ameriki futabaul

bhidne ke liye taiyaar ameriki futabaul ki do teemein
khel ke maidaan par yaardalaainein aur gjon mein ank
apne kisi aakraamak saathi ko geind feinkane ko taiyaar ek kvaartarabaik
bhaagata hua aakraamak khilaadi rakshakon dvaara pataka gaya - agar yeh uth na saka ko yahi ek "daaun" hoga
bhidne ki shuruaat mein aakraamak (laal) aur rakshak (neele) khilaadiyon ki maidaan mein sthiti (yeh udahaaran hai - har khel mein yeh kuchh alag hoti hai)

ameriki futabaul (angreji: American football) gyaarah khilaadiyon ki do teemon ke beech khela jaane wala ek lokapriya khel hai jismein har team ka uddeshya hai ki vah geind ko doosari team ke "ऍnd jon" (endzone, ant kshetr) mein pahuainchaakar ank batore.

jis team ke paas geind par kbja hota hai, vah geind ke saath daudkar ya apne saathiyon mein aapas mein geind feinkakar use virodhi team ke ऍndajon tak badhaane ki koshish karti hai. agar us team ka koi khilaadi geind pakade hue gol ki lakeer ko paar karke virodhi ऍndajon mein pahuainch jaata hai, ya ऍndajon ke andar khada hua apne saathi dvaara feinki gayi geind ko safalataapoorvak pakad leta hai ya fir maidaan se gol ki lakeer ke peechhe bane do khambon ke beech se geind ko laat maarkar pahuaincha deta hai to usaki team ko ank milte hain. virodhi team ka kaam hai ki takkar maarkar, giraakar, ya beech mein aakar feinki gayi geind ko pakadkar kisi tarah geind par kbja kare ya dushman team ko apni team ke ऍndajon ki taraf badhne se roke.

ameriki futabaul adhiktar sanyukt raajya America aur Canada mein kheli jaati hai. iske khel ko vyavasaayik star par niyantrit karne waali sansthaan ka naam "naishanal futabaul league" (National Football League, raashtreeya futabaul sangh) hai, jise chhote roop mein ऍna॰aऍf॰aऍla॰ (NFL) kaha jaata hai. America mein is khel ke do mukhya roop hain, college futabaul aur vyavasaayik futabaul, jinke niyam ek-dusare se thode alag hain. schoolon ki uchch kakshaaon mein bhi futabaul kheli jaati hai aur uske niyam bhi thode bhinn hote hain.

anukram

maidaan aur khilaadi

khel ka maidaan 100 gj (yaard) lamba aur 53.3 gj chauda hota hai. maidaan ki lambaai ke donon taraf ek gol ki lakeer hoti hai, jiske aage das-das gj ke ऍndajon hote hain, yaani kul milkar maidaan ki lambaai 120 gj hoti hai. maidaan mein har paaainch gj ke faasale par ek yaardalaain (yardline, gj ki lakeer) naam ki lakeer hoti hai. har ऍndajon ke aakhir mein jameen se 10 fut ki ooainchaai par do khambe hote hain jinhein "goalpost" (goalpost, gol ke khambe) kaha jaata hai.

kisi bhi samay har team maidaan mein apne 11 khilaadi rakh sakti hai, lekin teemon ko adhikaar hota hai ki khel mein kisi bhi antaraal ke samay apna ek ya sabhi khilaadi badal de. isliye futabaul ek visheshagya khilaadiyon ka khel hai. kisi bhi team mein vaastav mein bahut se khilaadi hote hain, jinhein teen prakaaron mein baaainta jaata hai: aakramak khilaadi (offensive, ofainsiv), rakshak khilaadi (defensive, difainsiv) aur vishesh khilaadi (special team, special team). kuchh khilaadi to teemon mein sirf isliye rakhe jaatein hain ki agar unke hi hunar vaale kisi khilaadi ko chot lag jaae to unhein unke sthaan par daala ja sake. jyaadaatar mukaabalon mein kisi bhi team ke kai khilaadiyon ko maidaan mein utarane ka mauka hi naheen milta.

jis team ke paas geind par kbja ho, use "aakraamak" (ofains) bulaaya jaata hai aur jis ke paas na ho use "rakshak" (difains) bulaaya jaata hai. aakramak team ke sabse mahatvapoorn khilaadi ko kvaartarabaik (quarterback) kehte hain. jab aakramak aur rakshakon mein bhidant shuroo karti hai to isi ka kaam hai ki teji se maidaan ka muaaina karke faisala kare ki aakramak team ka kaun-sa khilaadi geind ko rakshak team ke ऍndajon ki taraf badhaane ke liye sabse achhi sthiti mein maujood hai. fir kvaartarabaik use geind feink deta hai, ya khud hi bhaagakar geind aage badhaane ki koshish karta hai.

khel ka samay

khel ka poora samay ek ghanta hota hai, jise chaar 15 minute ki chauthaiyon (quarters, kvaartaraj) mein baaainta jaata hai. doosari chauthaai ke baad (yaani khel ke ardh-samay par) ek 12 minute ka viraam hota hai.[1] khelte hue kai baar geind ruk jaati hai aur tab khel ki ghadi bhi rok di jaati hai. is se 15 minute ki chauthaai vaastav mein 45 minute se bhi adhik le sakti hai aur poora ek ghante ka khel vaastav mein teen ghante se bhi zyaada chal sakta hai. jab khel telivijn par prasaarit hota hai to in antaraalon mein prasaaranakarta ishtehaar dikhaate hain.

aakraamakon ka badhna

mukaabale ki shuruaat mein sikka uchhaala jaata hai aur ek team ko aakraamak team ghoshit kar ke unhein geind de di jaati hai. ab 50 gj ki lakeer par (yaani maidaan ke theek beech mein) donon teemein ek dusare se bhidne ke liye aamne-saamane lakeerein banaakar khadi ho jaati hain. aakraamak team ka kvaartarabaik apni team ke peechhe khada hota hai. maahaul theek aisa hota hai ki do gut jang ke liye taiyaar ho rahe hon.

khel shuroo hota hai jab geind aakraamak kvaartarabaik ke haathon mein pahuainchati hai. fauran rakshak team ke khilaadi us tak pahuainch kar use dhaane ki jiddo-jahad mein lag jaate hain. kuchh aakraamak khilaadi unase bhidkar unhein rokane ki koshish karte hain, jabki baaki aakramak khilaadi virodhi ke kshetr mein daakhil hokar apne aap ko geind aage badhaane ke liye achhi sthiti mein daalne ki koshish karte hain. kvaartarabaik ke paas kuchh hi kshan hote hain jismein use faisala karna hota hai: kis saathi ko geind feinkein ya fir khud raasta dhoondhata hua aage bhaage. kuchh hi kshanon mein usaki raksha karne vaale ginti ke aakramak khilaadiyon ko unase joojhane vaale rakshak khilaadi patakakar ya dhakelakar kvaartarabaik tak pahuainch jaate hain. agar geind kvaartarabaik ke haath mein ho aur use daboch diya jaae to ise "saik" (sack) kehte hain aur kisi bhi kvaartarabaik ke liye yeh bahut sharmanaak maana jaata hai. adhik baar saik hone ka matlab hai ki kvaartarabaik jhadpon ke beech soch naheen paaya: vah kamzor hai aur aakraamakon ka netrutv karne ke kaabil naheen hai.

chaahe kvaartarabaik geind kisi ko feinke, chaahe khud use lekar badhe, aam taur se rakshak thodi hi doori par geindavaale aakraamak khilaadi ko dha hi lete hain aur geind ruk jaati hai. is sthiti ko daaun (down) kehte hain. aakraamakon ka kaam hai ki 4 daaunon mein geind ko kam-se-kam 10 gj badhaaeain. agar ve aisa naheen kar paate to rakshakon ko geind par kbja de diya jaata hai aur rakshak ab aakraamak bante hain aur aakraamak rakshak. geind ka kbja tab bhi badal jaata hai agar kisi aakraamak ke haath se khelte hue geind chhoot jaae aur koi rakshak us hilti hue geind ko pakad le (ise fmbal ya "fumble" kaha jaata hai) ya fir kvaartarabaik kisi anya aakraamak khilaadi ko geind feinke aur koi rakshak beech mein aakar use pakad le (ise intarasaipshan ya "interception" kaha jaata hai). fmbal ya intarasaipshan ki sthiti mein jis rakshak ne geind pakad liya hai vah virodhi ke ऍndajon ki taraf fauran bhaagna shuroo kar sakta hai aur tab tak bhaag sakta hai jab tak use giraakar daboch na liye jaae, maidaan se baahar na dhakel diya jaae, ya vah ऍndajon mein pahuainchakar apne team ke liye ank hi na bana le.

jab geind rookati hai to yeh bade dhyaan se maapa jaata hai ki 100 gj ke maidaan mein yeh kaunase gj par hai. agala khel maidaan ke beech mein usi gj par shuroo kiya jaata hai. is jagah ko "bhidne ki lakeer" (line of scrimmage, line of skrimmej) kaha jaata hai. jaisa ki kaha gaya hai, aakraamak team ka yahi maksad hai ki chaar ya us se kam daaunon mein geind 10 gj aage badhe. frj keejiye ke ve do hi daaunon mein geind ko 10 gj aage badha lein. to kaha jaata hai ki ve fir se pehle daaun par hain aur unhein ab is nai skrimmej lakeer se fir se chaar daaunon mein geind ko 10 gj badhaana hai. yeh silsila tab tak chalta hai jab tak aakraamak rakshakon ke ऍndajon tak na pahuainch jaaeain ya glati karke virodhi ko geind ka kbja na de dein.

kbja badalne par jo khel mein rukaav hota hai, usamein khilaadi bhi badal diye jaate hain. bahut se aakraamak khilaadi daudne mein aur feinki gayi geind pakadne mein nipun hote hain aur aksar unke shareer halake hote hain. bahut se rakshak bheemakaaya hote hain aur agar ve daboch lein ya patak dein to jyaadaatar aakraamak-vishesh khilaadiyon ke liye uthaana mushkil ho jaata hai. achha aakraamak vahi hai jise kvaartarabaik dvaara feinki gayi geind ko bina glati ke pakadna aata ho aur jo bhaagte hue rakshakon ko chakama dete hue dushman ke kshetr mein door tak geind badha sake. kuchh aakraamakon ka kaam hota hai ki ve rakshakon se bhidein taaki anya aakraamak geind aage le ja sakein. inka naam hi "ofainsiv taikal" (offensive tackle, yaani bhidne vaale aakraamak) hota hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. "Beginner's Guide to Football". NFL Enterprises LLC. 2009. http://www.nfl.com/rulebook/beginnersguidetofootball. abhigman tithi: 2009-04-05.