amaatya

bhaarateeya raajaneeti ke anusaar amaatya raajya ke saat angon mein doosra ang hai, jiska arth hai - mantri. raaja ke paraamarshadaataaon ke liye 'amaatya', 'sachiv' tatha 'mantri' - in teenon shabdon ka prayog praaya: kiya jaata hai. inmein amaatya ni:sandeh praacheenatam hai. rigved ke ek mantra (4.4.1) mein "amavaan"' shabd ka yaask dvaara nirdisht arth "amaatyayukt" hi hai (nirookt 6.12). vyutpati ke anusaar "amaatya" ka arth hai - 'sarvada saath rahanevaala vyakti' (ama=saath). aapastanb dharmasootr mein amaatya ka arth ni:sandeh mantri hai, jahaaain raaja ko aadesh hai ki vah apne guruon tatha mantriyon se badhkar aishvarya ka jeevan na bitaae. (2.10.25.10). "sachiv" shabd ka pratham prayog aitareya braahman (12.9) mein milta hai jahaaain marut Indra ke "sachiv" (sahaayak ya bandhu) batalaae gaye hain. mantriyon ki salaah lena raaja ke liye nitaant aavashyak hota hai. is vishay mein kautilya, manu (7.55) tatha matsyapuraan (215.3) ke vachan bahut hi spasht hain. amaatya, sachiv tatha mantri shabdon ka paryaaya roop mein prayog bahulata se upalabdh hota hai jisse inke paraspar paarthakya ka pata theek-theek nahi chalta.

maraatha saamraajya ke vittamantriyon ko amaatya kehte the. maurya raaja ashok ke vittamantriyon ke mahaamaatya kaha jaata tha.

roodradaaman‌ ke joonaagadhvaale mein sachiv shabd amaatya ka paryaayavaachi maana gaya hai. sachivon ke do prakaar yahaaain batalaae gaye hain: (1) matischiv (= raaja ko paraamarsh denevaala mantri) tatha (2) karmasachiv (= nishchit kiye gaye kaaryo ka sanpaadan karanevaala). amar ke anusaar bhi sachiv (= matischiv) amaatya mantri kahalaata hai aur usase bhinn amaatya "karmasachiv" kahalaate hain. parantu yeh paarthakya anya granthon mein naheen paaya jaata. kautilya ke arthashaastr ke anusaar mantriyon ka pad ooaincha hota tha aur amaatya ka saadhaaran koti ka. kautilya ka kehna hai amaatyon ka pareekshan dharm, arth, kaam aur bhaya ke vishay mein achhe dhang se karne par yadi ve imaandaar aur shuddh charitravaale siddh hon, tab unako niyukt karna chaahiye; parantu mantriyon ke vishay mein unka aagrah hai ki jo vyakti samast pareekshanon ke dvaara pareekshit hone par raajyabhakt tatha vishuddhashaya pramaanit kiya jaae, vahi mantri ke pad ke liye yogya samjha jaata hai. (arthashaastr 1.10). pareeksha ke upaaya ke nimit prayukt pradhaan shabd hai-upadha jiski vyaavya "neetivaakyaamrut' ke anusaar hai--dhamaarthikaamabhayeshu vyaajen parachittapareekshanam‌ upadha. raaja ko mantrana (mantra) dene ka kaarya braahman ka niji adhikaar tha, iseeliye kaalidaas ne braahman mantron ke dvaara anushaasit raajanya ki shakti ke upachaya ki samata "pavanaagnismaagam' se di hai (raghuvansh 8.4). amaatya ka pradhaan kaarya raaja ko bure maarg mein jaane se bachaana tha aur keval raajaneetik baaton mein hi naheen, pratyut anya aavashyak vishyon mein bhi raaja ka mantriyon se paraamarsh karna anivaarya tha. vah apne mantriyon se mantrana bade gupt sthaan mein karta tha, anyatha mantra aur karaneeya ka bhed khul jaane se raashtra ke anisht ki aashanka bani rahati thi.

amaatyaparishd (athva mantriprishd) ke sadasyon ki sankhya ke vishay mein praacheen kaal se matabhinnata dikhlaai padti hai. kisi aachaarya ka aagrah mantriyon ki sankhya teen-chaar tak seemit rakhane ke oopar hai, kintu kuchh aachaarya use saat-aath tak badhaane ke paksh mein hain. raamaayan (baalakaand, 7.2-3) mein dasharath ke mantriyon ki sankhya aath di gayi hai aur isi ke tatha shukraneetisaar (2.71.72) ke aadhaar par chhatrapati shivaaji ne apni mantriprishd ashtapradhaanon ki banaai thi. shaantiprv, kautilya tatha neetivaakyaamrut ke vachanon ki pareeksha se yeh nishkarsh nikaala ja sakta hai ki praacheen kaal mein mantrisbha teen prakaar ki hoti thi:

  • (k) teen ya chaar mantriyon ka antarang mantrimandal sabse adhik mahatvashaali tha.
  • (kh) mantriyon ki parishd jismein mantriyon ki sankhya saat ya aath rahati thi.
  • (g) amaatyon ya sachivon ki ek badi sabha jismein raajya ke vibhinn vibhaagon ke uchch adhikaari bhi sammilit hote the.

amaatyon ke liye aavashyak gunon tatha yogyata ka vishesh varnan dharmasootron tatha smrutiyon mein kiya gaya hai.

sandarbh granth

  • kautileeya arthashaastr;
  • shukraneeti;
  • kaamandakaneetisaar;
  • kaasheeprasaad jaayasavaal: hindu pauliti