaata hai.

san 1500 ke baad angreji ka aadhunik kaal aarambh hota hai jismein yoonaani bhaasha ke kuchh shabdon ne milna aarambh kiya. yeh daur ka sheksapiyr jaise saahityakaar ke naam se aarambh hota hai aur ye daur san 1800 tak chalta hai. uske baad angreji ka aadhuniktam daur kahalaata hai jismein angreji vyaakaran saral ho chuka hai aur usamein angrejon ke nae aupaniveshik Asiaee aur afreeki logon ki bhaashaaon ke bahut se shabd shaamil ho chuke hain.
vishv raajaneeti, saahitya, vyavasaaya aadi mein amareeka ke badhti hue prabhaav se Amreeki angreji ne bhi vishesh sthaan praapt kar liya hai. iska doosra kaaran british logon ka saamraajyavaad bhi tha. vartani ki saralata aur baat karne ki saral aur sugam shaili Amreeki angreji ki visheshataaeain hain.

vargeekaran aur sambandhit bhaashaaeain

angreji bhaasha indo-Europeeya bhaasha parivaar ke jarmanik shaakha ke pashchimi up-shaakha ki sadasya hai. angreji ke niktatam jeevit sambandhiyon mein do hi naam hain, ya to skauts, jo mukhyataya Scotland athva uttari Ireland ke hisson mein boli jaati hai, ya frisiyn. chooainki, skauts ko bhaashaavid ya to ek pruthak bhaasha ya angreji ki boliyon ke ek samooh ke roop mein dekhte hain, isliye aksar skauts ki apeksha frisiyn ko angreji ka niktatam sambandhi kaha jaata hai. inke baad anya jarmenik bhaashaaoain ka number aata hai jinka naata thoda door ka hai, ve hain, pashchimi Europeeya bhaashaaeain (dach, afreekaans, nimn jarman, uchch jarman) aur uttari jarmenik bhaashaaeain (sveedish,denish, naurvejiyn, aaislaindik) aur faarois. skauts aur sanbhavat: frisiyn ke apavaad ke siva inmein se kisi bhi bhaasha ka angreji ke saath paarasparik mel naheen baithata hai. iska kaaran shabd bhandaaran, vaakyavinyaas, shabdaarth vigyaan aur dhvani vigyaan mein bhinnata ka hona hai.[tathya vaanchhit]

anya jarmenik bhaashaaoain ke saath angreji ke shabd bhandaaran mein antar ka mukhya kaaran angreji mein badi maatra mein laitin shabdon ka upayog hai (udaaharan ke taur par, "egjit" banaam dach uitgaing) (jiska shaabdik arth hai "out gang", jahaaain "gang vaisa hi hai jaise ki "gaingave" mein) aur French ("change" banaam jarman shabd aanderung, "movement" banaam jarman bevegung (shabdaarth, "athaaring" aur "be-ve-ing" ("raste par badhte rahana")) jarman aur angreji ka vaakyavinyaas bhi angreji se kaafi alag hai, vaakyon ko banaane ke liye alag niyam hain (udaaharan, jarman ich habe noch ni etvaas of dem plaatj gesehein' ', banaam angreji " I hev stil nevar scene enithing in di skver "). shabdaarth vigyaan angreji aur uske sambandhiyon ke bich jhoothi dostiyon ka kaaran hai. dhvani ke antar mool roop se sambandhit shabdon ko bhi dhundhala dete hain ("inaf" banaam jarman genug), aur kabhi kabhaar dhvani aur shabdaarth donon hi alag hote hain (jarman jeet, "samay", angreji ke "taaid" se sambandhit hai, lekin angreji shabd ka arth jvaar bhaata ho gaya hai).[tathya vaanchhit]

1500 sau se jyaada varshon se angreji mein yaugik shabdon ke nirmaan aur maujooda shabdon mein sudhaar ki kriya apne alag andaaj mein, jarmanik bhaashaaoain se pruthak, chal rahi hai. udahaaran ke taur par, angreji mein mool shabdon mein -hud, -ship, -dam, -nes jaise pratyayon ko jodkar ebastrekt sanjnyaa ka gathan ho sakta hai. lagbhag sabhi jarmenik bhaashaaoain mein in sabhi ke sajaateeya pratyaya maujood hain lekin unke upayog bhinn ho gaye hain, jaise ki jarman "free-heet" banaam angreji "free-dam" (-heet pratyaya angreji -hud ka sajaateeya hai, jabki angreji -dam pratyaya jarman -tum ka)

ek angreji bolne wala anek French shabdon ko bhi sugamata se padh sakta hai (haalaaainki aksar unka uchchaaran kaafi alag hota hai) kyonki angreji mein French aur naurman shabdon ka badi maatra mein samaayojan hai. yeh samaayojan naurman vijay ke baad englo-naurman bhaasha se aur baad ki sadiyon mein seedhe French bhaasha se shabdon ko uthaane ke kaaran hai. parinaamasvaroop, angreji shabdaavali ka ek bada bhaag French bhaasha se aata hai, kuchh maamooli vartani ke antar (shabdaant, puraani French vartani ka prayog aadi) aur tathaakathit jhoothe doston ke arthon mein antar ke saath. adhikaansh French ekal shabdon ka angreji uchchaaran (miraaj ' aur koop di'itat ' jaise vaakyaanshon ke apavaad ke sivaaya) poornataya angrejeekrut ho gaya hai aur jor dene ki vishisht angreji paddhati ka anusaran karta hai.[tathya vaanchhit]denish aakraman ke falasvaroop kuchh uttari jarmenik shabd bhi angreji bhaasha mein aa gaye (denalau dekhein); inmein shaamil hain "skaai", "vindo", "eg" aur "de" (aur uske prakaar) bhi aur "aar" ("too bi" ka varttamaan bahuvachan)[tathya vaanchhit]

bhaugolik vitran

inhein bhi dekhein: janasankhya ke aadhaar par vishv ke angrej bolne vaale deshon ki soochi
duniya ke pramukh angreji bhaashi deshon ke sthaaneeya angreji vaktaaon ki sambandhit sankhya ko darshaata pai chart

lagbhag 37.5 karod log angreji ko pratham bhaasha ke roop mein bolte hain.[16] sthaaneeya vaktaaon ki sankhya ke hisaab se mandaarin cheeni aur Spanish ke baad varttamaan mein sanbhavat: angreji hi teesare number par aati hai.[17][18] haalaaainki yadi sthaaneeya aur gair sthaaneeya vaktaaon ko mila diya jaaye to yeh sanbhavat: duniya ki sabse adhik boli jaane waali bhaasha ban jaayegi, parantu yadi cheeni bhaasha ke mishranon ko joda jaaye to yeh sanbhavat: doosare sthaan par rahegi (yeh is baat par nirbhar karega ki cheeni bhaasha ke mishranon ko "bhaasha" kaha jaaye ki "boli").[19]

sarvaadhik vaktaaon (jinki maatrabhaasha angreji hai) ki sankhya ke hisaab se, ghatate hue kram se, desh is prakaar hain: sanyukt raajya (21.5 karod),[20] United kingadam (6.1 karod)[21], Canada (1.82 karod)[22], Australia (1.55 karod)[23], Ireland (38 lakh),[21] dakshin Africa (37 lakh)[24] aur New Zealand (30-37 lakh)[25]. jamaika aur naaijeeriya jaise jaise deshon mein bhi laakhon ki sankhya mein kontinyuaa boli ke sthaaneeya vakta hain. yeh boli angreji aadhaarit kriyol se lekar angreji ke ek shuddh svaroop tak ka istemaal karti hai. Bhaarat mein angreji ka dviteeya bhaasha ke roop mein upayog karne vaalon ki sankhya sabse adhik hai ('bhaarateeya angreji'). kristal ka daava hai ki yadi sthaaneeya aur gair sthaaneeya vaktaaon ko jod diya jaaye to varttamaan mein Bhaarat mein angreji ko bolne aur samajhne vaalon ki sankhya vishv mein sabse adhik hai.[26] iske baad cheen ganaraajya ka number aata hai.[27]

kul vaktaaon ki sankhya ke anusaar deshon ka kram

raink desh kul janasankhya ka pratishat pratham bhaasha ek atirikt bhaasha ke roop mein janasankhya tippani
1 sanyukt raajya amarikasanyukt raajya America 251,388,301 96% 215,423,557 35,964,744 262,375,152 srot: ameriki janaganana 2000: bhaasha ka prayog aur angreji bolne ki yogyata: 2000, taibil 1. doosari bhaasha bolne vaalon ki sankhya mein ve log shaamil hain jinhonne kaha ki ve ghar par angreji ka prayog naheen karte hain parantu "achhi" tarah ya "bahut achhi" tarah ise jaante hain. not: aankadon mein 5 varsh ya usase adhik umr ke logon ko hi shaamil kiya gaya hai
2 Bhaarat 90,000,000 8% 78,598 65,000,000 dviteeya bhaasha ke roop mein bolne vaale.
25,000,000 truteeya bhaasha ke roop mein bolne vaale
1,028,737,436 aankadon mein donon shaamil hain, angreji ko doosari aur teesari bhaasha ke roop mein '''''''''bolne vaale .1991 ke aankade.[28][29] aankadon mein angreji bolne vaale shaamil hain lekin angreji ka istemaal karne vaale naheen.[30]
3 Nigeria 79,000,000 53% 4,000,000 >75,000,000 148,000,000 aankade naaijeeriya ki pigin bolne vaalon ke hain, yeh ek angreji aadhaarit pigin ya kriyol hai. iheemeyar ke anusaar 3 se 5 lakh sthaaneeya vakta hain; taalika mein is seema ke madhya bindu ka prayog kiya gaya hai. Ihemere, Kelechukwu Uchechukwu. 2006"ek buniyaadi vivran aur vishleshanaatmak upachaar sanjnyaa khand ke Nigeria pidgin mein." naurdik journal of afreekan stadeej 15 (3): 296-313
4 United kingadam 59,600,000 98% 58,100,000 1,500,000 60,000,000 srot: kristal (2005), pi. 109
5 filipeens 45,900,000 52% 27000 42500000 88000000 kul vakta : janaganana 2000, aankadon ke oopar lekhan figr 7. 5 varsh ya usase adhik aayu ke 6.67 karod logon mein se 63.71% log angreji bol sakte hain. sthaaneeya vaktaaon: janaganana 1995, Andrew gonjaalej dvaara filipeens mein bhaasha planning paristhiti mein udghrut, bahubhaashi tatha bahusaanskrutik vikaas journal, 19 (5 aur 6), 487-525(1998)
6 Canada 25,246,220 85% 17,694,830 7,551,390 29,639,030 srot: 2001 ki janaganana - gyaan raajabhaasha aur maatru bhaasha ki. is janm ka vaktaaon aankada donon French aur ek maatrubhaasha ke roop mein angreji, plas angreji ke saath 17.572.170 logon aur ek maatrubhaasha ke roop mein France ke saath naheen 122660 log shaamil hain.
7 (Australia) 18,172,989 92% 15,581,329 2,591,660 19,855,288 srot: 2006 ki janaganana.[31] yeh aankada pehli bhaasha mein vaastav mein jo keval ghar par angreji bolne Australiaee nivaasiyon ki sankhya hai angreji bolne vaalon column dikhaaya. atirikt bhaasha column "kaun" achhi tarah se "ya" bahut achhi tarah se angreji bolne ka daava anya nivaasiyon ki sankhya darshaata hai. nivaasiyon ka ek anya 5% unke ghar ya angreji bhaasha praveenata raajya naheen tha.
not: kul = pehli bhaasha + anya bhaasha; pratishat = kul / janasankhya

angreji in deshon ki praathamik bhaasha hai : enguila, enteeguaa aur baarabuda, Australia (Australian angreji), bahaama, baarabaados, baramooda, beleej (belijiya kreeol), british hind mahaasaagareeya kshetr, british varjin dweep, Canada (kanaadiyn angreji), kemain dweep, faukalaind dweep, jibraaltar, Grenada, guaam, gvernase (channel dweep angreji), guyaana, Ireland (hiberno -angreji), aail of main (maanadveep ki angreji), jamaika (jamaika angreji), jersey, monteseraat, nauroo, nyoojeelaind (New Zealand angreji), pitkern dweep, seint helena, seint kits aur nevis, seint Vincent aur the grenaadaains, Singapore,dakshin jaurjiya aur dakshin saindavich dweep, Trinidad aur Tobago, turk aur koikos dweep samooh, Britain, America varjin dweep samooh aur sanyukt raajya America.

kai anya deshon mein, jahaan angreji sarvaadhik boli jaane waali bhaasha naheen hai, yeh ek aadhikaarik bhaasha hai;ye desh hain: botsavaana, Cameroon, dominika, fiji, maaikroneshiya ke federeted raajya, Ghana, jaambiya, Bhaarat, kenya, kiribaati, lesotho, laaiberiya, maidaagaaskar, maalta, maarshal dweep, maureeshas, naameebiya, Nigeria, Pakistan, palaaoo, paapuaa new gini, fileepins (Philippine angreji), parto reeko, ravaanda, soloman dweep, seint loosiya, samoaa, seshels, siyraaleon, Sri Lanka Sri Lanka, svaajeelaind, tanjaaniya, yugaanda, jaambiya aur Zimbabwe. yeh dakshin Africa (dakshin afreeki angreji) ki 11 aadhikaarik bhaashaaon mein se ek hai jinhein baraabar ka darja diya jaata hai. angreji in jagahon ki bhi adhikaarik bhaasha hai: Australia ke maujooda nirbhar kshetron (naurafauk aailaind, christmas dweep aur kokos dweep) aur sanyukt raajya (uttari maariyaana dweep samooh, American samoaa aur parto reeko),[32] Britain ke poorv ke upanivesh haaaing kaaaing aur needaralainds entileej.

angreji United kingadam ke kai poorv upaniveshon aur sanrakshit sthaanon ki ek mahattvapoorn bhaasha hai parantu ise aadhikaarik darja praapt naheen hai. aise sthaanon mein shaamil hain: Malaysia, brunei, sanyukt arab ameeraat, bangalaadesh aur bahareen. angreji America aur Britain mein bhi adhikaarik bhaasha naheen hai.[33][34] yadyapi sanyukt raajya America ki sangheeya sarkaar ki koi aadhikaarik bhaasha naheen hai, iski 50 mein se 30 raajya sarkaaron dvaara angreji ko adhikaarik darja diya gaya hai.[35] haalaaainki angreji isaraail ki ek vidhi sammat aadhikaarik bhaasha naheen hai, lekin desh ne british janaadesh ke baad se adhikaarik bhaasha ke taur par iske vaastavik upayog ko banaaye rakha hai.[36]

angreji ek vaishvik bhaasha ke roop mein

inhein bhi dekhein: antarraashtreeya angreji evam vishv bhaasha

angreji ke prayog ke itna vistrut hone ke kaaran ise aksar "vaishvik bhaasha" bhi kaha jaata hai, aadhunik yug ki saamaanya bhaasha .[3] haalaaainki adhikaansh deshon mein yeh adhikaarik bhaasha naheen hai, fir bhi varttamaan mein duniya bhar mein aksar isko dviteeya bhaasha ke roop mein sikhaaya jaata hai. kuchh bhaashaavidon (jaise ki David graadol) ka vishvaas hai ki yeh ab "sthaaneeya angreji vaktaaon" ki saanskrutik sampatti naheen rah gayi hai, balki apne nirantar vikaas ke saath yeh duniya bhar ki sanskrutiyon ka apne mein samaayojan kar rahi hai.[3] antarraashtreeya sandhi ke dvaara yeh havaai aur samudri sanchaar ke liye aadhikaarik bhaasha hai.[37] angreji antarraashtreeya olanpik samiti sahit sanyukt raashtra aur kai anya antararaashtreeya sangathanon ki ek aadhikaarik bhaasha hai.

ek videshi bhaasha ke roop mein angreji ka sarvaadhik adhyayan Europeeya sangh mein (89% schooli bachchon dvaara) hota hai, iske baad number aata hai French (32%), jarman (18%), Spanish (8%) aur roosiyon ka; yooropiyon mein videshi bhaashaaoain ki upayogita ki dharana ka kram is prakaar hai: 68% angreji, French 25%, 22% jarman aur 16% Spanish.[38] angreji na bolne vaale Europeeya sangh ke deshon mein janasainkhya ka ek bada pratishat angreji mein baatcheet karne ka saksham hone ka daava karta hai, inka kram is prakaar hai: Netherland (87%), sveedan (85%), Denmark (83%), laksamabarg (66%), Finland (60%), sloveniya (56%), ostriya (53%), Belgium (52%) aur Germany (51%).[39] Norway aur aaisalaind bhi-saksham angreji bolne vaalon ka ek bada bahumat hai.[tathya vaanchhit]

duniya bhar ke kai deshon mein angreji mein likhit kitaabein, patrikaaen aur akhbaar upalabdh hote hain. vigyaan ke kshetr mein bhi angreji bhaasha ka hi prayog sabse adhik hota hai.[3] 1997 mein, vigyaan prashasti patra soochakaank ke anusaar uske 95% lekh angreji mein the, haalaaainki inmein se keval aadhe hi angreji bolne vaale deshon ke lekhakon ke the.

boliyaaain aur kshetreeya kismein

british saamraajya ke vistaar aur dviteeya vishv yuddh ke baad se America ke prabhutv ke kaaran duniya bhar mein angreji ka prasaar hua.[3] is vaishvik prasaar ke kaaran anek angreji boliyon aur angreji aadhaarit kreeol bhaashaaoain aur pijins ka vikaas hua.

angreji ki do shikshit sthaaneeya boliyon ko duniya ke adhikaansh hisson mein ek maanak ke taur par sveekrut kiya jaata hai- ek shikshit dakshini british par aadhaarit hai aur doosari shikshit madhyapashchimi American par aadhaarit hai. pehle vaale ko kabhi kabhaar BBC (ya raani ki) angreji kaha jaata hai, "praapt uchchaaran" ke prati apne jhukaav ki vajah se yeh kabeele gaur hai; yeh Cambridge model ka anusaran karti hai. yeh model Europe, Africa bhaarateeya upamahaadveep aur anya kshetron jo ki ya to british raashtramandal se prabhaavit hain ya fir America ke saath pahachaanakrut hone ke unichchuk hain, mein anya bhaashaaoain ko bolne vaalon ko angreji sikhaane ke liye ek maanak ke taur par kaam karti hai. baad waali boli, general ameriki, sanyukt raajya America aur Canada ke adhikaansh hisson mein faili hui hai. yeh ameriki mahaadveepon aur America ke nikat sambandh mein rahe athva usaki ichha rakhane vaale kshetron (jaise ki fileepeens) ke liye ek model ke taur par istemaal hoti hai. in do pramukh boliyon ke aalaava angreji ki anek kismein hain, jinme se adhikaansh mein kai up-prakaar shaamil hain, jaise ki british angreji ke tahat kokani, skaaus aur jiordi; kanaadiyn angreji ke tahat nyoofaaundalaind angreji; aur ameriki angreji ke tahat afreekan American sthaaneeya angreji ("eboniks") aur dakshini ameriki angreji. angreji ek bahukeindrit bhaasha hai aur ismein France ki 'ekedimiya fraankaai' ki tarah koi kendreeya bhaasha praadhikran naheen hai; isliye kisi ek kism ko "sahi" athva "galat" naheen maana jaata hai.

skauts ka vikaas, mukhyat: svatantr roop se[tathya vaanchhit], samaan mool se hua tha lekin sangh ke adhiniyam 1707(Acts of Union 1707) ke pashchaat bhaasha sangharshan ki ek prakriya aarambh hui jiske tahat uttarottar peedhiyon ne angreji ke jyaada se jyaada lakshanon ko apnaaya iske parinaamasvaroop yeh angreji ki ek boli ke roop mein viksit ho gayi. varttamaan mein is baat par vivaad chal raha hai ki yeh ek pruthak bhaasha hai athva angreji ki ek boli maatr hai jise skautish angreji ka naam diya gaya hai. paaramparik prakaaron ke uchchaaran, vyaakaran aur shabd bhandaar angreji ki anya kismon se bhinn, kabhi kabhaar bhaari maatra mein, hain.

angreji ke doosari bhaasha ke roop mein vyaapak prayog ke kaaran iske vaktaaon ke lahajebhi bhinn prakaar ke hote hain jinse vakta ki sthaaneeya boli athva bhaasha ka pata chalta hai. kshetreeya lahajon ki adhik vishisht visheshataaon ke liye 'angreji ke kshetreeya lahajon' ko dekhein aur kshetreeya boliyon ki adhik vishisht visheshataaon ke liye angreji bhaasha ki boliyon ki soochi ko dekhein. England mein, vyaakaran ya shabdakosh ke bajaay antar ab uchchaaran tak hi seemit rah gaya hai. angreji boliyon ke sarvekshan ke dauraan desh bhar mein vyaakaran aur shabkosh mein bhinnata pai gayi, parantu shabd bhandaaran ke etrishn ki ek prakriya ke kaaran adhikaansh bhinnataaen samaapt ho gayi hain.[40]

jis prakaar angreji ne apne itihaas ke dauraan swayam duniya ke kai hisson se shabdon ka istemaal kiya hai, usi prakaar angreji ke udhaarashabd bhi duniya ki kai bhaashaaoain mein dikhaai dete hain. yeh iske vaktaaon ke takaneeki aur saanskrutik prabhaav ko ingit karta hai. angreji aadhaarit anek pijin aur kreol bhaashaaoain ka gathan kiya gaya hai, jaise ki jamaikan petois, naaijeeriyn pijin aur tok pisin. angreji shabdon ki bharamaar waali gair angreji bhaashaaoain ke prakaaron ka varnan karne ke liye angreji bhaasha mein anek shabdon ki rachana ki gayi hai.

angreji ki nirmaan kismein

  • buniyaadi angreji ka aasaan antararaashtreeya upayog ke liye saraleekaran kiya gaya hai. nirmaata aur anya antararaashtreeya vyavasaaya mainual likhne aur samvaad karne ke liye buniyaadi angreji ka prayog karte hain. Asia mein kuchh school iska upayog nausikhiyon ko vyavahaarik angreji sikhaane ke liye karte hain.
  • kriya too bi ke prakaar E-prime mein shaamil naheen hote hain.
  • angreji sudhaar angreji bhaasha ko behtar banaane ka ek saamoohik prayaas hai.
  • manushya dvaara kodit angreji – angreji bhaasha ko hast sanketon dvaara darshaane ke liye anek pranaaliyaaain viksit ki gayi hain jinka upayog mukhyataya badhiron ki shiksha ke liye kiya jaata hai. englofon deshon mein prayukt british saanketik bhaasha aur ameriki saanketik bhaasha se inko bhramit naheen karna chaahiye. ye saanketik bhaashaaeain svatantr hain aur angreji par aadhaarit naheen hain.
  • vishisht kshetron mein antarraashtreeya sahayog aur sanchaar ke sahaayataarth, 1980 ke dashak mein Edward Johnson dvaara seemit shabdakosh par aadhaarit seespeek aur sambandhit eyaraspeek aur pulisspeek ki rachana ki gayi thi. channel surang mein prayog ke liye ek tanalaspeek bhi hai.
  • vishesh angreji vois of amerikaadvaara prayukt angreji ka ek saraleekrut sanskaran hai yeh sirf 1500 shabdon ki shabdaavali ka prayog karta hai.

dhvaneejnyaaan

svar

IPA vivran hindi uchchaaran (lagbhag) angreji shabd angreji speling ke akshar
en:monophthongs
i/iː en:Close front unrounded vowel E machine e, ee, ea, ie, i, ey, eo
ɪ en:Near-close near-front unrounded vowel i bit i, e, y, a, u, ee, ey, ia, ai, ui, ei
ɛ en:Open-mid front unrounded vowel *chhota ऍ red e, ea, a, u, ie, ei, ai, ay
æ en:Near-open front unrounded vowel *ai cat a
ɒ en:Open back rounded vowel *chhota o hot o, ua, au, ou, ow
ɔ en:Open-mid back rounded vowel *au c'aught a, or, our, ore, ough, oor, aw, al, oar, ough, o, ar
ɑ/ɑaaː en:Open back unrounded vowel aa father a, au, e, ea
ʊ en:Near-close near-back rounded vowel u put u, o, ou, oo, oe
u/uː en:Close back rounded vowel oo rule u, oo, o, ou, ui, ew, eau, oe, wo
ʌ/ɐ en:Open-mid back unrounded vowel, en:Near-open central vowel *chhota aa cut u, o, ou, oo, oe
ɝ/ɜaaː en:Open-mid central unrounded vowel lamba a bird er, ir, ur, or, ear, our
ə en:Schwa a above a, ar, e, er, o (unstressed)
ɨ en:Close central unrounded vowel *chhota i rosez es, i
en:diphthongs
en:Close-mid front unrounded vowel
en:Close front unrounded vowel
*ei gate a, ay, ai, ey, ea
oʊ/əaaʊ en:Close-mid back rounded vowel
en:Near-close near-back rounded vowel
*ou home o, ow, oa, ou
en:Open front unrounded vowel
en:Near-close near-front rounded vowel
aai time i, y, igh, ei, uy
en:Open front unrounded vowel
en:Near-close near-back rounded vowel
aau house ou, ow
ɔaaɪ en:Open-mid back rounded vowel
en:Close front unrounded vowel
*oi spoil oi, oy

vyanjan

bilabial oshthya Labiodental dantyoshthya dental dantya alveolar vartsya post-
alveolar para-varts
palatal taalavya velar kanthya glottal kaakalya
plosive sparsh p p b b t *t--t d *the--d k k g g
nasal anunaasik m m n na ŋ ङ
flap utkshipit ɾ *r
fricative sangharshi f *f v *va θ *th ð *the s s z *za ʃ *sh ʒ *shjh h *h
affricate sparsh-sangharshi tʃ *ch dʒ *j
en:approximant ardhasvar w *va ɹ *r j ya
lateral approximant paarshvik l l, ɫ *l

yahaaain * ka arth un svaron par nishaan lagaana hai jo hindi ke dhvani-tantr mein naheen hote, ya jinka shuddh uchchaaran adhikaansh bhaarateeya naheen kar paate.

dhvani-aksharamaala sambandh

IPA varnmaala ka akshar anya boliyon mein
p p
b b
t t, th (rarely) thyme, Thames th thing (African-American, New York)
d d th that (African-American, New York)
k c (+ a, o, u, consonants), k, ck, ch, qu (rarely) conquer, kh (in foreign words)
g g, gh, gu (+ a, e, i), gue (final position)
m m
n n
ŋ n (before g or k), ng
f f, ph, gh (final, infrequent) laugh, rough th thing (many forms of English used in England)
v v th with (en:Cockney, en:Estuary English)
θ th : there is no obvious way to identify which is which from the spelling.
ð
s s, c (+ e, i, y), sc (+ e, i, y)
z z, s (finally or occasionally medially),


sapra-segmeintal visheshataaeain

ton samooh

angreji ek intoneshan bhaasha hai. iska arth yeh hai ki vaani ke utaar chadhaav ko paristhiti ke anusaar istemaal kiya jaata hai. udahaaran ke taur par, aashcharya athva vyangya vyakt karna, ya ek vaktavya ko prashn mein badalna.

angreji mein, intoneshan paitarn shabdon ke samooh par hote hain jinhein ton samooh, ton ikaai, intoneshan samooh ya indriya samoohon ke naam se jaana jaata hai. ton samoohon ko ek hi saans mein kaha jaata hai, is kaaran se inki lambaai seemit rahati hai. ye ausatan paanch shabd lambe hote hain aur lagbhag do second mein khtam ho jaate hain. udaaharan ke liye (praapt uchchaaran mein bola gaya):

/duː juː niːaad ˈaaɛaanɪaaˌaaθaaɪaaŋ/doo you need enithing ?
/aɪ dəaaʊaant | nəaaʊ/I dont, no
/aɪ dəaaʊaant nəaaʊ/I dont no (udahaaran ke liye, ghataakar, -[220]ya [221]/ dnno aam bolachaal ki bhaasha mein, yahaaain dont aur no ke beech ke antar ko aur adhik ghata diya gaya hai)

intoneshan ke abhilkshan

angreji ek bahut jor de kar bolne waali bhaasha hai. shabdon aur vaakyon, donon ke kuchh shabdaanshon ko uchchaaran ke samay apekshaakrut adhik mahattv/ jor milta hai jabki anya ko naheen. pehle prakaar ke shabdaanshon ko ekseinchueted/ stresd kaha jaata hai aur baad vaalon ko anaekseinchueted/ anastresd .

is prakaar ek vaakya mein pratyek ton samooh ko shabdaanshon mein vibhaajit kiya ja sakta hai jo ki ya to stresd (shaktishaali) honge ya anastresd (kamjor). stresd shabdaansh nyookliyr shabdaansh kaha jaata hai. udaaharan ke liye:

dait

vaas the best thing you kud hev dan !'

yahaan saare shabdaansh anastresd hain, sivaaya best aur dan ke, jo ki stresd hain. best par jor (stres) thoda adhik diya gaya hai isliye yeh nyookliyr shabdaansh hai.

nyookliyr shabdaansh vakta ke mukhya bindu ka varnan karta hai. udaaharan ke liye:

jon ne us paise ko naheen churaaya hai. (... (kisi aur ne.)
jon ne us paise ko naheen churaaya hai. (... kisi ne kaha ki usane hi churaaya hai. ya ...us samay naheen, par baad mein usane aisa kiya.)
jon ne us paise ko naheen churaaya hai. (... usane paison ko kisi aur tareeke se haasil kiya hai.)
jon ne us paise ko naheen churaaya hai. (... usane koi anya paison ko churaaya hai.)
jon ne us paise ko naheen churaaya hai. (... vah kuchh aur chori kiya tha.)

yeh bhi

mainne use vah naheen bataaya. (... use kisi aur ne bataaya.)
mainne use vah naheen bataaya.(... tumane kaha tha ki mainne bataaya. ya ...ab main bataaungi)
mainne use vah naheen bataaya .(... mainne aisa naheen kaha; usane aisa matlab nikal liya hoga, aadi)
mainne use vah naheen bataaya.(... mainne kisi aur ko kaha)
mainne use vah naheen bataaya.(... mainne use use kuchh aur kaha)

yeh bhaavana vyakt karne ke liye bhi istemaal kiya ja sakta hai:

oh sachmuch? (...mujhe yeh naheen pata tha)
oh, sachmuch ? (...mujhe tumapar vishvaas naheen hai. ya ... yeh to ekdam spasht hai)

nyookliyr shabdaanshon ko jyaada ooainche svar mein bola jaata hai aur inko bolne ke lahaje mein ek vishisht badlaav hota hai. is lahaje ke sabse saamaanya badlaav hain aavaaj ko ooaincha karna (rising pitch) aur aavaaj ko nicha karna (falling pitch) , haalaaainki girti-chadhti aavaaj (fall-rising pitch) aur chadhti-girti aavaaj (rise-falling pitch) ka bhi yada kada istemaal hota hai. anya bhaashaaoain ki apeksha angreji bhaasha mein aavaaj ko ooaincha aur neecha karne ka mahattv kaheen adhik hai. neechi aavaaj mein bolna nishchitta darshaata hai aur ooainchi aavaaj mein bolna anishchitta. iska arth par ek mahattvapoorn prabhaav pad sakta hai, khaaskar sakaaraatmak athva nakaaraatmak drushtikon ko darshaane mein; neechi aavaaj mein bolne ka matlab hai aapka "drushtikon (sakaaraatmak/ nakaaraatmak) gyaat" hai aur chadhti hui aavaaj ka matlab "drushtikon agyaat" hai. haaain/ naheen vaale prashnon ki chadhti hui aavaaj ke peechhe bhi yahi hai. udaaharan ke liye:

aap bhugataan kab paana chaahate hain?
abhi ? (ooainchi aavaaj. is maamale mein yeh ek prashn ko darshaata hai: "kya mera bhugataan abhi kiya ja sakta hai?" ya "kya abhi bhugataan karne ki aapki ichha hai?")
abhi. (girti aavaaj. is maamale mein yeh ek vaktavya ko darshaata hai: "meri ichha abhi bhugataan paane ki hai.")

svar

inhein bhi dekhein: IPA chart for English dialects

svar pratyek kshetr mein bhinn bhinn hote hain.

jahaaain prateek jode mein drushya hain, pehla ameriki angreji ke saamaanya ameriki uchchaaran se mel khaata hai, doosra british angreji ke praapt uchchaaran se mel khaata hai.

IPA vivran shabd
monofthongs
i(ː) band mukh agolaakar svar bi saaaincha:Bold dark reddi
ɪ nikat-band nikat-mukh agolaakar svar bi saaaincha:Bold dark reddi
ɛ khula-madhya mukh agolaakar svar bi saaaincha:Bold dark reddi
æ nikat-khula mukh agolaakar svar bi saaaincha:Bold dark reddi
ɒ khula pichhla golaakaar svar bi saaaincha:Bold dark redeks[vn 1]
ɔ(ː) khula-madhya pichhla golaakaar svar bi saaaincha:Bold dark redeks[vn 2]
ɑ(ː) khula pichhla agolaakar svar beeaar saaaincha:Bold dark red
ʊ nikat-band nikat-pichhla svar ji saaaincha:Bold dark reddi
u(ː) band pichhla golaakaar svar bi saaaincha:Bold dark reded[vn 3]
ʌ khula-madhya pichhla agolaakar svar, nikat- khula kendreeya svar bi saaaincha:Bold dark reddi
ɝ/ɜaaː khula-madhya kendreeya agolaakar svar bi saaaincha:Bold dark reddi[vn 4]
ə schva Ros[128]'s[vn 5]
ɨ band kendreeya agolaakar svar aar O S saaaincha:Bold dark redes[vn 5][vn 6]
dipthongs
e(ɪ)/eɪ band -madhya mukh agolaakar svar
band mukh agolaakar svar
b[138]ed[vn 7]
o(ʊ)/əaaʊ band -madhya pichhla golaakaar svar
nikat-band nikat-pichhla svar
b[145]de[vn 7]
khula mukh agolaakar svar
nikat-band nikat-mukh agolaakar svar
cr[148][vn 8]
khula mukh agolaakar svar
nikat-band nikat-pichhla svar
c[151]
ɔaaɪ khula-madhya pichhla golaakaar svar
band mukh agolaakar svar
b[153]
ʊaaɚ/ʊaaə nikat-band nikat-pichhla svar
schva
b[155][vn 9]
ɛaaɚ/ɛaaə khula-madhya mukh agolaakar svar
schva
f[160][vn 10]

tippaniyaaain

  1. [94] ^ kuchh ameriki angreji boliyon mein is dhvani ka abhaav hota hai ; is dhvani vaale shabdon ka uchchaaran /ɑ/ ya /ɔ/ke saath hota hai.dekhein, "laut-kloth split"
  2. [97] ^ uttari ameriki angreji ki kuchh boliyon mein yeh svar naheen hota hai. dekhein "cot-caught merger"
  3. [121] ^ akshar <you> pratinidhitv kar sakta hain /u/ya aayoteted svar ka/ju/ BRP, agar yeh aayoteted svar /ju/ [108], ke baad /t/ /d/ /s/ ya /z/ yeh aksar vyanjan, poorvavarti [111] ke liye, [112], ise badal ke /ʨ/ /ʥ/ /ɕ/ aur /ʑ/ kramash, tayoon, dyooring, shugar aur ejyoor. ameriki angreji mein, peletalaaijeshan aamtaur par jab tak ki [115 naheen hota] r dvaara /ju/ jaata hai, parinaam hai ki [116 ke saath] [117] /(t, d,s, z)jur/ baari /tʃaaɚ/ /dʒaaɚ/ /ʃaaɚ/ /ʒaaɚ/ kramash, nechar verdyoor shyor aur trejr.
  4. [126] ^ is aavaaj ke uttari ameriki bhinnaroop ek rotik svar hai.
  5. a aa [130] ^ uttari ameriki angreji ke kai vakta in do nirbal svar ke beech antar naheen karte hain. un ke liye, gulaab aur roja ka uchchaaran ek hi tarah se kiya jaata hai aur prateek aamtaur par istemaal kiya schva /ə/
  6. [136] ^ yeh aavaaj aksar /i/ ya /ɪ/ traansakraaib ki jaati hai.
  7. a aa [143] ^ difthongs /eɪ/ aur /oʊ/ kai ameriki general vaktaaon ke liye, /eː/ ke roop /eː/ aur /oː/ monofthongal rahe /oː/
  8. [149] ^ svar lanbaai aur angreji boliyon ke bahumat mein ek dhvanyaatmak bhoomika nibhaata hai Australia aur New Zealand angreji jaise kuchh boliyon mein fonemik hone ke liye kaha hai. aadhunik angreji bhaasha ke kuchh boliyon mein, udaaharan ke liye saamaanya ameriki mein, vahaaain allofonik svar lanbaai hoti hai: svar fonemes ek shabdaansh ke koda mein aavaaj uthaai vyanjan fonemes pehle lambe svar allofones ke roop mein mahasoos kar rahe hain. mahaan svar shift se pehle, svar lanbaai fonemikli kontraastiv tha.
  9. [158] ^ yeh dhvani keval gair mein hota hai-rotik lahaja kuchh lahajon mein, yeh dhvani ho sakta hai [156] /ɔaaː/ iske bajaay /ʊaaə/ dekho angreji-aitihaasik r pehle bhaasha svar parivartan.
  10. [163] ^ yeh dhvani keval gair rotik lahajon mein hoti hai. kuchh lahajon mein, [161] ke schva ofglaaid /ɛaaə/ chhode ja sakte hain, dhvani ko /ɛaaː/ mein monofthaaij aur lamba karke.

vyanjan

yeh angreji vyanjan pranaali hai jo antarraashtreeya dhvanyaatmak varnamaala(IPA) se prateekon ka prayog kar rahi hai.

bilaabiyl lebiyo - deintal deintal elviolar post - elviolar peletal velar lebial - velar glottal
nejal m n ŋ[167][cn 1][169]
plosiv p b t d k ɡ
efriket [173][cn 2]
friketiv f v θ ð[cn 3] s z [181][cn 2] [183][cn 4] [185][cn 5] h
flep ɾ[cn 6]
eproksimeint [195][cn 2] j [198][cn 7]
letaral l

tippaniyaaain

  1. [169] ^ kuchh uttari british lahajon mein velar nesal [ŋ] /n/ ka gair fonemik elofon hai, jo keval /k/ aur /g/ ke pehle aata hai. haalaanki yeh sirf shabdaansh koda mein hota hai anya sabhi boliyon mein yeh ek alag fonem, hai
  2. a aa i [176] ^ dhvani /ʃ/, /ʒ/, and /ɹ/ kuchh boliyon mein lebialaaisd hoti hai. lebialaaijeshan praarambhik sthiti mein kabhi kantrastiv naheen hota hai isliye kabhi kabhi ise transkraaib naheen karte hain. ameriki general ke adhikaansh vaktaaon ehsaas <r> (hamesha) ka retrofleks epproksimant [175] ke roop mein, /ɻ/ usi jabki skautish angreji, is dantaulookhal tril aadi ke roop mein mahasoos kiya hai.
  3. [179] ^ kuchh boliyon mein, kokani, intaradeintals / θ jaise / aur / ð / aamtaur / ch ke saath vilay kar rahe hain / aur / doosaron / aur dh, afreeki ameriki deshi bhaasha angreji, jaise / ð / ke saath vilay kar diya hai dant / gh /. kuchh aayarish prakaaron mein /θ/ aur /ð/ sambandhit deintal plosivs ban jaate hain, jo aam elviolar plosivs se kantraast khaate hain.
  4. [184] ^ dhvani rahit peletiv friketiv /ç/ adhikaansh lahajon mein /j/ se pehle /h/ ka elofon maatr hai. udahaaran, hyooman /çaajuːaaməaan/. haalaanki, kuchh lahajon mein (isedekhein), /j/ chhod diya jaata hai, lekin praarambhik vyanjan samaan rahata hai.
  5. [191] ^ bejbaan frikaativ velar / x/ skautish ya skauts ke liye angreji ka velsh vaktaaon dvaara prayog kiya jaata hai / gelik shabdon jheel jaise [186] ya /lɒaax/ se udhar shabd aur hibroo bak tarah ke liye kuchh vaktaaon /bax/ ya chaanuka dvaara / jaanuka/x / ex / bhi dakshin afreeki angreji mein kiya jaata hai. kuchh boliyon jaise ki skaaus(liverpool) ya [x]ya efriket[kx] /k/ ke elofon ki tarah istemaal ho sakte hain, udahaaran dokar . [dɒaakxə]adhikaansh sthaaneeya vaktaaon ko videshi bhaasha seekhate vakt iske uchchaaran ke liye khaasi mashakkat karni padti hai. adhikaansh vaktaaon ne aavaaj [k] aur [j] ka prayog karte hain.
  6. The alveolar tap [ɾ] is an allophone of /t/ and /d/ in unstressed syllables in North American English and Australian English.[41] This is the sound of tt or dd in the words latter and ladder, which are homophones for many speakers of North American English. In some accents such as Scottish English and Indian English it replaces /ɹ/. This is the same sound represented by single r in most varieties of Spanish.
  7. [200] ^ bejbaan W [ʍ] skautish aur aayarish angreji mein paaya jaata hai, saath hi mein America, New Zealand aur Britain ki angreji ki kuchh kismon mein. adhikaansh boliyon mein ise /w/ ke saath mila diya jaata hai, skots ki kuchh boliyon mein ise /f/ ke saath mila diya jaata hai.

vaani aur espireshans

angreji mein staap vyanjanon ki vaani aur espireshans boli aur sandarbh par nirbhar karti hai, lekin kuchh hi saamaanya niyam diye ja sakte hain:

  • bejbaan plosivs aur efrikets(/[203]/, /[204]/, /[205]/ aur /[206]/) ko espireted tab karte hain jab ve shabd ki shuruaat mein hote hain athva stresd shabdaansh ko shuroo karte vakt [207] tulana karein pin [208] aur spin [209], krep [210] aur skrep [211].
    • kuchh boliyon mein, espireshans ki pahuainch tanaavarahit shabdaanshon tak bhi hoti hai.
    • anya boliyon mein, jaise ki bhaarateeya angreji, sabhi vaaneerahit avarodh gair espireted rahate hain.
  • kuchh boliyon mein shabd-aaranbhik vaaneekrut plosivs vaaneerahit ho sakte hain.
  • shabd-terminal vaani rahit plosivs kuchh boliyon mein glotal staap ke saath paae ja sakte hain; udahaaran; tape tʰaaæaap̚[212], sek sæaak̚[213]
  • shabd-terminal vaaneekrut plosivs kuchh boliyon mein vaani rahit bhi ho sakte hain (udahaaran, ameriki angreji ki kuchh kismein)[214] udahaaran: sed 215, beg 216.anya boliyon mein, antim sthaan par ve poornataya vaaneekrut hote hain, lekin shuruaati sthaan par keval aanshik roop se vaaneekrut hote hain.

vyaakaran

anya indo-yooropiyn bhaashaaoain ki tulana mein angreji mein nyoonatam mod(ghumaav/badlaav) hote hain. udaaharan ke liye, aadhunik jarman ya dach aur romance bhaashaaon ke vipreet aadhunik angreji mein ling vyaakaran aur visheshan samjhaute ka abhaav hai. case maarking (ankan) bhaasha se lagbhag gaayab ho chuki hai aur aaj iska istemaal mukhya roop se sarvanaam mein hi kiya jaata hai. jarmanik mool se praapt majaboot (speek/spok/spoken) banaam kamjor kriya ke svaroop ka aadhunik angreji mein mahattv ghaat gaya hai aur ghumaav ke avasheshon (jaise ki bahuvachan ankan) ka upayog badh gaya hai.

varttamaan mein bhaasha adhik vishleshanaatmakaban gayi hai aur arth spasht karne ke liyedyotak kriya aur shabd kram jaise saadhanon ka vikaas hua hai. sahaayak kriyaayein prashnon, nakaaraatmakata, paisiv vois aur pragatisheel pahaluon ko darshaati hain.

shabdaavali

chooainki angreji ek jarmanik bhaasha hai, usaki adhiktar dainik upayog ki shabdaavali praacheen jarman se aayi hai. iske atirikt bhi angreji mein kai rinashabd hain. ek sarvekshan ke anusaar sthiti ye hai :

angreji ke mool shabd lagbhag 10,000 hain

angreji shabdaavali sadiyaaain beetane ke saath kaafi badal gayi hai.[42]

Wiktionary-logo-en.png
Appendix:List of Proto-Indo-European roots ko vikshanari,
ek mukt shabdakosh mein dekhein.

proto-indo-yooropiyn(PIE) se nikli anek bhaashaaoain ki tarah angreji ke sabse aam shabdon ke mool (jarmanik shaakha ke dvaara) ko PIE mein khoja ja sakta hai. in shabdon mein shaamil hain buniyaadi sarvanaam ' jaise I, puraani angreji ke shabd aaisi se, (cf. laitin igo, greek igo, sanskrut aham), mi (cf. laitin mi, greek ime, sanskrut mam), sankhyaayein (udahaaran, van, too, three, cf. laitin unas, dyooo, tres, greek oinos "S (paanse par)", dyooo, trees), saamaanya paarivaarik sambandh jaise ki maata, pita, bhaai, bahan aadi (cf. greek "meetar", laitin "maatar" sanskrut "maatr"; maata), kai jaanvaron ke naam (cf. sanskrut moos, greek miss, laitin mus ; maaus) aur kai aam kriyaayein (cf. greek gignomi, laitin nosiyr, hitti kens ; too no).

jarmenik shabd (aamtaur par puraani angreji aur kuchh kam had tak naurs mool ke shabd) angreji ke laitin shabdon se jyaada chhote hote hain aur saamaanya bolachaal mein inka upayog jyaada aam hai. ismein lagbhag sabhi buniyaadi sarvanaam, poorvasarg, sanyojak, dyotak kriyaayein aadi shaamil hain jo ki angreji ke buniyaadi vaakyavinyaas aur vyaakaran ko banaati hain. lambe laitin shabdon ko aksar jyaada alankrut aur shikshit maana jaata hai. haalaaainki laitin shabdon ke jarurat se jyaada prayog ko dikhaavati athva mudda chhipaane ki ek koshish maana jaata hai. jorj oravel ka nibandh "raajaneeti aur angreji" is cheej aur bhaasha ke anya kathit duroopayogon ki aalochna karta hai. is nibandh ko angreji bhaasha ki ek mahattvapoorn sameeksha maana jaata hai.

ek angreji bhaashi ko laitin aur jarmenik paryaayavaachiyon mein se chayan karne ki suvidha milti hai: kam ya eraaiv ; saait ya vijn ; freedom ya librti . kuchh maamalon mein, ek jarmenik vyutpann shabd (ovarasi), ek laitin vyutpann shabd (suparavaaij) aur samaan laitin shabd (sarve) se vyutpann ek French shabd mein se chayan karne ka vikalp rahata hai. vividh arthon aur baareekiyon ko samete ye paryaayavaachi shabd vaktaaon ko baareek bhed aur vichaaron ki bhinnata ko vyakt karne mein sahaayak hote hain. paryaayavaachi shabd samoohon ke itihaas ka gyaan angraji vakta ko apnibhaasha par adhik niyantran pradaan kar sakta hai.dekhein: angreji mein jarmenik aur laitin samakakshon ki soochi.

is baat ka ek apavaad aur ek visheshata hai jo shaayad keval angraji bhaasha mein hi pai jaati hai. vah yeh hai ki, gosht ki sanjnyaa aamtaur par use pradaan karne vaale jaanavar ki sanjnyaa se bhinn aur asanbandhit hoti hai. jaanavar ka aamtaur par jarmenik naam hota hai aur gosht ka French se vyutpann hota hai. udahaaran, hirn aur venisn ; gaaya aur beef ; sooar/pig aur pork, tatha bhed aur matan . ise naurman aakraman ka parinaam maana jaata hai, jahaaain englo-seksan nimn varg dvaara pradaan kiye gaye gosht ko French bolne vaale abhijaat varg ke log khaate the.[tathya vaanchhit]

kisi bahas ke dauraan apni baat ko seedhe taur par prakat karne ke liye vakta in shabdon ka istemaal karna pasand karte hain kyonki anaupachaarik parivesh mein prayukt adhikaansh shabd aamtaur par jarmenik hote hain. adhikaansh laitin shabdon ka prayog aamtaur par aupachaarik bhaashan athva lekhan mein hota hai, jaise ki ek adaalat athva ek vishvakosh lekh.[tathya vaanchhit] haalaaainki anya laitin shabd bhi hain jinka upayog aamtaur par saamaanya bolachaal mein kiya jaata hai aur ve jyaada aupachaarik bhi prateet naheen hote hain; ye shabd mukhyata avadhaaranaaon ke liye hain jinka koi jarmenik shabd ab naheen bacha hai. sandarbh se inka taalamel behtar hota hai aur kai maamalon mein ye laitin bhi prateet naheen hote hain. udahaaran, ye sabhi shabd laitin hain: pahaad, taraai, nadi, chaachi, chaacha, chalana, upayog dhakka aur rahana .

angreji aasaani se takaneeki shabdon ko sveekaar karti hai aur aksar nae shabdon aur vaakyon ko aayaat bhi karti hai. iske udahaaran hain, samakaaleen shabd jaise ki kooki, intaranet aur URL (takaneeki shabd),jenar, uber, linguaa fraanka aur emigo (French, itaalavi, jarman aur Spanish se kramash: aayaatit shabd). iske alaava, theth shabd (slaing) aksar puraane shabdon aur vaakyaanshon ko naya arth pradaan karte hain. vaastav mein, yeh dravyata itni spasht hai ki angreji ke samakaaleen upayog aur uske aupachaarik prakaaron mein aksar bhed karne ki aavashyakta hoti hai.

inhein bhi dekhein: saamaajik bhaasha gyaan

angreji mein shabdon ki sankhya

Oxford angreji shabdakosh ka shuruaati spashteekaran : saaaincha:Bquote

angreji shabdaavali beshak vishaal hai, parantu isko ek sankhya pradaan karna ganana se adhik paribhaasha ke tahat aayega. French, jarman, itaalavi aur Spanish bhaashaaoain ke vipreet, angreji bhaasha ke liye adhikaarik taur par sveekrut shabdon aur maatraaon ko paribhaashit karne ke liye koi academy naheen hai. chikitsa, vigyaan, praudyogiki aur anya kshetron mein niyamit roop se niolojijm gadhe ja rahe hain aur nae slaing nirantar viksit ho rahe hain. inmein se kuchh nae shabdon ka vyaapak ietemaal hota hai; anya chhote daayaron tak hi seemit rahate hain. apravaasi samudaayon mein prayukt videshi shabd aksar vyaapak angreji upayog mein apna sthaan bana lete hain. praacheen, upaboli aur kshetreeya shabdon ko vyaapak taur par "angreji" kaha bhi ja sakta hai aur naheen bhi.

Oxford angreji shabdakosh, dviteeya sanskaran (OED2) mein 6 lakh se adhik paribhaashaaen shaamil hain, jyaada hi samagr niti ka anusaran karte hue:

saaaincha:Bquote

vebastar ke teesare nae antarraashtreeya shabdakosh, bina chhantani ke (475,000 pramukh shabd), ke sampaadkon ne apni prastaavana mein is sankhya ke kaheen adhik hone ka anumaan lagaaya hai. aisa anumaan hai ki lagbhag 25,000 shabd har saal bhaasha mein judte hain.[43]

shabdon ke mool

French prabhaav ka ek parinaam yeh hai ki kuchh had tak angreji ki shabdaavali jarmenik (uttari jarmenik shaakha ke laghu prabhaav vaale mukhyataya pashchimi jarmenik shabd) aur laitin (laitin vyutpann, seedhe taur par athva naurman French ya anya romance bhaashaaoain se) shabdon mein vibhaajit ho gayi hai.

angreji ke 1000 sabse aam shabdon mein se 83% aur 100 sabse aam mein se poore 100 jarmenik hain.[44] iske ulat, vigyaan, darshan, ganit jaise vishyon ke adhik unnat shabdon mein se adhikaansh laitin athva greek se aaye hain. khagol vigyaan, ganit aur rasaayan vigyaan se ullekhaneeya sankhya mein shabd arabi se aaye hain.

angreji shabdaavali ke anupaati moolon ko pradarshit karne ke liye anek aankade prastut kiye gaye hain. adhikaansh bhaashaavidon ke anusaar abhi tak iname se koi bhi nishchit naheen hai.

Thomas finkeinstaat aur deetar volf (1973)[45] dvaara aurdard profyujn mein puraani laghu Oxford dikshanari (truteeya sanskaran) ke lagbhag 80,000 shabdon ka kampyootareekrut sarvekshan prakaashit hua tha, isne angreji shabdon ki utpatti ka anumaan is prakaar lagaaya tha:

angreji shabdaavali mein prabhaav
  • Langue d'oïal, French aur puraane norman sahit: 28,3%
  • laiteen, aadhunik vaigyaanik aur takaneeki laatin sahit: 28.24%
  • anya jarmenik bhaashaaon(puraani angreji se seedhe viraasat mein mile shabdon sahit): 25%
  • greek: 5.32%
  • bina kisi itihaas ke : 4.03%
  • asli naamon se vyutpann: 3.28%
  • anya sabhi bhaashaaon ka yogadaan 1% se kam hai.

Joseph M. Williams dvaara orijins of the english laingvej mein hajaaron vyavasaayik patron se liye gaye 10,000 shabdon ke ek sarvekshan ne ye aankade prastut kiye:[46]

  • French (langue d'oïal): 41%
  • "mool" angreji: 33%
  • laatin: 15%
  • old naurs: 2%
  • dach: 1%
  • anya: 10%

dach mool

nausena, jahaajon ke prakaar, anya vastuen aur jal kriyaaon ka varnan karne vaale anek shabd dach mool ke hain. udahaaran, yaut (jaat), skipr (shipr) aur kroosar (kroosar). dach ka angreji slaing mein bhi yogadaan hai, udahaaran, spook, ab aprachalit shabd snaaidar (daraji) aur stivr (chhota sikka).

French mool

angreji shabdaavali ka ek bada hissa French (Langues d'oïal) mool ka hai, adhikaansh shabd englo-naurman se nikal kar aaye hain. englo-naurman bhaasha naurman ki England vijay ke baad uchch vargon dvaara saikadon saalon tak boli jaati thi. udahaaran, kompateeshan, Art, table, pablisiti, polis, rol, roteen, machine, fors, aur anek anya shabd jinka angrejeekaran ya to ho chuka hai ya ho raha hai; kai ka uchchaaran ab French ke bajaay angreji ke dhvani vigyaan ke niyamon ke tahat kiya jaata hai (kuchh apavaad bhi hain, jaise ki feked aur afeyar di siur).

lekhan pranaali

nauveen shataabdi ke aaspaas se angreji ke lekhan ke liye englo-seksan roons ke sthaan par laitin varnamaala ka prayog ho raha hai. vartani pranaali, athva orthograafi, bahustareeya hai. ismein sthaaneeya jarmenik pranaali ke oopar French, greek aur laitin vartani ke tatv shaamil hain; bhaasha ke dhvani vigyaan se yeh kaafi hat gaya hai. shabdon ke uchchaaran aur unki vartani mein aksar kaafi antar paaya jaata hai.

haalaaainki akshar aur dhvani alagaav mein mel naheen khaate hain, fir bhi shabd sanrachana, dhvani aur lahajon ko dhyaan mein rakhakar banaaye gaye vartani niyam 75% vishvasaneeya hain.[47] kuchh dhvanyaatmak vartani adhivktaaon ka daava hai ki angreji 80% se jyaada dhvanyaatmak hai.[48] haalaaainki anya bhaashaaoain ki apeksha angreji mein akshar aur dhvani ke beech sambandh utana pragaadh naheen hai; udahaaran, dhvani anukram aaugh ko saat bhinn prakaaron se uchchaarit kiya ja sakta hai. is jatil orthografik itihaas ka parinaam yeh hai ki padhna ek chunauteepoorn kaarya ho sakta hai.[49] greek, French aur Spanish aur kai anya bhaashaaoain ki tulana mein, ek chhaatr ko angreji paathan ka paarangat banane mein jyaada vakt lagta hai.[50]

buniyaadi dhvani-akshar mel

inhein bhi dekhein: Hard and soft C evam Hard and soft G

sirf vyanjan aksharon ka uchchaaran hi apekshaakrut niyamit tareeke se kiya jaata hai:

aksharaatmak pratinidhitv boli vishisht
P P
b b
t t, th (shaayad hi kabhi) thaaim, thems th thing (afreeki ameriki, new yaark)
d d th dait (afreeki ameriki, new yaark
k c (+ a, o, u, vyanjan ), k, ck, ch, qu ((shaayad hi kabhi) kaunkar , kh ((videshi shabdon mein)
g g, gh, gu (+ a, e, i), gyoo (antim sthaan )
m m
n n
ŋ n (g ya k se pehle ), ng
f f, ph, gh ((antim, yada kada) laaf, rough th thing (England mein angreji bhaasha ke anek prakaar)
v v th vid (kokani, estuari english)
θ ' th thik, think, throo (/0}
ð th dait, dis, di
s s, c (+ e, i, y), sc (+ e, i, y), ç (feked )
Z z, s (antim athva yada kada madhyavarti), ss ((shaayad hi kabhi) posses, dessert, shuruaati-shabd x jaailofon
ʃ sh, sch, ti (svar se pehle) porshan , ci/ce (svar se pehle) saspishn , oshan ; si/ssi (svar se pehle) teinshan , mission ; ch ((khaas kar French mool ke shabdon mein ); shaayad hi kabhi s/ss u se pehle shugar , ishoo ; chsi keval fuchasiya
ʒ madhyavarti si (svar se pehle) divijn , madhyavarti s ("ur" se pehle) plejr , zh (videshi shabdon mein ), z u se pehle azure, g (French mool ke shabdon mein) (+e, i, y) jenar
X kh, ch, h (videshi shabdon mein ) kabhi kabhaar ch loch (skautish english, velsh english)
h h (shabdaansh-shuruaat mein, anyatha chup )
ch, tch, t u se pehle future , kalchar t (+ u, ue, eu) tayoon, tayoosde, tyootonik (kai boliyaaain - angreji vyanjan samoohon ki dhvani itihaas dekhein)
j, g (+ e, i, y), dg (+ e, i, vyanjan) baij, judge (e) meint d (+ u, ue, ew) dayoon, dyoo, dyoo (kai boliyaaain - yod sangheekaran ka ek aur udaaharan )
((IPA | ɹ)) r, wr (shuruaati) raingal
j y (ya shuruaat mein ya svaron se ghira hua )
l l
w W
ʍ wh (uchchaarit hw) skautish aur aayarish angreji, saath hi America, New Zealand aur England ki angreji ki kuchh kisme,

likhit lahaje

adhikaansh jarmenik bhaashaaoain ke vipreet, angreji mein daayaakritiks, sivaaya videshi udhaarashabdon ke (jaise ki kaife ka teevr lahaja), lagbhag naheen ke baraabar hain aur do svaron ke uchchaaran ko ek dhvani (naaiv, jo) ki bajaay pruthak darshaane ke liye daayaarisis nishaan ke asaamaanya upayog mein (aksar aupachaarik lekhan mein).dekor, kaife, resyoom, entry, fiansi aur naaiv jaise shabd aksar donon tareekon se likhe jaate hain. visheshak chinh aksar shabd ke saath unako "uchch koti" ka darshaane ke liye jode jaate hain. haal mein, angreji bhaashit deshon mein kai computer kunjeepatalon mein prabhaavi visheshak kunjiyon ke aabhaav ke kaaran caf'e ya cafe' jaise computer se utpann chihnon ka prachalan badh gaya hai.[tathya vaanchhit]

kuchh angreji shabd apne ko pruthak darshaane ke liye daayaakritiks ko banaaye rakhate hain. udahaaran, animé, exposé, lamé, öare, øaare, pâaté, piqué, and rosé, haalaaainki aksar inko chhod bhi diya jaata hai (udahaaran ke taur par 'réasumé /resumé ko America mein rijyoome likha jaata hai). uchchaaran ko spasht karne ke liye kuchh udhaar shabd daayaakritik ka upayog kar sakte hain, haalaaainki mool shabd mein yeh maujood naheen tha. udahaaran, maté, Spanish yerba mate se)

aupachaarik likhit angreji

duniya bhar ke shikshit angreji vaktaaon dvaara lagbhag saarvabhaumik roop se sveekrut bhaasha ke ek sanskaran ko aupachaarik likhit angreji kaha jaata hai. lagbhag har jagah iska likhit prakaar samaan hi rahata hai, iske vipreet bhaashit angreji boliyon, lahajon, slaing ke prakaaron, sthaaneeya aur kshetreeya abhivyaktiyon ke anusaar bhinn bhinn hoti hai. bhaasha ke aupachaarik likhit sanskaran mein sthaaneeya bhinnataaen kaafi seemit hain. is bhinnata ka daayara mukhyat: british aur ameriki angreji ke vartani antar tak hi simta hua hai.

buniyaadi aur saraleekrut sanskaran

angreji paathan ko aasan karne ke liye iske kuchh saraleekrut sanskaran bhi maujood hain. inmein se ek hai besik english, seemit shabdon ke saath Charles ke ogden ne iska gathan kiya aur apni kitaab besik english: A general introdakshan vid rools end graamar (1930) mein iska varnan kiya. yeh bhaasha angreji ke ek saraleekrut sanskaran par aadhaarit hai. ogden ka kehna tha ki angreji seekhane ke liye saat varsh lageinge, esperento ke liye saat maheene aur besik english ke liye keval saat din. kampaniyaaain jinko antarraashtreeya upayog ke liye jatil pustakon ki aavashyakta ho aur saath hi school jinko kam avadhi mein logon ko buniyaadi angreji sikhaani ho, ve besik english ka upayog kar sakte hain.

ogden ne besik english mein aisa koi shabd naheen daala jise kuchh anya shabdon ke saath bola ja sake aur anya bhaashaaoain ke vaktaaon ke liye bhi ye shabd kaam karein, is baat ka bhi usane khyaal rakha. apne shabdon ke samooh par usane badi sankhya mein pareekshan aur sudhaar kiye. usane na sirf vyaakaran ko saral banaaya, varan upayogakartaaon ke liye vyaakaran ko saamaanya rakhane ki bhi koshish ki.

dviteeya vishv yuddh ke tunrat baad vishv shaanti ke liye ek aujaar ke roop mein isko khoob prachaar mila.[tathya vaanchhit] haalaaainki isko ek program mein tabdeel naheen kiya gaya, lekin vibhinn antarraashtreeya upayogon ke liye isi prakaar ke anya sanskaran banaaye gaye.

ek anya sanskaran, saraleekrut angreji, maujood hai jo ki ek niyantrit bhaasha hai jiska gathan mool roop se eyarospes udyog ke rakharakhaav mainual ke liye kiya gaya tha. yeh angreji ke ek seemit aur maanakeekrut upasamooh ko upalabdh[kaun?] karaata hai. saraleekrut angreji mein anumodit shabdon ka ek shabdakosh hai aur un shabdon ko kuchh vishisht maayanon mein hi istemaal kiya ja sakta hai. udaaharan ke liye, shabd kloj ka upayog is vaakyaansh mein ho sakta hai "kloj the dor " par "doo not go kloj too the lainding giyr" mein iska upayog naheen ho sakta hai.

bhaashaai saamraajyavaad evam angreji

angrejon ne duniya ke anek deshon ko raajaneetik roop se apna upanivesh banaaya. iske saath hi unhonne un deshon par badi chaalaaki se angreji bhi laad di. isi ka parinaam hai ki aaj Britain ke baahar san ra America, Australia, nyoojeelaind, Canada, Bhaarat, Pakistan, baanglaadesh, dakshin afrika aadi anek deshon mein angreji ka varchasv hai. angreji ne yahaan ki deshi bhaashaaon ko buri tarah pangu bana rakha hai. british kaaunsil jaisi sansthaayein is angreji ke prasaar ke liye tarah-tarah ke dushprachaar evam gupt abhiyaan karti rahateen hain. parantu maatrubhaasha ke taur par hindi aur cheeni bhaasha angreji se koson aage nikal chuki hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

granthasoochi

shabdakosh

tippadeesoochana

  1. http://www.bartleby.com/224/1501.html
  2. a aa "Global English: gift or curse?". http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract;jsessionid=92238D4607726060BCBD3DB70C472D0F.tomcat1?fromPage=online&aid=291932. abhigman tithi: 2005-04-04.
  3. a aa i E u oo David Graddol (1997). "The Future of English?" (PDF). The British Council. http://www.britishcouncil.org/de/learning-elt-future.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2007-04-15.
  4. a aa "The triumph of English". The Economist. 2001-12-20. http://www.economist.com/world/europe/displayStory.cfm?Story_ID=883997. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-26.
  5. "Lecture 7: World-Wide English". EHistLing. http://www.ehistling-pub.meotod.de/01_lec06.php. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-26.
  6. "Lecture 7: World-Wide English". EHistLing. http://www.ehistling-pub.meotod.de/01_lec06.php. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-26.
  7. Crystal, David (2002). Language Death. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.2277/0521012716. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0521012716.
  8. Cheshire, Jenny (1991). English Around The World: Sociolinguistic Perspectives. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.2277/0521395658. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0521395658.
  9. [18] ^ anglik angreji bhaasha sansaadhan
  10. http://www.ccel.org/ccel/bede/history.vixiv.html
  11. bhaashaavijnyaaan anusandhaan kendra Texas vishvavidyaalaya
  12. [21] ^ pashchimi Europe par jarmenik aakraman, kailagari vishvavidyaalaya
  13. angreji bhaasha visheshagya
  14. angreji ka itihaas, adhyaaya 5 "puraane se madhyam angreji tak"
  15. David gradol, dik leeth aur juaan svaan, english: history, daaivarsiti end change (new yaark: rootalej, 1996), 101.
  16. kartis, Andy. rang, race aur angreji bhaasha shikshan: arth ke rang . 2006, prushth 192.
  17. [33] ^ ethnologue, 1999
  18. [https: / / www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2098.html CIA duniya Factbook], field listing - bhaashaaeain (duniya).
  19. [35] ^ duniya ki bhaashaaeain (chart), kaamari (1998), vebar (1997), aur greeshmakaaleen sansthaan bhaashaavijnyaaan (esaaaiel) 1999 ethnolog sarvekshan. duniya ki sabse vyaapak roop se boli jaane waali bhaashaaoain par upalabdh
  20. "U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2003, Section 1 Population" (English mein) (pdf). U.S. Census Bureau. pp. 59 pages. http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/06statab/pop.pdf. taibil 47 214809000 panyach saal ya usase oopar ke un logon ka aankada deta hai jo ghar par keval angreji bolte hain. ameriki samudaaya ke sarvekshan par aadhaarit, in parinaamon mein ve log shaamil naheen hain jo samooh mein rahate hain (jaise ki mahaavidyaalaya shayanagruh, sansathaan aur saamoohik gruh) aur paribhaasha ke arntagat un logon ko bhi chhodta hai ko ghar par ek se adhik bhaasha ka prayog karte hain.
  21. a aa [46] ^ angreji bhaasha ka Cambridge vishvakosh, dviteeya sanskaran, kristal, David, Cambridge, Britain: Cambridge university press, [1995] (2003/08/03).
  22. Canada, praanton aur kshetron-20% namoona deta, janaganana 2006 ke liye maatrubhaasha aur aayu samoohon, 2006 maayane, dvaara janasankhya, saankhyiki kanaadau॰
  23. [48] ^ janaganana data Australiaee saankhyiki bureau ka ghar par boli jaane waali mukhya bhaasha. yeh aankada ghar par keval angreji bolne vaalon ki sankhya ka hai.
  24. [50] ^ janaganana sankshipt mein, prushth 15 (taibil 2.5), 2001 ki janaganana, saankhyiki dakshin Africa ki.
  25. [51] ^ boli jaane waali bhaashaaeain, 2006 ki janaganana, saankhyiki New Zealand ki. sthaaneeya bhaashiyon ke liye koi aankade pradaan naheen kiye gaye hain, lekin yeh keval angreji bolne vaalon (3,008,058) aur angreji bolne vaalo ki kul sankhya (3,673,623) ke beech ka koi aankada hoga, yadi aap un 197,187 logon ko chhod dein jinhonne prayojya javaab naheen diya hai.
  26. [52] ^ 1355064,00.html upamahaadveep apni aavaaj buland karta hai, kristal, David, gaarjiyn saaptaahik: shukravaar 19 November 2004.
  27. [53] ^ yeong jhaao; keeth pi. Campbell (1995). "cheen mein angreji". duniya ki angrejiyaaain 14 (3): 377-390. haaaing kaaaing dvaara 2.5 lakh atirikt vaktaaon ka yogadaan diya jaata hai -(1996 janaganana dvaara).
  28. [54] ^ janaganana Bhaarat ki bhaarateeya janaganana, ank 10, 2003, peepi 8-10, (feechar: janaganana aur sarvekshan mein pashchim Bengal ki bhaashaaeain, dvibhaasheeya aur tribhaasheeya).
  29. [55] ^ trof, harabart S 2004. Bhaarat aur iski bhaashaaeain. seemans eji, Munich
  30. "angreji ka upayog karne vaalon" aur "angreji bolne vaalon" ke beech ka antar, dekhein: TESOL- Bhaarat (anya bhaasha bolne vaalon ke liye angreji ke adhyaapak). saaaincha:Bquoteunaka lekh vikipeediya ke poorv ke lekh mein di gayi sankhya 35 karod aur ek jyaada uchit sankhya 9 karod ke antar ko spasht karta hai.
  31. [58] ^ Australiaee saankhyiki bureau
  32. Nancy Morris (1995), Puerto Rico: Culture, Politics, and Identity, Praeger/Greenwood, pa॰ 62, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0275952282, http://books.google.com/books?id=vyQDYqz2kFsC&pg=RA1-PA62&lpg=RA1-PA62&dq=%22puerto+rico%22+official+language+1993&source=web&ots=AZKLran6u3&sig=8fkQ9gwM0B0kwVYMNtXr-_9dnro
  33. [61] ^ America mein boli jaane waali bhaashaaeain , raashtreeya varchual anuvaad kendra, 2006.
  34. [63] ^ ameriki angreji foundation, raajabhaasha research – Britain.
  35. [64] ^ ameriki angreji,Inc
  36. [65] ^ [65] ^ Israel mein bahubhaashaavaad, bhaasha neeti anusandhaan kendra
  37. antarraashtreeya samudri sangathan
  38. yoorobairomeetar dvaara 2006 sarvekshan, Europeeya sangh ki aadhikaarik bhaashaaoain ki website mein
  39. Europeeya sangh
  40. [77] ^ Peter trajil, England ki boliyaaain dviteeya sanskaran, prushth 125, Blackwell, Oxford, 2002
  41. Cox, Felicity (2006). "Australian English Pronunciation into the 21st century" (PDF). Prospect 21: 3–21. http://www.shlrc.mq.edu.au/~felicity/Papers/Prospect_Erratum_v1.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2007-07-22.
  42. angreji shabdaavali parivartan ki prakriyaaen aur trigrs cf. angreji aur saamaanya aitihaasik koshakala(jokim grega aur merion shonar dvaara)
  43. [229] ^ kistar, ken. "shabdakosh paribhaashit"laaibreri journal, 6/15/92, Vol. 117 ank 11, p43, 4p, 2bw
  44. puraani angreji online
  45. Finkenstaedt, Thomas; Dieter Wolff (1973). Ordered profusion; studies in dictionaries and the English lexicon. C. Winter. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 3-533-02253-6.
  46. [234] ^ Joseph M. villaams, Amazon.com mein angreji bhaasha ke mool
  47. [238] ^ abbott, M. (2000). shabd vartani ke liye vishvasaneeya samaanyeekaran ki pehchaan: bahustar vishleshan ka mahatva. praathamik school journal 101 (2), 233-245.
  48. [239] ^ moats, L.em.((2001).bhaashan se mudrit karne ke liye: bhaasha ke shikshakon ke liye anivaarya. baalteemor, emadi: paul H. brooks company.
  49. [240] ^ diyn ankguinness, kyon hamaare bachche naheen padh sakte (New York: tachaston, 1997) peepi. 156-169
  50. [241] ^ jiyegler, J.si. aur Goswami, you (,2005.bhaashaaoain ki seema ke pare paathan adhigrahan, vikaas disleksiya aur kushal paathanmanovaigyaanik buletin, 131 (1), 3-29.

baahari kadiyaaain