albaaniya

Republika e Shqipëarisë
albaaniya ganaraajya
dhvaj
raashtravaakya: "mukt aur sashakt"
raashtragaan: Hymni i Flamurit
("dhvaj ka geet")
rajdhani
aur sabse badaa nagar
tiraana
28°a34′aN 77°a12′aE / 28.567°aN 77.2°aE / 28.567; 77.2
raajabhaasha(eain) albaaniyaai
kshetreeya roop se maanyata praapt bhaashaaeain yoonaani, maisidoniyaai aur anya bhaashaaeain
nivaasi albaaniyaai
sarkaar sansadeeya lokatantr
vidhaan mandal albaaniyaai sansad
svatantr
- otoman saamraajya se 28 November, 1912
- sansadeeya lokatantr 28 November, 1998
kshetrafal
- kul 28,748 varg kilometer (139 vaan)
11,100 varg meal
- jal (%) 4.7
janasankhya
- 2009 janaganana 36,39,453 (130)
sakal ghareloo utpaad (PPP) 2008 praakkalan
- kul 21.81 arab dollar[1] (117 vaan)
- prati vyakti 6,000 $ (132 vaan)
sakal ghareloo utpaad (saanketik) praakkalan
- kul 12.96 arab dollar
- prati vyakti 3,561 $
gini (2008) 26.7[2]
nimn
maanav vikaas soochakaank (2007) 0.807
bahut uchch · 69 vaan
mudra lek (ALL)
samay mandal seeiti (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+1)
- greeshmakaaleen (di॰ba॰asa॰) seeiesati (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+2)
doorabhaash koot 355
Internet teeeladi .al

albaaniya ganaraajya (albaaniyaai: Republika e Shqipëarisë) uttarapoorvi Europe mein sthit ek desh hai. iski bhooseemaaen uttar mein kosovo, uttarapashchim mein montenegro, poorv mein bhootapoorv yoogoslaaviya aur dakshin mein yoonaan se milti hain. tateeya seemaaen dakshin pashchim mein aadriyaatik saagar aur aayoniyn saagar se milti hain.

albaaniya ek sansadeeya lokatantr aur avasthaantar arthavyavastha hai. albaaniya ki rajdhani, tiraana, lagbhag 8,95,000 nivaasiyon wala nagar hai jo desh ki 36 lakh ki janasankhya ka chauthaai bhaag hai aur yeh nagar albaaniya ka vitteeya kendra bhi hai. mukt baajaar sudhaaron ke kaaran videshi nivesh ke liye desh ki arthavyastha khol di gayi hai mukhyat: oorja ke vikaas aur parivhan aadhaarbhoot dhaanche mein.

albaaniya sanyukt raashtra, naato, Europeeya suraksha aur sahayog sangathan, Europeeya parishad, vishv vyaapaar sangathan, islaamik sammelan sangathan ityaadi ka sadasya hai aur bhoomadhya kshetr sangh ke sansthaapak sadasyon mein se ek tha. albaaniya January 2003 se Europeeya sangh mein vilay ke liye ek sambhaavit pratyaashi raha hai aur isne aupachaarik roop se 28 April, 2009 ko Europeeya sangh ki sadasyata ke liye aavedan kiya.

anukram

itihaas

doosari se chauthi sadi tak yeh kshetr roman saamraajya ka bhaag tha. iske agale 1000 varshon tak yeh yoonaani bhaasha bolne vaale ostromeerij ka bhaag tha. skaandarabarg, jise baad mein albaaniya ke raashtreeya naayak hone ka gaurav praapt hua, ne apni mrutyu tak turkon ko albaaniya se khadede rakha. iske baad lagbhag 500 varshon ka turk aadhiptya kaal aaya, jiska ant baalkan yuddh ke baad hua aur albaaniya 1912 mein ek svatantr desh bana.

pratham baalkan yuddh ke baad albaaniya ne otoman saamraajya se apni svatantrata ki ghoshana kar di. desh mein sthiti abhi bhi ashaant thi. dviteeya vishv yudgh ke dauraan Italy ne ispar adhikaar kar liya, lekin iska lagaataar envar hokja ke netrutv mein saamyavaadi virodh jaari raha aur itaalaviyon ke desh chhodne ke baad saamyavaadiyon ne satta sambhaali.

1990 mein envar hokja ki mrutyu ke paaainch varshon baad tak, albaaniya ek pruthakkrut desh tha.

desh mein bahudaleeya vyastha ko sudrudh kiya ja raha hai, lekin desh mein abhi bhi bahut si aarthik samasyaaen bani hui hain, jaise nivesh ki kami aur aadhaarbhoot dhaaainche ki kami aur aparyaapt bijli aapoorti. iske atirikt yahaaain bhrashtaachaar, 'kaali' arthavyastha aur sangathit aparaadh ki bhi bhaari samasya hai. 2005 mein in samasyaaon ka samaadhaan karne ke liye pahal ki gayi lekin usase bahut adhik utsaahavardhak parinaam naheen nikle.

1997 mein desh mein sashastr vidroh ho gaya aur sainya hathiyaar loot liye gaye. iska kaaran tha jin companyon mein logon ne paisa nivesh kiya tha vah dhah gain aur albaaniyaaiyon ka paisa doob gaya. Italy ke netrutv mein naato senaaen yahaaain tainaat ki gain taaki shaanti aur kaanoon vyastha bani rahe. sattaaroodh raashtrapati saali berisha ko apadast hone ke liye baadhya kiya gaya aur is beech samaajavaadi neta faatos naano ko chhoda gaya. sansadeeya chunaavon ke baad samaajavaadi satta mein aae.

sitmbar 1998 mein ek pramukh neta aajem hajdaari ki hatya ka prayaas kiya gaya jiske baad dange bhadak uthe. faatos naano videsh bhaag gaye aur unke sthaan par ek anya samaajavaadi neta paandeli maajko satta mein aae.

albaaniya naato aur Europeeya sangh ka sadasya banana chaahata hai aur isne afgaanistaan aur iraak mein ameriki sena ka samarthan kiya hai. Europeeya sangh, vishv bank ityaadi ne albaaniya ki samasyaaon ko lekar iski aalochna ki hai, lekin pichhle kuchh varshon mein yahaaain vikaas hua hai jiske baad Europeeya sangh ne albaaniya ke saath ab tak ki sthiti ke ulat adhik sahayog kiya hai.

hokja ki satta dhahane ke baad se albaaniya par saali berisha ke adheen lokatantravaadiyon ka shaasan hai. 2005 ke aam chunaavon mein samaajavaadiyon ki haar hui aur lokatantravaadiyon ko pun: satta praapt hui aur is haar ke baad faatos naano ne party Chairman ka pad tyaag diya aur tiraana ke mayor edi raama nae Chairman bane.

raajaneeti

albaaniya mein raashtrapati raashtra pramukh hota hai, jiska chunaav kuvendi paupullar ya vidhaanasabha dvaara kiya jaata hai. vidhaanasabha ke 155 sadasyon ka chunaav prati paaainch varsh mein hone vaale chunaavon dvaara kiya jaata hai. raashtrapati dvaara sarkaar ke mantriyon ka chunaav kiya jaata hai jinka mukhiya albaaniya ka pradhaanamantri hota hai.

albaaniya mein 18 varsh se oopar ke sabhi albaaniyaai naagrik matadaan kar sakte hain.

kaaryakaari shaakha
  • raashtra pramukh: desh ka raashtrapati
  • sarkaar pramukh: pradhaanamantri
  • mantreeparishd: mantreeparishd pradhaanamantri dvaara sujhaai jaati hai, raashtrapati dvaara naamit hoti hai aur sansad dvaara sveekrut ki jaati hai.
vidhaan shaakha
  • ekavidhaayi vidhaanasabha ya kuvendi (Kuvendi)(140 seatein; 100 sadasya lokapriya maton dvaara aur 40 sadasya aanupaatik maton dvaara chune jaate hain jinka kaaryakaal 4 varshon ka hota hai.
  • chunaav: pichhle chunaav 3 July, 2005 ko hue the, agale 2009 mein.
nyaayik shaakha

samvaidhaanik nyaayaalaya, uchchatam nyaayaalaya (Chairman ka chunaav jan sabha dvaara chaar varsheeya avadhi ke liye kiya jaata hai) aur vibhinn jila stareeya nyaayaalaya.

prabhaag

thumb|200x200px|tiraana - albaaniya ka sabse pramukh nagar, tiraana jile mein sthit hai. albaaniya 36 prabhaagon mein vibhkt hai, jinhein albaaniya mein rethe (rrethe) kaha jaata hai. rajdhani tiraana ko vishesh darja praapt hai. ye prabhaag hain:

  • beraat (Berat)
  • bulakeej (Bulqize)
  • delvaain (Delvine)
  • devoli (Devoll)
  • dibr (Diber)
  • doores (Durrëas)
  • ilbaasan (Elbasan)
  • feeer (Fier)
  • jirokaastar (Gjirokastëar)
  • graamsh (Gramsh)
  • haas (Has)
  • kaavaaje (Kavaje)
  • kolonje (Kolonje)
  • korse (Korçaë)
  • krooje (Kruje)
  • koosove (Kuçaovë)
  • kookes (Kukes)
  • koorbin (Kurbin)
  • lejhe (Lezhe)
  • libraajhad (Librazhd)
  • looshnje (Lushnje)
  • maalesi E maadhe (Malesi e Madhe)
  • mallaakaastar (Mallakaster)
  • maat (Mat)
  • mirdit (Mirdite)
  • peekin (Peqin)
  • peramet (Permet)
  • pograadek (Pogradec)
  • pooke (Puke)
  • saaraande (Sarande)
  • shkodar (Shkodëar)
  • skraapar (Skrapar)
  • tepeleen (Tepelene)
  • tiraane (Tirane)
  • tropoje (Tropoje)
  • vlore (Vlorë)

bhoogol

albaaniya ka upagrah chitr.

albaaniya ka kshetrafal 28,748 varg kilometer hai. iski tatarekha 362 kilometer lambi hai aur edriyaatik aur aayoniyn saagaron saath lagti hui hai. pashchim ki nimnabhoomi edriyaatik saagar ki or mukhaatib hai. desh ka 70% bhooparidrushya parvateeya hai aur baahar se abhigman praay: durgam hai. sabse ooaincha parvat koraab parvat, dibra jile mein sthit hai aur 2,753 meter (9,030 foot) ooaincha hai. desh ki ooainche kshetron mein thandi sardiyon aur garmiyon ke saath jalavaayu mahaadveepeeya hai. rajdhani tiraana ke atirikt, jiski janasankhya 8,00,000 hai, anya pramukh nagar hain doores (Durrëas), korse (Korçaë), ilbaasan (Elbasan), shkodar (Shkodëar), jirokaastar (Gjirokastëar), vlore (Vlorë) aur kookes (Kukëas) hain.

baalkan praayadveep ki teen sabse vishaal aur gahari tektonik jheelein aanshik roop se albaaniya mein padti hain. desh ke uttarpashchim mein sthit shkoder jheel ki satah 370 kimi2 se 530 kimi2 tak hai, jismein se ek tihaai albaaniya mein aur shesh montenegro mein aata hai. jheel se lagta albaaniyaai tat 57 kimi ka hai. orchid jheel desh ke dakshin-pashchim mein hai yeh albaaniya aur maisidoniya ke beech vibhaajit hai. iski adhiktam gaharaai 289 meter hai yahaaain par vibhinn prakaar ke anoothe vanaspati aur jeev paae jaate hai, jaise "jeevit jeevaashm" aur kai vilupt prajaatiyaan. apne praakrutik aur etihaasik mahatva ke kaaran orchid jheel yoonesko ke sanrakshan mein hai.

arthavyavastha

albaaniya, poorvi Europeeya maanakon ke aadhaar par ek nirdhan desh hai. varsh 2008 mein iska prati vyakti sakal ghareloo utpaad (pi pi S mein vyakt-vyaya shakti maanak) Europeeya sangh ke ausat ka 25 pratishat tha. fir bhi, albaaniya ne aarthik vikaas ki kshamata dikhaai hai, jabase adhik se adhik vyaapaar pratishthaan yahaaain sthaanaantarit ho rahe hain aur vartamaan vaishvik laagat-katauti ke chalte upabhokta vastueain ubharate baajaari vyaapaariyon dvaara yahaaain upalabdh karaai ja rahi hain. Europe mein keval albaaniya aur saaipras hi aise do desh hain jinhonne 2009 ki pratham timaahi mein aarthik vikaas darj kiya hai.

desh mein tel aur praakrutik gas ke kuchh bhandaar paae jaate hain, lekin tel utpaadan keval 6,425 barrel pratidin hai. praakrutik gas ka utpaadan, jo lagbhag 3 karod ghan meter hai, ghareloo maaaing ko poora karne ke liye paryaapt hai. anya praakrutik sansaadhan hain koyala, bauksaait, taaainba aur lauh ayask.

krushi kshetr sabse pramukh hai, jismein desh ki 58% kaaryashakti lagi hui hai aur isse sakal ghareloo utpaad ka 21% bhaag utpann hota hai. albaaniya paryaapt maatra mein gehooain, makkaam tanbaakoo, machhali (vishv mein 13 vein sthaan par) aur jaitoon ka utpaadan karta hai.

janasaankhyiki

albaaniya ek sajaateeya desh hai: 94% log mool albaaniyaai hain, jo do mukhya samoohon mein bainte hain - ghes (uttar) aur tosk (dakshin) aur bhaugolik roop se shkumbin nadi is kshetron ko alag karti hai. anya jaateeya samooh hain yoonaani (2%), aarmeniyaai (3%), jipsi, sarb aur maisidoniyaai (1%).

1913 ke hue bibhaajan ke baad se bahut se albaaniyaai padosi desho jaise kosovo, maisidoniya ke pashchim mein, uttari yoonaan ityaadi mein rahate hain. 1912-13 mein London mein hue raajadoot sammelan mein hui sandhi ke kaaran albaaniya ke padosi deshon ko albaaniya ka 40% bhoobhaag aur janasankhya diye gaye.

Europe mein albaaniya ki pravaasan dar sarvaadhik hai, lagbhag ek tihaai albaaniyaai videshon mein rahate hain, 2006 mein lagbhag 9,00,000, jinmein se adhikaansh mukhyat: do seemaai deshon - Italy aur yoonaan mein base hue hain. iska ek pramukh kaaran albaaniya ka shesh Europe ki tulana mein jeevan star kam hona hai. parinaam svaroop desh ki kul janasankhya mein bhi 1991 aur 2001 ke beech janm dar ke santulit rahane ke pashchaat bhi 1,00,000 ki giraavat I hai. abhi bhi desh mein pravaasan jaari hai bhale hi aadhikaarik aaainkado mein ismein kami darshaayi jaati ho.

dharm

badi sankhya mein albaaniyaai log ya to naastik hain ya ajnyaeyavaadi. sarkaari aaainkadon ke anusaar, albaaniya mein dhaarmik kaaryakalaapon mein lage hue logon ka pratishat 25 se 40 ke beech hai, arthaat 60% se 75% tak albaaniyaai adhaarmik hain (ya kam se kam saarvajanik roop se dhaarmik pradarshanon mein naheen hain). yadyapi albaaniyaai bahut adhik dhaarmik naheen hain, lekin lagbhag 70% log saanskrutik aur dhaarmik roop se musalmaan hai, albaaniyaai orthadauks 20% aur kaithalik 10% hain.

aaj ke albaaniya mein dhaarmik banaavat ki bahut kam bhoomika hai aur lambe samay se yahaaain isaai aur musalmaan shaantipoorn roop se rahate aae hain.

bhaasha

albaaniya ki pramukh bhaasha hai albaaniyaai, jo ek hind Europeeya bhaasha hai. yeh albaaniya ke atirikt maisidoniya, montenegro, kosovo aur Italy ke arberesh (Arbëaresh) aur yoonaan ke arvaanites (Arvanites) mein boli jaati hai. iski do mukhya boliyaaain hain:

  • gheg, jo shkumbin nadi ke uttar mein boli jaati hai
  • tosk, jo dakshini albaaniya mein boli jaati hai, shkumbin nadi ke dakshin mein

1909 mein is bhaasha ko aupachaarik roop se laatin lipi mein likha jaane laga aur dviteeya vishv yuddh ke ant se lekar 1968 tak kosovo, maisidoniya aur montenegro mein rah rahe albaaniyaaiyon mein ise aadhikaarik roop se prayukt kiya. 1972 mein saamyavaad ke uttthaan ke baad se is bhaasha ko aur gati mili aur yeh aaj albaaniya ki aadhikaarik bhaasha hai.

sanskruti

sangeet

albaaniyaai lok sangeet teen samoohon mein vibhaajit hai, anya mahatvapoorn sangeet kshetr shkodar aur tiraana ke aaspaas hain; pramukh samooh hain uttar ke gheg aur dakshin ke laibs aur tosk. uttari aur dakshini paranparaaon mein antar hai, uttari sangeet "oobad aur veerataapoorn" aur dakshini sangeet "shaantipoorn, mrudul aur asaadhaaran roop se sundar" hai. in do alag shailiyon ka ekeekaran tab hota hai "jab donon, kalaakaar aur shrota dhyaanapoorvak sangeet ko deshbhakti ki abhivyakti ke liye ek maadhyam ke roop mein prayukt karte hain aur maukhik roop se itihaas ka varnan karte hain". albaaniyaai lok sangeet ka pratham sankalan pjeetar dungu (Pjetëar Dungu) dvaara 1940 mein kiya gaya tha.

khaanapaan

albaaniya ka bhojan anya bhoomadhya aur baalkan deshon ke hi samaan, apne itihaas se drudhta se prabhaavit hai. alag alag samay mein, albaaniya par yoonaan, Italy aur otoman turko nein adhikaar kiya aur pratyek ne albaaniyaai khaanapaan par apni chhaap chhodi. albaaniya ke logon ka mukhya bhojan dopahar ka bhojan hai aur ismein aamtaur hari sabjiyon ke salaad jaise tamaatar, kheere, hari mirch aur jaitoon ka tel, sirka aur namak liya jaata hai. dopahar ke bhojan mein pramukh vyanjan re roop mein sabjiyaaain aur maans bhi sammilit hai. tateeya kshetron jaise doores, vlore aur saaraande mein samudri-aahaar bhi vishesh roop se prachalit hai. lambe samay se albaaniya mein yeh parampara rahi hai ki kisi saamaajik sabha ka sanyojak, jise paapi mooejar (Papi Muejer) kaha jaata hai, vahaaain upasthit logon ke liye kisi sthaaneeya madhushaala mein pratham baar ki madira khareedata hai.

veshabhoosha


shiksha

saamyavaadi shaasan se pehle, albaaniya mein nirksharata dar 85% thi. prtham aur dviteeya vishv yuddhon ke beech vidyaalaya bahut kam the. 1944 mein saamyavaadi adhigrahan waali sarkaar ne nirksharata ko samaapt karne ki thaani. viniyaamak itne kade kar diye gaye ki 12 se 40 varsh tak ke aayuvarg mein jo koi bhi padhna ya likhna naheen jaanta tha, ke liye vidyaalaya jaana anivaarya kar diya gaya. sangharsh ke is daur ke baad se desh mein saaksharata ki dar mein ullekhaneeya vruddhi hui hai. aaj albaaniya ki saaksharata dar 98.7% hai, puroosh saaksharata 99.2% aur mahila saaksharata dar 98.3% hai. 1990 ke baad se janasankhya ke teji se nagareeya kshetron ki or palaayan ke kaaran shiksha ka bhi palaayan hua hai aur hajaaron shikshak apne vidyaarthiyon ke peechhe-2 nagareeya kshetron mein chale gaye hain.

svaasthya

samaajavaad ke patan ke baad se desh mein svaasth sevaaen nirantar charamaraai hai, lekin 2000 ke baad se is kshetr mein aadhinikeekaran kiya gaya hai. aaranbhik 2000 mein deshbhar mein kul 51 aspataal the jinmein ek sainya aspataal aur visheshagya suvidhaaen bhi sammilit hain. albaaniya ne saflataapoorvak maleriya ka unmoolan kiya hai.

jeevan pratyaasha 77.43 varsh hai, jo vishv mein 51 vein sthaan par hai aur bahut se anya Europeeya deshon jaise Hungary aur check ganaraajya se adhik hai.

aayurvigyaan vidyaalaya, tiraana vishvavidyaalaya ka chikitsa sankaaya, tiraana mein hai. desh ke kai anya nagaron mein bhi nursing vidyaalaya hain.

prasiddh albaaniyaai

sandarbh

  1. CIA world faiktabuk
  2. "Distribution of family income – Gini index [paarivaarik aay ka vitran – gini gunaank]". the world fektabuk. see॰aaai॰ae॰. Archived from the original on 23 July 2010. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2172.html. abhigman tithi: 1 sitmbar 2009.
  3. albaaniyaai mool ki bhaarateeya naagrik

baahari kadiyaaain