aml

aml ek raasaayanik yaugik hai jo jal mein ghulakar haaidrojan aayan (H+) deta hai. iska pH maan 7.0 se kam hota hai. johaans nikolas bronsated aur Martin lauri dvaara di gayi aadhunik paribhaasha ke anusaar, aml vah raasaayanik yaugik hai jo pratikaarak yaugik (kshaar) ko haaidrojan aayan (H+) pradaan karta hai. jaise- eseetik aml (sirka mein) aur salfyoorik aml (baitari mein). aml, thos, drav ya gas, kisi bhi bhautik avastha mein paae ja sakte hain. ve shuddh rup mein ya ghol ke roop mein rah sakte hain. jis padaarth ya yaugik mein aml ke gun paae jaate hain ve (amleeya) kahalaate hain. maanav aantr mein haaidroklorik aml ki adhikta se hone waali beemaari ko amlata ya eseediti kehte hain.

anukram

aml evam kshaarak (parichay evam itihaas)

mote hisaab se aml (aisid) un padaarthon ko kehte hain jo paani mein ghulane par khatte svaad ke hote hain (aml = khatta), haldi se bani roli (kunkam) ko peela kar dete hain, adhikaansh dhaatuon par (jaise jaste par) abhikriya karke haaidrojan gas utpann karte hain aur kshaarak ko udaaseen (nyootral) kar dete hain. mote hisaab se kshaarak (base) un padaarthon ko kehte hain jinka vilyan chikna-chikna sa lagta hai (jaise baaja degree sode ka vilyan), svaad kaduaa hota hai, haldi ko laal kar dete hain aur amlon ko udaaseen karte hain. udaaseen karne ka arth hai aise padaarth (lavan) ka banaana jismein na aml ke gun hote hain, na kshaarak ke.

lavaajiye ne (1770 E. mein) aakseejan ke gunon ka adhyayan karte samay dekha ki kaarban, gandhak aur faasforas sadrush tatv jab aakseejan mein jalate hain tab unase bane aaksaaid jal ke saath milkar aml banaate hain. ve is parinaam par pahuainche ki amlon mein aakseejan rahata hai aur amlon ki amleeyata ka kaaran aakseejan hai. isi kaaran is gas ka naam "aakseejan" pada, jiska arth hota hai "aml banaanevaala padaarth" tatha isi kaaran jarman bhaasha mein aakseejan ko "saayar staf" arthaat aml padaarth kehte hain.

lavaajiye ne hi amlon ko do vargon, akaarbanik amalon aur kaarbanik amlon mein vibhkt kiya tha. peechhe dekha gaya ki kuchh tatvon ke aaksaaid paani mein ghulakar aml naheen balki kshaar banaate hain aur kuchh amlon mein aakseejan bilkul naheen hota. barteele ne san 1787 mein haaidrosaaienik aml, devi ne san 1810-11 mein haaidroklorik aml aur san 1813 mein haaidriyodik aml ka aavishkaar kiya. inmein se kisi mein aakseejan naheen hai.

aage chalakar dekha gaya hai ki jo padaarth bilkul sookhe hote hain, unamein koi amleeya abhikriya naheen hoti. tab logon ne amlon ko do vargon mein vibhkt kiya, ek haaidro-aml aur doosra aaksi-aml. peechhe san 1815 mein devi ne sujhaav rakha ki amlon ki amleeyata aakseejan ke kaaran naheen, varan haaidrojan ke kaaran hai. doolaang ne san 1815 mein aaksailik aml ka adhyayan kiya aur is parinaam par pahuainche ki aakseejanavaale aur bina aakseejanavaale amlon mein koi bhed naheen hai.

amlon mein koi aisa gun naheen hai jise ham amlon ka vishisht lakshan kah sakein. saadhaaran gun oopar bataae ja chuke hain. aml aur dhaatu ki abhikriya mein aml ke anu ka ek, ya ek se adhik, haaidrojan parmaanu dhaatuon, dhaatuon ke aaksaaidon, haaidroksaaidon athva kaarboneton se visthaapit ho jaata hai.

aise bhi kuchh aml hain jo khatte hone ke badle meethe hote hain. aisa ek aml aimido-fosfarik aml hai. kuchh aise bhi aml hain jo kshaarahar naheen hote. kuchh aise bhi kshaar hain jinka haaidrojan dhaatuon se visthaapit ho jaata hai. fitkari aml naheen hai. ismein visthaapit honevaala koi haaidrojan bhi naheen hai. par yeh svaad mein khatta aur kriya mein kshaarahar hota hai. yeh neele litmas ko laal bhi kar deta hai. isi prakaar sodiym baaisalfaaid khatta aur kshaarahar hota hai. yeh neele litmas ko laal karta hai. ismein visthaapit honevaala haaidrojan bhi hai, par yeh aml naheen hai. mithen aml naheen hai, par iska haaidrojan jaste se visthaapit ho jaata hai aur is prakaar jink daaimethil banta hai jo lavan naheen hai.

at: aml ki koi santoshaprad paribhaasha ab tak naheen di ja saki hai. aayan siddhaant ke aadhaar par yadi ham amlon ki paribhaasha dena chaahein to kah sakte hain ki amlon mein haaidrojan aayanon ka rahana atyaavashyak hai.

silviyn ne san 1659 mein pehle pahal amlon aur kshaarakon mein vibhed kiya tha. rool ne san 1774 mein kshaarak naam us padaarth ko diya jo amlon ke saath milkar lavan banaata hai. aajkal kshaarak un aakseejan vaale padaarthon ko kehte hain jo amlon ke poorak hote hain. kshaar dhaatuon, kshaareeyamruda dhaatuon aur anya dhaatuon ke aaksaaid aur ve sabhi vastueain kshaarak hain jo amlon ke saath milkar lavan banaati hain. aarambh mein kshaarak keval un dhaatuon athva dhaatuon ke aaksaaidon ke liye vyavahrat hota tha jo lavanon ke "base" ya aadhaar the. lavanon ke kshaarak aavashyak avayav hain.

kshaarak vaastav mein ve padaarth hain jo aml ke saath milkar lavan aur jal banaate hain. udaaharanat:, jink aaksaaid salfyoorik aml ke saath milkar jink salfet aur jal banaata he. daahak soda salfyoorik aml ke saath milkar sodiym salfet aur jal banaata hai. dhaatuon ke aaksaaid saamaanyat: kshaarak hain. par iske apavaad bhi hain.

kshaarakon mein dhaatuon ke aaksaaid aur haaidraaksaaid hain, par suvidha ke liye tatvon ke kuchh aise samooh bhi rakhe gaye hain jo amlon ke saath milkar bina jal bane hi lavan banaate hain. aise kshaarakon mein amoniya, haaidraakseelemin aur faasfeen hain. drav amoniya ghul jaata hai par feenolfathaileen se koi rang naheen deta. at: kahaaain tak yeh kshaarak kaha ja sakta hai, yeh baat sandigdh hai.

yadyapi oopar ki kshaarak ki paribhaasha badi asantoshaprad hai, tathaapi isse achhi paribhaasha naheen di ja saki hai. kshaarak (base) aur kshaar (ailkaili) paryaayavaachi jnyaabd naheen hain. sab kshaar kshaarak hain par sab kshaarak kshaar naheen hain. kshaar-dhaatuon ke aaksaaid, jaise sodiym aaksaaid, jal mein ghulakar haaidraaksaaid banaate hain. ye prabal kshaarakeeya hote hain. kshaareeya mrudaadhaatuon ke aaksaaid, jaise kailisyam aaksaaid, jal mein alp vileya aur alp kshaareeya hote hain. anya dhaatuon ke aaksaaid jal mein ghulate naheen aur unke haaidraaksaaid paroksh reetiyon se hi banaae jaate hain.

dhaatuon ke aaksaaid aur haaidraaksaaid kshaarak hote hain. kshaar dhaatuon ke aaksaaid jal mein sheegra ghul jaate hain. kuchh dhaatuon ke aaksaaid jal mein kam vileya hote hain aur kuchh dhaatuon ke aaksaaid jal mein tanik bhi vileya naheen hain. kuchh adhaatuon ke haaidraaid, jaise naaitrojan aur faasforas ke haaidraaid (kramash: amoniya aur faasfeen) bhi bhasm hote hain.


amlon ka vargeekaran

  • aakseejan ki upasthiti/anupasthiti ke aadhaar par
    • anoxic (HCl, H 2 S);
    • oxygenated (HNO 3).
  • kshaarakata ke aadhaar par - (amleeya haaidrojan paramaanuon ki sankhya ke aadhaar par)
    • Monobasic (HPO 3);
    • Double-(H 2 SeO 4, Azelaic acid);
    • Tribasic (H 3 PO 4).
    • Chetyrehosnovnye (H 4 CO 4).
  • kriyaasheelata ke aadhaar par
    • Strengths - almost completely dissociated, the dissociation constants of greater 1.10 −3 (HNO 3);
    • Weaknesses - the dissociation constant of less than 1.10 −3 (acetic acid, K d = 1.7 × 10 -5).
  • Sustainability
    • Stable (H 2 SO 4);
    • Unstable (H 2 CO 3).
  • kaarbanik ya akaarbanik
    • Inorganic (HBr);
    • Organic (HCOOH);
  • vaashpasheelata (volatility) ke aadhaar par
    • vaashpasheel (H 2 S, HCl);
    • avaashpasheel
  • jal mein vileyata (Solubility) ke aadhaar par
    • jal mein vileya (H 2 SO 4);
    • avileya (H 2 SiO 3);

amlon ke raasaayanik gun

  • aml dhaatu aaksaaidon ke saath kriya karke lavan aur jal banaate hain.

  • emfoterik aaksaaidon ke saath kriya karke lavan aur jal banaate hain.

  • kshaaron ke saath kriya karke lavan va jal banaate hain (udaaseeneekaran abhikriya)

  • aghulanasheel kshaaron ke saath kriya karke lavan aur jal banaate hain.

  • lavanon ke saath kriya

  • shaktishaali aml, kamjor amlon ke moolakon ko visthaapit kar dete hain.

(is kriya mein asthaayi kaarbonik aml ka nirmaan hota hai jo turant paani aur kaarban daaiaaksaaid mein toot jaata hai.)

  • dhaatuon ke saath kriya

  • . kaarbanik aml, alkohal ke saath kriya karke istar aur jal banaate hain. ise istareekaran kriya kehte hain.

udaaharan

kuchh saamaanya aml

(khanij) esid akaarbanik

  • gandhak ka aml ya salfyoorik aml
  • haaidroklorik esid
  • fausforik esid
  • Orthocarbonic esid
  • naaitrik esid
  • borik aml
  • Sulfurous esid
  • haaidrojan salfaaid
  • Hydrofluoric esid
  • Yodovodorodnaya esid
  • Hypochlorous esid
  • klorik esid
  • kloras esid
  • Perchloric esid
  • naaitrojanavaala esid
  • Hydrobromic esid
  • Silicic esid
  • Permanganate
  • kaarbonik esid
  • haaidrojan cynide
  • Hydrofluoric esid
  • Rodanistovodorodnaya esid
  • Tiosernaya esid
  • aavadhik esid
  • Iodic esid
  • aarsenik aml
  • molibdenam esid

kaarbanik aml

  • faurmik esid
  • esitik esid
  • saaitrik esid
  • laiktik esid
  • Oxalic esid
  • Butyric esid
  • Ascorbic aml (vitaamin si)
  • chiraayata ka aml
  • Lysergic esid
  • Deoxyribonucleic esid DNA ()
  • Azelaic esid
  • yoorik esid
  • Lauric esid
  • Tartaric esid

inhein bhi dekhein

  • aml evam kshaar ke siddhaant
  • atiaml (Superacid)
  • amlon ki soochi

baahari kadiyaaain