amarakosh

amarakosh sanskrut ke koshon mein ati lokapriya aur prasiddh hai. ise vishv ka pehla samaantar kosh (thesauras) kaha ja sakta hai. iske rachanaakaar amarasinh bataaye jaate hain jo chandragupt dviteeya (chauthi shabtaabdi) ke navaratnon mein se ek the. kuchh log amarasinh ko vikramaaditya (saptam shataabdi) ka samakaaleen bataate hain.[1]

is kosh mein praaya: das hajaar naam hain, jahaaain medini mein keval saadhe chaar hajaar aur halaayudh mein aath hajaar hain. isi kaaran panditon ne iska aadar kiya aur iski lokapriyta badhti gayi.

anukram

sanrachana

amarakosh shlokaroop mein rachit hai. ismein teen kaand (adhyaaya) hain. svargaadikaandan, bhoovargaadikaandan aur saamaanyaadikaandam. pratyek kaand mein anek varg hain. vishyaanugunan shabdaa: atr vargeekrutaa: santi. shabdon ke saath-saath ismein liङaganirdesh bhi kiya hua hai.

prathamakaand/svargaadikaandam

svargaadikaand mein gyaarah varg hain :

1 svargavarg: 2 vyomavarg: 3 digvarg: 4 kaalavarg: 5 dheevarg: 6 vaagvarg:
7 shabdaadivrg: 8 naatyavarg: 9 paataalabhogivrg: 10 narakavarg: 11 vaarivrg:

dviteeyakaand/bhoovargaadikaandam

is kaand mein das varg hain:

1 bhoomivrg: 2 puravarg: 3 shailavarg: 4 vanaushadhivrg: 5 sinhaadivrg: 6 manushyavarg:
7 brahmavarg: 8 kshatriyvarg: 9 vaishyavarg: 10 shoodravarg:

truteeyakaandam/saamaanyaadikaandam

is kaand mein chh: varg hain:

1 visheshyanighnavarg: 2 saङakeernavarg: 3 naanaarthavarg:
4 naanaarthaavyayavarg: 5 avyayavarg: 6 liङagaadisङagrahavarg:

anya sanskrut koshon ki bhaanti amarakosh bhi chhandobaddh rachana hai. iska kaaran yeh hai ki Bhaarat ke praacheen pandit "pustakastha' vidya ko kam mahatva dete the. unke liye kosh ka uchit upayog vahi vidvaan kar paata hai jise vah kanthasth ho. shlok sheegra kanthasth ho jaate hain. isliye sanskrut ke sabhi madhyakaaleen kosh padya mein hain. itaaleeya padit paavoleeni ne sattar varsh pehle yeh siddh kiya tha ki sanskrut ke ye kosh kaviyon ke liye mahattvapoorn tatha kaam mein kam aanevaale shabdon ke sangrah hain. amarakosh aisa hi ek kosh hai.

amarakosh ka vaastavik naam amarasinh ke anusaar naamaligaanushaasan hai. naam ka arth yahaaain sanjnyaa shabd hai. amarakosh mein sanjnyaa aur uske lingabhed ka anushaasan ya shiksha hai. avyaya bhi diye gaye hain, kintu dhaatu naheen hain. dhaatuon ke kosh bhinn hote the (kaavyaprakaash, kaavyaanushaasan aadi). halaayudh ne apna kosh likhne ka prayojan kavikanthavibhooshanaartham bataaya hai. dhananjaya ne apne kosh ke vishay mein likha hai - main ise kaviyon ke laabh ke liye likh raha hooain (kaveenaan hitkaamyaya). amarasinh is vishay par maun hain, kintu unka uddeshya bhi yahi raha hoga.

amarakosh mein saadhaaran sanskrut shabdon ke saath-saath asaadhaaran naamon ki bharamaar hai. aarambh hi dekhiye- devataaon ke naamon mein lekha shabd ka prayog amarasinh ne kahaaain dekha, pata naheen. aise bhaari bharakam aur naamamaatr ke liye prayog mein aae shabd is kosh mein sangruheet hain, jaise-devadrayang ya vishdrayang (3,34). kathin, dularbh aur vichitr shabd dhoondh-dhoondhkar rakhana koshakaaron ka ek kartavya maana jaata tha. namasya (namaaj ya praarthana) rigved ka shabd hai (2,7,34). dvivchan mein naasatya, aisa hi shabd hai. madhyakaal ke in koshon mein, us samay praakrut shabd bhi sanskrut samajhakar rakh diye gaye hain. madhyakaal ke in koshon mein, us samay praakrut shabdon ke atyadhik prayog ke kaaran, kai praakrut shabd sanskrut maane gaye hain; jaise-chhurik, dhakka, gargari (praakrut gaggari), duli, aadi. bauddh-vikrut-sanskrut ka prabhaav bhi spasht hai, jaise-buddh ka ek naamaparyaaya arkabandhu. bauddh-vikrut-sanskrut mein bataaya gaya hai ki arkabandhu naam bhi kosh mein de diya. buddh ke 'sugat' aadi anya naamaparyaaya aise hi hain.

teekaaeain

amarakosh par aaj tak 40 se bhi adhik teekaaon ka pranayan kiya ja chuka hai. unamein se kuchh pramukh teekaaeain nimnalikhit hain –

  • 1. amarakoshodghaatan : iske rachanaakaar ksheerasvaami hain. yeh ksheerasvaami ka prameyabahul granth hai. yeh amarakosh ki sabse praacheen teeka hai. ksheerasvaami ke samay ke vishay mein spashtaroop se naheen kaha ja sakta. parantu vibhinn saakshyon ke aadhaar par inka samay 1080 i0 se 1130 i0 ke madhya nirdhaarit kiya ja sakta hai.
  • 2. teeka sarvasv : iske rachanaakaar sarvaanand hain. ye Bengal ke nivaasi the. inke vishay mein spasht saakshya praapt hote hain, jiske anusaar inka samay 1159 i0 hai.
  • 3. kaamadhenu : iske rachanaakaar subhootichndr hain. is teeka ka anuvaad tibbati bhaasha mein bhi upalabdh hai. inka samay 1191 i0 ke aaspaas hai.
  • 4. raamaashrami : is teeka ke rachanaakaar bhattoji Dixit ke putr bhaanuji Dixit hain. is teeka ka vaastavik naam 'vyaakhya sudha' hai. sannyaas lene ke baad bhaanuji ne apna naam raamaashram rakh liya. unke naam ke aadhaar par yeh teeka “araamaashrami teeka” ke naam se prasiddh hui. aaj yeh praay: isi naam se jaani jaati hai.

raamaashrami teeka mein, amarakosh mein parignit shabdon ki vyutpatti aur nirukti di gayi hai. abhi tak is teeka ka hindi anuvaad upalabdh naheen hai. yeh amarakosh ki ekamaatr aisi teeka hai, jismein shabdon ki vyaakaranik vyutpattiyon ke saath–saath nirukti bhi di gayi hai. yaask krut nirukt mein kaha gaya hai –

sarvaani naamaani aakhyaatajaani.

isi siddhaant ka paalan karte hue bhaanuji deekshit ne amarakosh mein parignit shabdon ka nirvachan kiya hai. ve bhi sabhi shabdon ko dhaatuj maanate hue unka nirvachan karte hain.

amarakosh ke kuchh shlok

peethikaashlokaa:

yasya jnyaaanadayaasindhoragaadhasyaanagha gunaa:.
sevyataamakshayo dheeraass shriyyai chaamrutaaya ch.
samaahrutyaanyatantraani sankshiptyai: pratisanskrutai:.
sampoornamuchyate vargairnaamaliङagaanushaasanam.
praayasho roopabheden saahacharyaachch kutrachit.
streenapunsakan jnyaeyan tadvisheshavidhe: kvachit.
bhedaakhyaanaaya na dvandvo naikashesho na saङakar:.
krutotr bhinnaliङagaanaamanuktaanaan kramaadrute.
triliङagyaan trishviti padan mithune tu dvayoriti.
nishiddhaliङagan sheshaarthan tvantaathaadi na poorvabhaak.

svarg:

svaravyayan svarganaakatridivtridshaalayaa:.
suraloko dyodivau dve striyaan kleebe tivishtapam.

buddhi:

buddhirmaneesha dhishna dhee: prajnyaa shemushi mati:.
prekshopalabdhishchitsanvitpratipjjnyaaptichetanaa:.

bhoomi:

bhoorbhoomirchalaananta rasa vishvambhara sthira.
dhara dharitri dharani kshoni jya kaashyapi kshiti:.
sarvansaha vasumati vasudhorvi vasundhara.
gotra ku: pruthivi pruthvi kshmaavanirmedini mahi.

namaskrutam

syaadarhite namasyitnamasitmapachaayitaarchitaapachitm.

poojitm

varivsite varivsyitmupaasitan chopacharitan ch.

kakaaraantaa:

padye yashasi ch shlokashshare khadge ch saayak:.
jambukau kroshtuvarunau pruthukau chipitaarbhakau.

sandarbh

  1. Amarakosha compiled by B.L.Rice, edited by N.Balasubramanya, 1970, page X

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