amoniya

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amoniya
Ball-and-stick model of the ammonia molecule
Space-filling model of the ammonia molecule
अमोनिया अणु का त्रि-आयामी संरचना सूत्र
aaiyoopeeesi naam Azane
anya naam Hydrogen nitride

Trihydrogen nitride
Nitro-Sil
Nitrogen trihydride

pehchaan aaidentifaayars
si.A.S sankhya [7664-41-7][CAS]
pabakaim 222
EC sankhya 231-635-3
UN sankhya 1005
keijeeji D02916
MeSH Ammonia
raasa.E.bi.I 16134
RTECS number BO0875000
SMILES
InChI
Beilstein Reference
3587154
ji-melin sandarbh 79
kaimaspaaidar I.di 217
gun
aanvik sootr NH3
molar dravyamaan 17.031 g/mol
dikhaavat Colourless gas
gandh strong pungent odour
ghanatv 0.86 kg/m3 (1.013 bar at boiling point)

0.769 kg/m3 (STP)[1]
0.73 kg/m3 (1.013 bar at 15 °aC)
681.9 kg/m3 at −33.3 °aC (liquid)[2]
817 kg/m3 at −80 °aC (transparent solid)[3]

galanaank

−77.73 °aC, 195 K, -108 °aF

kvathanaank

−33.34 °aC, 240 K, -28 °aF

jal mein ghulanasheelata 47% w/w (0 °aC)
31% w/w (25 °aC)
18% w/w (50 °aC)[4]
ghulanasheelata soluble in chloroform, ether, ethanol, methanol
vaashp dabaav 8573 h Pa
amlata (pKa) 32.5 (−33 °aC),[5] 10.5 (DMSO)
Basicity (pKb) 4.75
rifrektiv index (nD) 1.3327
shyaanata 0.276 cP (−40 °aC)
dhaancha
aanvik aakaar Trigonal pyramid
Dipole moment 1.42 D
Thermochemistry
faurmeshan ki maanak
enthaalpi
ΔfHo298
−46 kJ·aamol−1[6]
maanak moleeya
entraupi
So298
193 J·aamol−1·aK−1[6]
khatra
EU vargeekaran saaaincha:Hazchem T Corrosive C saaaincha:Hazchem N
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
1
3
0
R-fresej saaaincha:R10, saaaincha:R23, R34, saaaincha:R50
S-fresej (S1/2), S9, S16, S26, saaaincha:S36/37/39, S45, S61
sfuraank (flaish pauint) flammable gas
you.S anujnyaeya avasthiti seema (pi.E.L) 50 ppm (25 ppm ACGIH- TLV; 35 ppm STEL)
eladi50 0.015 mL/kg (human, oral)
Related compounds
Other cations Phosphine
Arsine
Stibine
jahaan diya hai vahaan ke alaava,
ye aankade padaarth ki maanak sthiti (25 °ase, 100 ki.pa ke anusaar hain.
jnyaaanasandook ke sandarbh

amoniya ek teekshm gandh waali rangaheen gas hai. yeh hava se halki hoti hai tatha iska vaashp ghanatv 8.5 hai. yeh jal mein ati vileya hai. amoniya ke jaleeya ghol ko likr amoniya kaha jaata hai yeh kshaareeya prakruti ka hota hai. Joseph pristale ne sarvapratham amoniym kloraaid ko choone ke saath garm karke amoniya gas ko taiyaar kiya. barthelaat ne iske raasaayanik gathan ka adhyayan kiya tatha isko banaane vaale tatvon ko pata lagaaya. prayogashaala mein amoniym kloraaid tatha bujhe hue sookhe choone ke mishran ko garm karke amoniya gas taiyaar ki jaati hai.

upayog

yooriya, amoniym salfet, amoniym faasfet, amoniym naaitret aadi raasaayanik khaadon ko banaane mein amoniya ka upayog kiya jaata hai. bade paimaane par naaitrik esid tatha sodiym kaarbonet ke nirmaan mein iska upayog kiya jaata hai. barf banaane ke kaarkhaane mein sheetaleekaarak ke roop mein amoniya ka upayog kiya jaata hai. prayogashaala mein pratikaarak ke roop mein iska upayog kiya jaata hai. likr amoniya ka upayog kapadon se tel greej aadi ke daag ko chhudaane ke liye kiya jaata hai. amoniym kaarbonet banaane mein iska upayog kiya jaata hai. apne atyadhik upayog ke kaaran poori duniya mein iska vyaapak paimaane par utpaadan hota hai. 2004 mein poore vishv mein iska aanumaanik utpaadan 10 karod 90 lakh tan hua tha.[7] 2006 mein iska utpaadan lagbhag 14 karod 65 lakh tan hua hai.[8] amoniya utpaadan mein Bhaarat ka sthaan cheen ke baad dviteeya hai. ye donon desh vishv utpaadan ka kramash: 28.4% tatha 8.6% utpaadit karte hain. roos 8.4% tatha sanyukt raajya America 8.2% ke utpaadan ke saath teesare aur chauthe sthaan par hain.[7] kul utpaadan ke 80% ka upayog urvarak banaane ke liye hota hai.[7] naaitreekaran ki prakriya dvaara kuchh sajeevon mein vaayumandaleeya naaitrojan se amoniya ka nirmaan hota hai.

kisi udyog ya amoniya tank se amoniya ka risaav hokar yadi achaanak amoniya vaataavaran mein fail jaae to aaainkh tatha chehare ko kaafi adhik paani ke dvaara dhona chaahiye. amoniya jal mein ati vileya hai isliye chehare ko jal se dhone se yeh ghulakar alag ho jaati hai.

sandarbh

  1. http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/gas-density-d_158.html
  2. Yost, Don M. (2007). "Ammonia and Liquid Ammonia Solutions". Systematic Inorganic Chemistry. READ BOOKS. pa॰ 132. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1-4067-7302-6. http://books.google.com/?id=qPGzhL3Y50YC&pg=PA132.
  3. Blum, Alexander (1975). "On crystalline character of transparent solid ammonia". Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids 24 (4): 277. doi:10.1080/00337577508240819.
  4. Budavari, Susan, san (1996). The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals (12th san॰). Merck. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-911910-12-3.
  5. Perrin, D. D., Ionisation Constants of Inorganic Acids and Bases in Aqueous Solution; 2nd Ed., Pergamon Press: Oxford, 1982.
  6. a aa Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. pa॰ A22. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-618-94690-X.
  7. a aa i United States Geological Survey publication
  8. Max Appl "Ammonia" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2006, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a02_143.pub2 Article Online Posting Date: December 15, 2006