alfred Nobel

अल्फ्रेड नोबेल

ailfred barnaard Nobel (Nobel, Alfred Bernhard, 1833-1896), sveedan nivaasi rasaayanajnya tatha engineer the. vishv prasiddh Nobel puraskaar inke hi dvaara sthaapit nyaas dvaara diya jaata hai. inhone daainemaait naamak prasiddh bisfotak ka aavishkaar kiya tha.

jeevani

ailfred barnaard Nobel ka janm baaltik saagar ke kinaare base staukahom naamak nagar mein hua tha inke pita san 1842 se seint peetarsabarg mein parivaar sahit rahane lage. yahaaain ve roos ki sarkaar ke liye kheti ke aujaaron ke sivaaya agnyaastr, surangein (mines) aur taarapeedo ke nirmaan mein lage rahe.

baalak ailfred ko san 1850 mein adhyayan ke liye sanyukt raashtra amareeka, bheja gaya, kintu vahaan ye keval ek varsh hi rah sake. roos se sveedan vaapas aane par ve apne pita ke kaarkhaane mein visfotakon ke, visheshakar naaitroglisrin ke, adhyayan mein lag gaye. 3 September 1864 ko bhayaanak visfot ke kaaran yeh sampoorn kaarkhaana nasht ho gaya aur inke chhote bhaai ki usi mein mrutyu ho gayi. fir bhi ye naaitroglisrin aise apratyaashit roop se visfot karanevaale dravya ko vash mein karne ke paayon ki khoj mein lage rahe. san 1867 mein inhonne dhoomarahit baarood ka bhi, jisne aage chalakar kaurdaait (cordite) ka roop le liya, aavishkaar kiya. in donon hi padaarthon ka udyog mein tatha yuddh mein bhi vistrut roop se upayog hone laga. isse tatha roos sthit baakoo ke tailakshetron mein dhanaviniyojan se inhonne vishaal dhanaraashi ekatrit kar li.

inka jeevan rogon se yuddh karte beeta. inhonne jeevan paryant vivaah naheen kiya tatha ekaaki jeevan bitaaya. maanav hit ki aakaanksha se prerit hokar inhonne apne dhan ka upayog ek nyaas (trust) sthaapit karne mein kiya, jisse prati varsh (1) bhautiki, (2) rasaayan, (3) shareer-kriya-vigyaan va chikitsa, (4) aadarshavaadi saahitya tatha (5) vishvashaanti ke kshetron mein sarvottam kaarya karanevaalon ko puraskaar diya jaata hai. ye puraskaar Nobel puraskaar kahalaate hain. san 1901 se Nobel puraskaar ka dena aarambh hua hai.