anaavrutabeeji

ek konadhaari ka shanku - konadhaari anaavrutabeeji vrukshon ki sabse vistrut shreni hai

anaavrutabeeji ya vivrutabeej (gymnosperm, jimnosparm, arth: nagn beej) aise paudhon aur vrukshon ko kaha jaata hai jinke beej foolon mein panapane aur falon mein band hone ki bajaae chhoti tahaniyon ya shankuon mein khuli ('nagn') avastha mein hote hain. yeh dasha 'aavrutabeeji' (angiosperm, ainjiyosparm) vanaspatiyon se vipreet hoti hai jinpar fool aate hain (jis kaaranavash unhein 'fooladaar' ya 'sapushpak' bhi kaha jaata hai) aur jinke beej aksar falon ke andar surakshit hokar panapate hain. anaavrutabeeji vrukshon ka sabse bada udaaharan konadhaari hain, jinki shreni mein cheed (paain), taalispatr (you), prasaral (sproos), sanobar (fr) aur devadaar (seedar) shaamil hain.[1]

anukram

parichay

vivrutabeej vanaspati jagat ka ek atyant puraana varg hai. yeh teridofaaita (Pteridophyta) se adhik jatil aur viksit hai aur aavrutabeej (Angiosperm) se kam viksit tatha adhik puraana hai. is varg ki pratyek jaati ya prajaati mein beej nagn rahate hain, arthaat unke oopar koi aavaran naheen rahata. puraane vaigyaaniko ke vichaar mein yeh ek praakrutik varg maana jaata tha, par ab nagn beej hona hi ek praakrutik varg ka kaaran bane, aisa naheen bhi maana jaata hai. is varg ke anek paudhe pruthvi ke garbh mein dabe ya fausil ke roopon mein paae jaate hain, jinse gyaat hota hai ki aise paudhe lagbhag chaalis karod varsh poorv se hi is pruthvi par ugate chale aa rahe hain. inmein se anek prakaar ke to ab, ya laakhon karodon varsh poorv hi, lupt ho gaye aur kai prakaar ke ab bhi ghane aur bade jungle banaate hain. cheed, devadaar aadi bade vruksh vivrutabeej varg ke hi sadasya hain.

is varg ke paudhe bade vruksh ya saaikas (cycas) jaise chhote, ya taad ke aise, athva jhaadi ki tarah ke hote hain. sikoya jaise bade vruksh (350 foot se bhi ooainche), jinki aayu hajaaron varsh ki hoti hai, vanaspati jagat ke sabse bade aur bhaari vruksh hain. vaigyaaniko ne vivrutabeejon ka vargeekaran anek prakaar se kiya hai. vanaspati jagat ke do mukhya ang hain : kriptogaim (Cryptogams) aur fainarogaim (Phanerogams). fainarogaim beejadhaari hote hain aur inke do prakaar hain : vivrutabeej aur aavrutabeej; parantu aajkal ke vanaspatijnya ne vanaspati jagat ka kai anya prakaar ka vargeekaran karna aarambh kar diya hai, jaise (1) vaiskular paudhe (Vascular) ya trekiyofaaita (Tracheophyta) aur (2) evaiskular ya naun vaiskular (Avascular or nonvascular) ya etraikiyofaaita (Atracheophyta) varg. vaiskular paudhon mein jal, lavan lavan ityaadi ke liye baahya ootak hote hain. in paudhon ko (k) laaikaupsida (Lycopsida), (kh) sfeenaupsida (Sphenopsida) tatha (g) tiraupsida (Pteropsida) mein vibhaajit karte hain. tiraupsida ke antargat anya frn, vivrutabeej tatha aavrutabeej rakhe jaate hain.

vivrutabeej ke do mukhya upaprabhaag hain :

  • (1) saaikaadofaaita (Cycadophyta) aur
  • (2) koniferofaaita (Coniferophyta).

saaikaadofaaita mein mukhya teen gan hain :

  • (k) teridosparmeleej ya saaikaadofilikeleej (Pteridospermales or Cycadofilicales),
  • (kh) beneetiteleej ya saaikaadioideleej (Bennettitales or Cycadeoidales) aur
  • (g) saaikaadeleej (Cycadales).

koniferofaaita mein chaar mukhya gan hain :

  • (k) kaudeinteleej (Cordaitelles),
  • (kh) gingoeleej (Ginkgoa'es),
  • (g) koneefreleej (Coniferales) aur
  • (gh) neeteleej (Gnitales).

inke atirikt aur bhi jatil aur theek se naheen samajhe hue gan peintojaaileleej (Pentoxylales), kaayatoniyeleej (Caytoniales) ityaadi hain.

saaikaadofaaita

teridoraparmeleej ya saaikaadofilikeli

is gan kein antargat aanevaale paudhe bhoovaijnyaaanik kaal ke kaarbani (Carboniforous) yug mein, lagbhag 25 karod varsh se bhi poorv ke jamaane mein, paae jaate the. is gan ke paudhe shuroo mein farn samajhe gaye the, parantu inmein beej ki khoj ke baad inhein tairidosparm kaha jaane laga. puraajeev kalp ke teridosparm teen kaal mein baaainte gaye hain -

(1) lijinaupteridesii (Lyginopteridaceae), (2) medulojesii (Medullosaceae) aur kailaamopitiye sii (Calamopiteyaceae).

lijinaapteridesii ki mukhya jaati kaalimaatotheeka haaningaghaansi (Calymmatotheca hoeninghansi) hai. iske tan ko lijinaupteris (Lyginopteris) kehte hain, jo teen ya chaar seinteemeetar mota hota tha. iske andar majja (pith) mein kaale kade ootak guchhe, jinhein sklerautik nest (Sclerotic nest) kehte hain, paae jaate the. baahya valkut (cortex) bhi vishesh prakaar se mote aur patale hote the. tanon se niklanevaali pattiyon ke danthal mein vishesh prakaar ke samund rom (capitate hair) paae jaate the. inapar laganevaale beej mukhyat: laijinostoma lomeksaai (Lagenostoma lomaxi) kahalaate hain. ye chhote gole (aadha seinteemeetar ke baraabar) aakaar ke the, jinmein paraagakan ek paraagakosh mein ikatthe rahate the. is sthaan par ek flaask ke aakaar ka bhaag, jise laijinostom kehte hain, paaya jaata tha. adhyaavaran (integument) aur beejaandakaaya (nucellus) aapas mein jute rahate the. beej ek prakaar ke pyaale ke aakaar ki pyaalika (cupule) se ghira rahata tha. is pyaalika ke baahar bhi usi prakaar ke samund rom, jaise tane aur pattiyon ke danthal par ugate the, paae jaate the. anya prakaar ke beejon ko konostoma (Conostoma) aur faaisostoma (Physostoma) kehte hain. laijinaupteris ke paraagakosh punj (poller bearing organ) ko krausotheeka (Crossotheca) aur tilainjiym (Telangium) kehte hain. krausotheeka mein nichle bhaag chaude tatha oopar ke patale hote the. tahaniyon jaise pattiyon ke vishesh aakaar par, neeche ki or kinaare se do panktiyon mein paraagakosh latake rahate the. tilainjiym mein paraagakosh oopar ki or madhya mein nikle hote the.

kuchh nai khoj dvaara lijinaupteris ke atirikt anya tane bhi paae gaye hain, jaise kailistofaaitaun (Callistophyton), shaap fiyestram (Schopfiastrum), ya pehle se jaana hua heterainjiym (Heterangium). in sabhi tanon mein baahya valkut mein vishesh prakaar se sklerenakaaimetas (sclerenchymatous) dhaage (strands) paae jaate hain.

medulojesii (Medullosaceae) ka mukhya paudha meduloja (Medullosa) hai, jiski anekaanek jaatiyaaain pai jaati theen. meduloja ki jaatiyon ke tane bahurangi (polystelic) hote the. stivaart (Stewart) aur delivoriys (Delevoryas) ne san 1956 mein medulaaja ke paudhe ke bhaagon ko jodkar ek poore paudhe ka aakaar diya hai, jise meduloja noi (Medullosa noei) kehte hain. yeh paudha lagbhag 15 foot ooaincha raha hoga tatha iske tane ke nichle bhaag se bahut si jadein niklati theen. meduloja mein paraagakosh ke punj kai prakaar ke paae gaye hain, jaise daulirotheeka (Dolerotheca), vhitlesiya (Whittleseya), kodonotheeka (Codonotheca), olekotheeka (Aulacotheca) aur ek nai khoj goldenabarjiya (Goldenbergia). daulirotheeka ek ghanti ke aakaar ka tha, jiske kinaare ki deevaar par paraagapunj lanbaai mein lage hote the. oopar ka bhaag daaaintedaar hota tha. kodonotheeka mein oopar ka daaaint na hokar, anguli ki tarah ooaincha nikla bhaag hota tha. meduloja ke beej lambe gol hote the, jo beejagan traaigonokaarpeleej (Trigonocarpales) mein rakhe jaate hain. inmein traaigonokaarapas (Trigonocorpus) mukhya hai. anya beejon ke naam is prakaar hain : paikeetesta (Pachytesta) aur steefainosparmam (Stephanospermum).

kailaamopitiyesii (Calamopityaceae) kul aise tanon ke samooh se bana hai, jinhein anya teridosparmas mein sthaan naheen praapt ho saka. inmein mukhyat: saat prakaar ke tane hai, jinmein kailaamopitis (Calamopitys), steenomaailaan (Sphenoxylon) adhik mahattvapoorn hain. meesojoik teridosparm (Mesozoic pteridosperm) ke paudhe peltainsparmesii (Peltaspermaceae) aur koristosparmesii (Corystospermaceae) kulon mein rakhe jaate hain. ye 6 karod se 18 karod varsh poorv pruthvi par ugate the. inke avashesh koyale ya kuchh chinh ke roop mein milte hain hain. inke kuchh mukhya paudhon ke naam is prakaar hain : lepidaupteris (Lepidopteris), umkomesiya (Umkomasia), paailoforosparmam (Pilophorospermum), sparamaitokodaun (Spermatocodon), teroochus (Pteruchus), juberiya (Zuberia) ityaadi.

teridosparmeinleej se milte julate hi ek kul kaaitoniyesi (Caytoniaceae) ko bhi gan ka pad diya gaya hai aur ise kaaitoniyeleej (Caytoniales) kehte hain. iske paudhe kaaitoniya (Caytonia) ko shuru mein aavrutabeej samjha gaya tha, parantu fir adhik anusandhaan par inhein vivrutabeej paaya gaya.

iske tana ka ek chhota tukada mila hai, jise koi vishesh naam diya gaya hai. patti ko saijinaupteris (Sagenopteris) kehte hain, jo ek sthaan se chaar ki sankhya mein niklati hain. patti ki shiraaeain jaal jaisa aakaar banaati hain. inmein radhron (stomata) ke kinaare ke kosh haiplokeelik (haplocheilic) prakaar ke hote hain. paraagakan chaar ya teen ke guchhon mein lage hote hain, jinhein kaaitonainthas (Caytonanthus) kehte hain. paraagakan mein do hava bhare, foole, bailoon jaise aakaar ke hote hain. beej ki fal se tulana ki jaati hai. ye gol aakaar ke hote hain aur andar kai beejaand (ovules) lage hote hain.

beneetiteleej ya saaikaadioideleej (Bennettitales or Cycadeoidales) gan

isko do kulon mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai :

  • (1) viliymasoniyesii (Williamsoniaecae) aur
  • (2) saaikaadioidesii (Cycadeoidaceae).

biliymasoniyesii kul ka sabse adhik achhi tarah samjha hua paudha viliymasoniya seevaardiyaana (Williamsonia sewardiana) ka roopakaran (reconstruction) Bhaarat ke prakhyaat vanaspati vigyaani sv. beerabal saahani ne kiya hai. iske tane ko bakalaindiya indika (Bucklandia indica) kehte hain. ismein se kaheen kaheen par shaakhaaeain niklati theen, jinmein prajanan hetu ang paida hote the. mukhya tane tatha shaakha ke siron par badi pattiyon ka samooh hota hai, jise taailofilm katachenasi (Tilophyllum cutchense) kehte hain. nar tatha maada fool bhi is kram mein rakhe gaye hain jinmein viliymasoniya skautika (Williamsonia scotica) tatha William spektebilis (W. spectabilis), William sainteleinsis (W. santalensis) ityaadi hain. iske atirikt viliymasoniyela (Williamsoniella) naamak paudhe ka bhi kaafi adhyayan kiya gaya hai.

saaikaadiaaidesi kul mein mukhya vansh saaikaadiaaidiya (Cycadeoidea), jise beneetits (Bennettitus) bhi kehte hain, paaya jaata tha. karodon varsh poorv paae jaanevaale is paudhe ka faasil sajaavat ke liye kamron mein rakha jaata hai. iske tane bahut chhote aur nakkaasheedaar hote the. prajananahetu ang vividh prakaar ke hote the. sa. veelaindi (C. wielandi), sa. inajens (C. ingens), sa. dakotenasis (C dacotensis), ityaadi mukhya spor banaane vaale bhaag the. is kul ki pattiyon mein radhran sinditokeelik (syndetocheilic) prakaar ke hote th jisse vah vivrutabeej ke anya paudhon se bhinn ho gaya hai aur aavrutabeej ke paudhon se milta julata hai. is gan ke bhi sabhi sadasya laakhon varsh poorv hi lupt ho chuke hai. ye lagbhag 20 karod varsh poorv paae jaate the.

saaikadeleej

saaikadeleej gan ke nau vansh aajkal bhi milte hain, inke atirikt anya sab lupt ho chuke hain.

aaj kal paae jaanevaale saaikaind (cycad) mein paaainch to pruthvi ke poorvaardh mein paae jaate hain aur chaar pashchimi bhaag mein. poorv ke vanshon mein saaikas sarvavyaapi hai. yeh chhota mota taad jaisa paudha hota hai aur badi pattiyaaain ek jhund mein tane ke oopar se niklati hain. pattiyaaain prajananavaale angon ko ghere rahati hain. anya chaar vansh kisi ek bhaag mein hi paae jaate hain, jaise maikrojemiya (Macrozamia) ki kul 14 jaatiyaaain aur boveeniya (Bowenia) ki ekamaatr jaati Australia mein hi pai jaati hai. enasifailaurtas (Encephalortos) aur stainajeeriya (Stangeria) dakshini Africa mein paaya jaata hai.

pashchim mein paae jaanevaale vansh mein jemiya (Zamia) adhik vistrut hai. iske atapikt maaikrosaaikas (Microcycas) sirf pashchimi kyooba, siraitaajemiya (Ceratozamia) aur diyoon (Dioon) dakshin mein hi paae jaate hain. in sabhi vanshon mein se Bhaarat mein bhi paaya jaanevaala saaikas ka vansh pramukh hai.

saaikas Bhaarat, cheen, Japan, Australia aur Africa mein svat: tatha baatikaaon mein ugata hai. iski mukhya jaatiyaaain saaikas pektineta (Cycaspectinata), sa. sarasinelis (C. circinalis), sa. rivolyoota (C. revoluta), ityaadi hain. inmein ek hi tana hota hai. patti lagbhag ek meter lambi hoti hai. is paudhe se ek vishesh prakaar ki jad, jise pravaalaabh mool (Coralloid root) kehte hain, niklati hai. is jad ke bheetar ek golaai mein hare, neele shaivaal nivaas karte hain. tane mote hote hain, parantu kade naheen hote. in tanon ke valkut ke andar se saaboodaana banaanevaala padaarth nikaala jaata hai, jisse saaboodaana banaaya jaata hai. pattiyon mein ghusne waali nalika jode mein stambh se nikal kar danthal mein jaati hai, jahaaain kai sanvahan pool (vascular bundle) paae jaate hain. pattiyon ke aakaar aur andar ki banaavat se pata chalta hai ki ye jal ko sanchit rakhane mein sahaayak hain. radhran sirf nichle bhaag hi mein ghusi hui dasha mein paaya jaata hai. prajanan do prakaar ke kon (cone) ya shanku dvaara hota hai. laghu beejaanu (microspore) paida karanevaale maaikrosporofil ke milne se nar kon, ya nar shanku (male cone aur bade beejaand (ovule) vaale guru beejaanuvarn (megasporophyll) ke sanyukt maada kon (female cone), ya maada shanku bante hain. samast vanaspati jagat ke beejaand mein sabse bada beejaand saaikas mein hi paaya jaata hai. yeh laal rang ka hota hai. ismein adhyaavaran ke teen parat hote hain, jinke neeche beejaandakaaya aur maada yugmakodbhid (female gametophyte) hota hai. streedhaani (archegonium) oopar ki or hoti hai aur paraagakan beejaandadvaar (micraphyle) ke raaste se hokar, paraagakaksh tak pahuainch jaata hai. garbhaadhaan ke pashchaat beej banta hai. paraagakan se do shukraanu (sperm) nikalte hain, jo pakshmaabhika (cilia) dvaara tairate hain.

peintaagjileleej ek aisa anishchit varg hai jo saaikaadofaaita tatha koneeferofaaita donon se milta julata hai. is kaaran ise yahaaain uparyukt donon vargon ke madhya mein hi likha ja raha hai. yeh ab gan ke star par rakha jaata hai. is gan ki khoj bhaarateeya vanaspatishaastri aachaarya beerabal saahani ne ki hai. iske antargat aanevaale paudhon, ya unke angon ke fausil Bihar pradesh ke raajamahal ki pahaadiyon ke pattharon mein dabe mile hain. tane ko peintojaailaan (Pentoxylon) kehte hain, jo kai seinteemeetar mota hota tha aur ismein paaainch ranbh (stoles) paae jaate the. iske atirikt raajamahal ke hi ilaake mein nipaaniya gram se praapt tana nipaaniyojaailaan (Nipanioxylon) bhi isi gan mein rakha jaata hai. is paudhe ki patti ko nipaaniyofilm (Nipaniophyllum) kehte hain, jo ek chaude patte ke aakaar ki hoti thi. iska ranbh aavrutabeej ki tarah sinditokeelik (syndetocheilic) prakaar ka hota hai. beej ki do jaatiyaaain pai gayi hain, jinhein kaaranokonaaitis kaumpaiktam (Carnoconites compactum) aur ka. laiksam (C. laxum) kehte hain. beej ke saath kisi prakaar ke patra ityaadi naheen lage hote. nar fool ko sahaaniya (Sahania) ka naam diya gaya hai.

koniferofaaita

kaurdaaiteleej

koneeferofaaita ka pratham gan kaurdaaiteleej (cordaiteles) hain, jo saaikaadofaaita ke paudhon se kaheen bade aur vishaal vruksh hua karte the. pruthvi par pratham vrukshonvaale jungle inheen kaaradaaiteej ke hi the, jo teridosparm ki tarah, 25 karod varsh se poorv, is dharati par raajya karte the. inki ooainchaai kabhi kabhi 100 foot se bhi adhik hoti thi. inhein teen kulon mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai :

(1) pitii (Pityeae), (2) kaaradaaiti (Cordaiteae) aur (3) porojaaileei (Poroxyleae).

pitii mukhyat: tane ki androoni banaavat par sthaapit kiya gaya hai. is kul ke paudhon mein kaisi patti ya fool the, iska gyaan abhi tak theek se naheen ho paaya hai. ek vansh kailijaailaan (Callixylon) ka, amareeka se praapt kar, achhi tarah adhyayan kiya gaya hai, yeh ek vishaal vruksh raha hoga, jiski shaakha ki chaudaai lagbhag 17-18 foot ki thi.

kaurdaaiti ka mukhya vansh kaurdaanitij (Cordaites) hai. iski lakdi ko kaurdiyojaalaain (Cordioxylon) daidojaailaan (Dadoxylon), jad ko emilaan (Amyelon), pushpaguchh ko kaurdaaainthas (Cordaianthus) aur baj ko kaurdaaikaarpas (Cordaicarpus) aur samaaraupsis (Samaropsis) kehte hain. patti bhi lagbhag 3-4 foot lambi aur 1 foot chaudi hoti thi. patti ke andar ke ootakon ki banaavat se gyaat hai ki ye sookhe sthaanon par ugate honge. kaurdaaiteej ke tane ke madhya ka pith ya majja vishesh roop se vivaabh (discoid) lagta hai. kaurdaaiteej ke fool ekalingi hote the, jo adhiktar alag alag vruksh par, ya kabhi kabhi ek hi vruksh ki alag shaakha par, lage hote the. kaurdaaiainthas pejoni ke punkesar (stamen), ek shaakha se 3-4 ki sankhya mein, seedhe oopar nikalte hain. paraagakan mein do paratein hoti hain. maada kon ek kade stambh par oopar ki or laga hota hai.

porojaaili kul mein sirf ek hi prajaati porojaaikalan hai, jiske tane mein bheetar bruhat majja hoti hai.

gingoeleej

koneeferofaaita ka doosra gan hain, gingoeleej (Ginkgoales). yeh mesojoik yug se, arthaat lagbhag 5-7 karod varsh poorv se, is pruthvi par paaya ja raha hai. us samay mein to iske kai vansh the, par aaj kal sirf ek hi jaati jeevit milti hai. yeh gingo baailoba (Ginkgo biloba) ek atyant sundar vruksh cheen desh mein paaya jaata hai. iske kuchh ine gine paudhe Bhaarat mein bhi lagaae gaye hain. iski sundarata ke kaaran ise 'meden heyar tri' (Maiden-hair tree) bhi kaha jaata hai.

fausil jinkagoejeej mein jinkagoaaiteej (Ginkgoites) aur baira (Baiera) adhik adhyayan kiye gaye hain. inke atirikt traaikopitis (Trichopitys) sabse puraana sadasya hai. jinkago ko vaigyaaniko ne shuru mein aavrutabeej ka paudha samjha tha, fir ise vibrutabeej konifrel samjha gaya, parantu adhik vistaar se adhyayan karne par iska sahi aakaar samajh mein aaya aur ise ek svatantr gan, gingoeleej ka star diya gaya. yeh vruksh chhoti avastha mein kaafi vistrut aur chaude gole aakaar ka hota hai, jaise aam ke vruksh hote hain, parantu aay badhne se vah nukeele patale aakaar ka, kuchh cheed ke vruksh ya piraamid ki shakl ka ho jaata hai. iske tane, do prakaar ke hote hain : lambe tane, jo banaavat mein koneeferofaaita ki tarah hote hain aur baune praroh (dwarf shoots), jo saaikedofaaita jaise andar ke aakaar ke hote hain. inki patti bahut hi sundar hoti hai, jo do bhaagon mein vibhaajit hoti hai. patti mein nasein bhi jagah jagah do mein vibhaajit hoti rahati hain. nar aur maada kon alag alag nikalte hain. beejaand ke neeche ek 'kaular' jaisa bhaag hota hai.

aisa anumaan hai ki is gan ke paudhe kaurdaaiti varg se hi utpann hue honge. ismein narayugmak tairanevaale hote hain, jisse yeh saaikad se bhi milta julata hai. kuchh vaigyaaniko ke vichaar hain ki ye paudhe seedhe tereedofaaita (Pteridophyta) se hi utpann hue honge.

koneefareleej

koneefareleej gan, na keval koniferofaaitaaka hi balki poore vivrut beej ka, sabse bada aur aaj kal vistrut roop se paaya jaanevaala gan hai. ismein lagbhag 50 prajaatiyaaain aur 500 se adhik jaatiyaaain pai jaati hain. inmein adhikaansh paudhe thande sthaan mein ugate hain. chhoti jhaadi se lekar sansaar ke sabse bade aur lambi aayuvaale paudhe is gan mein rakhe gaye hain. kailifaurniya ke laal lakadeevaale vruksh (red wood tree), jinhein vanaspati jagat mein sikoya (sequoia) kehte hain, lagbhag 350 foot gaganachunbi hote hain aur inke tane 30-35 foot chaude hote hain. yeh sansaar ka sabse vishaalakaaya vruksh hota hai. iski aayu 3,000-4,000 varsh tak ki hoti hai.

koneefareleej gan ko mukhya do kul paainesi aur taiksesi mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai. inmein fir kai upakul hain parantu bahut se vidvaanon ne sabhi upakulon ko kul ka hi star de diya hai.

paainesi kul ke antargat chaar upakul hain :

(1) ebitini (Abietineae), (2) taiksodini, (Taxodineae), (3) kyoopresini (Cupressineae) aur (4) araakerini (Araucarineae)

taiksesi ke antargat do upakul hain-

(1) podokaarapini (Podocarpineae) aur (2) taiksini (taxineae)

kai vanaspati shaastriyon ne teksini ko kul ka naheen, gan (taiksels) ka star de rakha hai.

paainesi

(1) ebitini mein beejaand patra (oruliferous bract) ek vishesh prakaar ka hota hai aur paraagakan mein donon taraf hava mein tairane ke liye hava bhare gubbaare jaise aakaar hote hain. is upakul ke mukhya udaaharan hain : paainas ya cheed, seedras ya devadaar, lairiks (Larix), peesiya (Picea) ityaadi.

(2) taiksodini mein beejaand patra aur anya patra aapas mein sate hote hain aur paraagakan mein pankh jaise aakaar naheen hote. inke mukhya udaaharan hain : siyaadopitis (Sciadopitys), sikoya (Sequoia), kriptomeeriya (Cryptomeria), kaninghemiya (Cuninghamia) ityaadi.

kyoopresini ke mukhya paudhe kailitris (Callitirs), thooja (Thuja), jise morapankhi bhi kehte hain, kyoopresas (Cupressus), jooniperas (Juniperus) ityaadi hain.

arokerini ke antargat vaatikaaon mein lagaae jaanevaale sundar paudhe arokeriya (Araucaria) aur egaithis (Agathis) hain.

paainesi kul ke paudhon mein ek madhya stambh jaisa lamba, seedha tana hota hai, jisse neeche ki or badi aur oopar chhoti shaakhaaeain niklati hain. falasvaroop paudhe ka aakaar ek kon ya piraamid ka roop dhaaran karta hai. tane ke shareer (anatomy) ka kaafi adhyayan kiya gaya hai. vaiskular ootak bahut bruhat hota hai. valkut (cortex) tatha majja donon hi patale hote hain. valkut ke baahar kaark (cork) paae jaate hain. jad ki rachana ek dvibeeji sanvrutabeej se milti julati hai.

is kul mein anya koneefareleej ki tarah do prakaar ki pattiyaaain pai jaati hain. ek patti ke roop ki aur doosari chhote patale kaagaj ke tukade jaise shalk patra (scale leaf) si hoti hai. paainas mein yeh alag prakaar ki pattiyaaain alag shaakha par niklati hain, parantu aibees (Abies) ke paudhe mein, donon patra har daal par bhi paae ja sakte hain. pattiyon ki aayu kaafi lambi hoti hai aur koi koi 10-22 varsh tak naheen jhadteen. inka aakaar ek sookhe sthaan mein uganevaale paudhon ki patti jaisa hota hai. baahyacharm ke kosh lambe hote hain, jinke baahar ke bhaag par mom jaisa kyootin (cutin) padaarth jama rahata hai. rghraan andar ki or ghusa hota hai. meejofil (mesophyll) bhaag ke kosh patoote ki bhaaainti andar ko lipte (infolded) se rahate hain. ek prakaar ke kosh dvaara vaiskular ootak ghire rahate hain, jise chhaad (sheath) kehte hain.

prajanan mukhyat: beej dvaara hota hai. yeh ek vishesh prakaar ke ang mein, jise kon (cone) ya shanku kehte hain, banta hai. kon do prakaar ke hote hain, nar aur maada. nar kon mein Parag bante hain, jo hava dvaara udkar maada kon ke beejaand tak pahunchate hai, jahaaain garbhaadhaan hota hai. donon lingi kon alag alag paudhon mein paae jaate hain, jaise paainas mein, ya ek hi paudhe mein jaise aibis ya kabhi kabhi kyooprasesi ufkul ke paudhon mein. laghubeejaanudhaani (microsporangium) ke nikalne ka sthaan sthir naheen rahata. kisi mein yeh danthal ke sire par aur kisi mein patti ke kon se niklati hai. paainas mein to baune praroh (dwarf shoot) par hi yeh prajanan ang nikalte hain. laghubeejaanudhaani jis patra mein lagi rahati hai, use laghubeejaanu parn (Microsporophyll) kehte hain. laghubeejaanudhaani ke baahyacharm se neeche adhastvacha (hypodermis) ke kuchh kosh badhte tatha jeev drav se bhare rahate hain aur vibhaajit hokar, beejaanujan ootak banaate hain aur fir inheen koshon ke kai baar vibhaajan hone par paraagakan aur anya ootak bante hain.

beejaand paida karanevaale angon ko gurubeejaanuparn (megasporophyll) kehte hain. inke ek sthaan par jhund mein hone se ek kon ya maada shanku banta hai. beejaand ek prakaar ke shalk beejaandaghar shalk par, neeche ki or lage hote hain. yonika bhroonaposh (endosperm) se neeche ki or se ghira rahata hai aur do aavaran hote hain. oopar ki or se ghira rahata hai aur do aavaran hote hain. oopar ki or ek andadvaar hota hai jisse hokar paraagakan yonika ke paas pahunch jaate hain. yahaaain ye kan jamate hain aur Parag nalika banta hai, jismein nalika keindrak (tube nucleus) nar yugmak paae jaate hain. nar yugmak aur maada yugmak ke sanyog se andabeejaanu bante hain, jo fir vibhaajan dvaara beej ko janm dete hain.

aisa anumaan hai ki paainesi kul ka janm pruthvi ke pratham bade vrukshavaale gan kaaradaaiteleej (Cordaitales) dvaara hi hua hai.

taiksesi

doosra koneefareleej ka kul hai taiksesi. iske do upakul hain - podokaarapini aur taiksini. podokaarapini mein bhi paraagakan mein hava bhare paksh (wings) paae jaate hain. iske udaaharan hain, podokaarapas tatha daikreediym. taiksini ke paraagakan mein paksh (wing) naheen hota. taiksas, toreya aur sifailoteksas iske mukhya udaaharan hain. inmein bhi paainas jaise vaiskular ootak hote hain, parantu kuchh vishesh untar bhi hota hai.

pattiyaaain kai prakaar ki pai jaati hain. kuchh mein chhote nukeele (jaise taiksas) ya chaude patte (podaukaarapas mein) hote hain, ya naheen bhi hote hain, jaise faailoklaidas mein. prajanan hetu laghubeejaanudhaani tatha gurubeejaanudhaani nar tatha maada shanku mein lagi hoti hain. in shankuon mein shalk (scales) ke adhyayan kaafi kiye gaye hain. pratyek beejaanuparn (sporophyll) mein beejaanudhaani (sporangium) ki sankhya bhinn bhinn prajaatiyon mein bhinn hoti hai, jaise taiksas mein chaar se saat, toreya (torreya) mein shuroo mein saat, parantu beejaanudhaani pakane tak 1 ya 2 hi rah jaati hain. maada shanku is kul mein (anya koneefar se) bahut chhote roop ka hota hai. adhiktar yeh shanku patteevaale tane ke sire par ugata hai. beejaand ki sankhya ek ya do hoti hai. inmein adhyayan gan aur beejaandakaaya ki paratein alag rahati hain. Parag do keindrak ki dasha mein, hava mein jhadkar, maada shanku tak pahunchate hain aur beejaanu par pahuainchakar jamate hain. vahaaain ye badhkar ek nalika banaate hain aur sansechan ka kaarya sampann karte hain.

is kul ka sambandh anya kul ya gan se kai prakaar se rakha gaya hai. aisa vichaar bhi hai ki is kul ke paudhe jeevit koneefar mein sabse jamaane se chale aa rahe hain. inka sambandh vinkago ya araakeriya ya kaaradaaiteej se ho sakta hai. aisa bhi kai vaigyaaniko ka vichaar hai ki yeh svatantr roop se (anya koneefar se naheen) utpann hue honge.

koneefaraleej gan kaafi goodh aur vistrut hai, jismein bahut se aarthik drushti se achhe paudhe paae jaate hain, jaise cheed, chilgoja, devadaar, sikoya tatha anya, jo achhi lakdi ya taarapeen ka tel denevaale hain.

neeteleej

koneeferofaaita ka sabse unnat gan hai, neeteleej. is gan mein teen jeevit paudhe hain : neetam (Gnetum), efidra (Ephedra) aur velavitshiya (Welwetschia) aaj ke kai vaigyaaniko ne in teenon prajaatiyon ki rooparekha tatha paae jaanevaale sthaan ki bhinnata ke kaaran alag alag aardar ka star de rakha hai. fir bhi kuchh gun aise hain jaise vaahika (Vessel) ka hona, sanyukt shanku (compound cone), atyant lambi maaikropaail, pattiyon ka aamne saamane (opposite) hona ityaadi, jo teenon prajaatiyon mein milte hain. is gan ke paudhon ko koneeferafroaaita se iseeliye hataakar ek nae group klemaaidhosparmofaaita mein rakha jaane laga hai.

efidra, jisse efidreen jaisi taakat ki aushadhi niklati hai, ek jhaadi ke aakaar ka paudha hai. iski lagbhag chaalees jaatiyaaain pruthvi ke anek bhaagon mein pai jaati hain. pashchim mein Mexico, aindeej parague, France, tatha poorv mein Bhaarat, cheen ityaadi, mein yeh ugata hai. bhoomadhya rekha ke dakshin mein yeh naheen paaya jaata. iski moosali jad (tap root) majaboot aur badi hoti hai. iske tane patale hare rang ke hote hain, jinpar pattiyaaain naheen ke baraabar hoti hain. ye pattiyaaain itni chhoti hoti hain ki aahaar banaane ka kaarya tane dvaara hi hota hai. inke tan mein gaun ootak mein vaahiniyaaain pai jaati hain. majjaarashmi (medullary ray) chaudi aur lambi hoti hai. sanvahan (vascular) nalika endaark saaifonosteel (endarch siphonostele) hota hai. inmein ek prakaar ka raasaayanik padaarth tainin paaya jaata hai. valkut mein klorofil paae jaate hain. inke baahar radhran hote hain, jo gaison ke aadaan pradaan tatha bhaap ke baahar nikalne ke liye maarg pradaan karte hain.

efidra mein nar aur maada shanku alag alag paudhe par niklata hai. keval efidra ki ek jaati, A. folipeta, mein hi ek paudhe par donon prakaar ke shanku paae jaate hain. nar shanku se do, teen athva chaar chakr mein laghubeejaanudhaaniyaaain (microsporangiums) niklati hain. jahaaain se ye niklati hain, vahaaain chaar-paaainch se aath jode tak shulk hote hain, jismein do jode baaainjh hote hain. beejaanudhaani ki sankhya 4-5 ya 6 tak hoti hai. maada shanku kaafi lamba tatha 2-3 ya 4 chakr mein hare rang ka hota hai. sahapatron (bracts) ki sankhya bhi nar se adhik hoti hai. andakoshika (egg cell) ke chaaron or koshikaadravya (cytoplasm) bhara hota hai. paraagakan chipchipe drav ke boond mein fans jaata hai aur lambe beejaandadvaar dvaara khinchakar and tak pahuainchata hai. teen ya chaar bhroon tak ek beejaand mein dekhe gaye hain.

velvishiya (Welwitschia) dakshin Africa ke pashchim tat par hi ugata hai aur kaheen bhi naheen paaya jaata. yeh tat ke kuchh meal ke bheetar hi seemit hai. pratham ise tamaboaa miraivilis kaha gaya tha, parantu baad mein iske aavishkaarak dau॰ velvish ke naam par ise velvish ya miraivisi kaha gaya. yeh atyant marudbhidi (xerophytic), arthaat sookhe sthaan par uganevaale paudhon jaisa, hota hai. jahaaain yeh ugata hai vahaaain varsh bhar ki poori varsha lagbhag ek inch hi hoti hai. shakl soorat to gaajar jaisi hoti hai, par isse bahut bada, lagbhag 3-4 foot chauda, hota hai. paudhe ke oopar ek moda aavaran baahyavalk (periderm) hota hai. mukhyat: do hi pattiyaaain hoti hain, jo bahut mote chamade ke patte ki tarah hoti hain. madhya bhaag mein laingik janan ke ang, jo pakane par jhadkar gir jaate hain, nikalte hain aur ve nikalne ke sthaan par ek kshatachinh chhod dete hain. paudhe ki pratham do pattiyaaain hi, sampoorn jeevan bhar bina jhade, lagbhag 60-70 ya 100 varsh tak, lagi rahati hain. tej hava ke jhonke se pattiyaaain lanbaai mein, shiraaon ki seedhi line mein, fat jaati hain. shikha se patti sookhati chalti hai aur neeche se badhti chalti hai. jad to bahut gaharaai tak jaati hai.

velvishiya ke paudhe ke kaatne se pata chalta hai ki tane tatha jad mein kailshiym oksailet ki bahumukhi sooi ke aakaar ki kantika (spicule) ki tarah ki koshikaaeain hoti hain. sanvahan ootak (vascular tissue) bhi kai prakaar ke paae jaate hain. nar shanku aur maada shanku alag alag bante hain. beejaand praarambh mein hare hote hain, par pakane par chamakeele laal ho jaate hain. pratyek shanku mein 60--70 beejaand hote hain. utpatti aur anya roop se bhi yeh paudha apna saathi naheen rakhata aur aisa lagta hai ki isne paudhe ki kisi anya jaati ko bhi utpann naheen kiya hai. yeh ek jeevit fausil hai.

neeteleej (Gnetales) gan ka mukhya vansh neetam (Gnetum) hai. yeh dvibeeji hai tatha aavrutabeej se bahut milta julata hai. yeh lata tatha vruksh ke roop mein ugata hai. yeh desh bhoomadhya saagareeya nam sthaanon mein hi paaya jaata hai aur iski lagbhag 30 jaatiyaaain milti hain. vivrutabeej mein yeh vansh sabse adhik viksit maana jaata hai. maaheshvari aur vaanil ne apni pustak 'neetam' mein likha hai ki Bhaarat mein neetam nimon (G. gnemon) Assam mein, ni. ulava (G. ulva) pashchim tatha poorvi tat par, ni. aabalaangam Bengal mein, neetam kantraiktam Kerala mein, ni. laitifoliym andamaan, nikobaar mein tatha neetam oola anya bhaagon mein paaya jaata hai.

neetam ke tane ki banaavat kaafi jatil hoti hai. baahya tvacha ke baahar ka bhaag moti deevaar se bana hota hai. radhran gahre gaddhe mein banta hai, valkut ki koshikaaeain patali hoti hain aur unamein klorofil kabhi kabhi paaya jaata hai. majja patali koshika ki deevaar hoti hai. neetam neemon mein gaun vruddhi saadhaaran dhang ki hoti hai, parantu lataravaali jaatiyon mein aisi vruddhi ek vishesh prakaar ki hoti hai, jismein valkut hi edha sakriyta (ambial activity) utpann karta hai. sanvahan ootak 2--3 chakr mein ban jaate hain, jaise neetam oola mein. sanvaahini (vessel) ke chhor ki deevaar ek hi chhidr se mili rahati hai. trakeed (trachied) ke kinaare ki deevaaron par gart (pit) hoti hain. majjaka rashmi (medullary ray) kaafi chaudi aur ooainchi hoti hai.

patti bade ande ke aakaar ki hoti hai, jismein shiraaeain dvibeej shalk patti ki bhaaainti jaal banaati hain. ye chhote tane par adhik niklati hain. aisa samjha jaata tha ki inke radhran aavrutabeej jaise sinditokeelik hote hain, par haal hi mein maaheshvari aur vaasil (1961) ne ise anya vivrutabeej jaisa hi, haiplokeelik, paaya hain, jismein gaun koshika ki utpatti dvaarakoshika (guard cell) se svatantr hoti hai.

sabhi jaatiyon mein nar tatha maada prajanan ang alag alag paudhe par ugate hain. nar fool, jinki sankhya 3 s 6 ya 7 tak hoti hai, ek golaai mein nikalte hain. paraagakosh ki sankhya prati pushp 1, 2, ya chaar hoti hai. maada shanku mein bhi 'kaular' (skandh mool sandhi) jaisa bhaag hota hai, jiske oopar 4 se 10 tak beejaand lage hote hain. ye bhi ek golaai mein nikalte hain. neetam ka sanvrutabeejon ka poorvaj bhi kaha gaya hai.

in sabhi ganon ke atirikt kuchh fausil (fossil) vivrutabeej bhi mile hain, jinhein nae gan, ya samooh, mein rakha gaya hai, jaise vaujanovaskiyelees (Vojonovkyales) aur glausauptaris vivrutabeej.

vaajanovaskiyeleej gan ki sthaapana san 1955 mein nyoovarg (Neuburg) ne roos ke paramiyn aur angaara flora se ki.

iska mukhya paudha vaajanovaskiya pairedaaksa (Vojnovskya paradoxa) hai, jo jhaadi jaisa vruksh tha aur pankhe jaisi jiski pattiyaaain theen. chekenovaskiya (Czekanowskia) bhi ek aisa hi paudha tha.

glaumauptaris ke kai paudhe Bhaarat tatha Africa ke gondavaana bhoomi se anusandhaan dvaara praapt hue hain. inke mukhya udaaharan hain : glaasauptaris (Glossopteris) tatha gaingamauptaris ki patti (Gangamopteris), otokairiya (Ottokaria) ityaadi.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. Life: The Science of Biology, David Sadava, David M. Hillis, H. Craig Heller, May Berenbaum, Macmillan, 2009, ISBN 978-1-4292-4644-6, ... Gymnosperms (which means “anaked-seeded”) are so named because their ovules and seeds are not protected by ovary or fruit tissue ...