alekjndar Pope

alekjndar Pope, 1727 mein

alekjandar Pope (Alexander Pope ; 21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744) aangl kavi the. ve apne vyangaatmak kaavya tatha homar ki krutiyon ke anuvaad ke liye prasiddh hain. 'Oxford dikshanari of koteshans' mein William sheksapeeyar aur tenneesan ke baad teesare sarvaadhik uddhrut lekhak hain.[1]

parichay

alekjaindar Pope ka janm London mein 21 May 1688 ko hua. unke pita dhani vastravikreta the jo roman kaithelik panthi ban gaye the. padhne ke liye atyadhik parishram karne ke falasvaroop Pope ka shareer rugn tatha kuroop ho gaya tha aur is shaareerik dosh ki samvedna unako lagaataar chintit rakhati thi. unki shiksha bhi kramarahit tatha apoorn thi. ispar bhi 12 varsh ki avastha mein unhonne 'od on saulityood' (ekaantagaan) sheershak kavita likhi aur 14vein varsh mein unki adbhut tatha paripakva kavita 'saaileins' (maun) prasiddh hui. unki prakruti vishyak kavitaaon mein 'paistorals' ki, jo 1709 mein prasiddh hui, tatkaaleen sabhi mukhya mukhya aalochakon ne mukt kanth se prashansaaki hai. unka 'ese on kritisijm' (aalochna par nibandh) 1711 mein prakaashit hua aur isi ke kaaran ve tatkaaleen lekhakon mein pratham shreni ke lekhak maane jaane laga. 'vindasar faurest' naamak lok prasiddh kavita (1713) anek prashansaneeya, yathaarth tatha sundar varnanon se paripoorn hai. isi ke baad (1714) unka haasyarasaatmak mahaakaavya 'rape ov di lauk' (keshaapaharan) prasiddh hua jisse unki adbhut kalpanaashakti tatha komal bhaavavikaas ki khyaati sthirtar ho gayi. 1713 se 1720 tak unhonne homar ke 'iliad' ka angreji anuvaad prasiddh kiya. yadyapi yeh anuvaad mool mahaakaavya ka poorn roop se pratinidhitv naheen kar sakta tathaapi oj tatha rachanaamaadhurya se vah paripoorn hai. Pope ne saahityakaaron mein sarvashreshth pad praapt kar liya parantu irshyaamoolak raajaneetik matabhedon ke kaaran edisn (Joseph Addison) tatha unke anuyaayiyon ke ve virodhi ban gaye. 1717 mein unki 'eloisa too abelaai' tatha 'ainaeleji tu di memari ov ekan anafaarchyoonet ledi' (ek durdaivapeedit abala ka shokageet) ye donon bhaavapoorn kavitaaeain prasiddh huin. in do kavitaaon ke saath hi unki 'od on seint selisiyaaj de' naamak khandakaavya prasiddh hua. khandakaavya likhne ka Pope ka yeh mukhya prayatn tha aur iske adhyayan se yeh spasht ho gaya ki is prakaar ke kaavya ke liye jin bhaavon ki tatha chhandon ki aavashyakta hoti hai ve sab unki shakti ke baahar the.

1718 mein Pope ne 'tviken ham' ke sameep kuchh jameen tatha prasiddh vila khareed liya jahaaain ve jeevan ke ant tak rahate rahe. 1725-26 mein unhonne homar ke 'odise' ka anuvaad kiya. parantu yeh anuvaad aparipkv sahakaariyon ki sahaayata se poorn kiye jaane ke kaaran utana safal naheen hua jitna iliyd ka anuvaad hua tha. 1727-32 tak Pope tatha 'swift' sanyukt granth kartruvya mein ek vividh vishyak kavita sangrah prasiddh hua. is sangrah ki teesari pustak mein kai vyaktiyon ki or se Pope ki atyant kathor tatha katu aalochna ki gayi in aalochanaaon ka uttar dene ke liye 'dansiad' ke teen bhaag prakaashit kiye gaye. iske baad 'ese on main' (manushya par nibandh), 'esse on kritisijm', 'imiteshans ov hores' (hores ke anukaran) ye teen kaavyagranthon ki soochi samaapt hoti hai. in teenon mein pratham upadesh sambandhi kavita hai jo ki gaanbheerya tatha buddhimtta ka parichay deti hai. vah bolingabuk ke gaanbheerya tatha buddhimtt ka parichay deti hai yadyapi vah bolingabuk ke gaanbheerya shoonya daarshanik vichaaron ke aadhaar par likhi gayi hain. doosra bahut samay tak Pope ke sabhi kaavyon mein lokapriya kaavya raha. ismein dhan ke upayog ka aur stri purushon ke svabhaav ka varnan kiya gaya hai. yeh 1731-35 E. tak prakaashit kiya gaya tha. teesara hores se liya gaya anuvaadaatmak kaavyasangrah hai jo Pope ko vichaar-sookshmata tatha vyangya shakti utkrusht roop mein pradarshit karta hai. 'hores ke anukaran' 1733-39 mein prasiddh hue. 1742 E. mein unhonne 'dansiad' ka chautha bhaag prakaashit kiya. unka dehaant 30 May 1744 E. ko hua vah tvikenaham mein dafanaae gaye.

gadyalekhak ke roop mein Pope dviteeya shreni ke lekhak samajhe jaate hain. gadya mein swift gre, ityaadi prasiddh vyaktiyon ko likhe hue inke patra tatha vibhinn vishyon par aadanbarapoorn lekhon ka sangrah prasiddh hai. ye lekhak saral tatha spasht hain, visheshat: jab ve svaanubhavon ka varnan karte hain.

Pope England mein aaj tak hue vyangya kaviyon mein pro॰ seintsaberi ke shabdon mein 'kaavya saundarya ke vishay mein sansaar bhar mein sarvashreshth aachaaryo mein ek' the.

Pope ke kaavyon ka tatha lekhon ka sarvamaanya sangrah elavin aur korthap dvaara taiyaar kiya gaya hai jo 1871-89 mein prakaashit hua.

sandarbh

  1. Dictionary of Quotations (1999)

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