alankaar shaastr

sanskrut aalochna ke anek abhidhaanon mein alankaarashaastr hi nitaant lokapriya abhidhaan hai. iske praacheen naamon mein kriyaakalaap (kriya kaavyagranth; kalp vidhaan) vaatsyaayan dvaara nirdisht 64 kalaaon mein se anyatam hai. raajashekhar dvaara ullikhit "saahitya vidya" naamakaran kaavya ki bhaarateeya kalpana ke oopar aashrit hai, parantu ye naamakaran prasiddh naheen ho sake.

"alankaarashaastr" mein alankaar shabd ka prayog vyaapak tatha sankeern donon arthon mein samajhna chaahiye. alankaar ke do arth maanya hain -

  • (1) alankriyte anen iti alankaar: (ukaavya mein shobha ke aadhaayak upama, roopak aadi; sankeern arth);
  • (2) alankriyte iti alankaar: (ukaavya ki shobha ; vyaapak arth).

vyaapak arth sveekaar karne par alankaarashaastr kaavyashobha ke aadhaaek samast tatvon - gun, reeti, ras, vrutti dhvani aadi--ka vijaaek shaastr hai jismein in tatvon ke svaroop tatha mahatva ka ruchir vivran prastut kiya gaya hai. sankeern arth mein grahan karne par yeh naam apne aitihaasik mahatva ko abhivyakt karta hai.

saahityashaastr ke aaranbhik yug mein "alankaar" (upama, roopak, anupraas aadi) hi kaavya ka sarvasv maana jaata tha jiske abhaav mein kaavya ushnataaheen agni ke samaan nishpraan aur nirjeev hota hai. "alankaar" ke gambhir vishleshan se ek or "vakrokti" ka tatv udbhoot hua aur doosari or arth ki sameeksha karne par "dhvani" ke siddhaant ka spasht sanket mila. isliye ras, dhvani, gun aadi kaavyatatvon ka pratipaadak hone par bhi, alankaar praadhaanya drushti ke kaaran hi, aalochanaashaastr ka naam "alankaarashaastr" pada aur vah lokapriya bhi hua.

anukram

praacheenata

alankaaron ki, visheshat: upama, roopak, svaabhaavokti tatha atishyokti ki, upalabdhi rigved ke mantron mein nishchit roop se hoti hai, parantu vaidik yug mein is shaastr ke aavirbhaav ka pramaan naheen milta. nirukt ke anusheelan se "upama" ka saahityik vishleshan yaask se poorvavarti yug ki aalochna ki parint fal prateet hota hai. yaask ne kisi praacheen aachaarya ke upamaalakshan ka nirdesh hi naheen kiya hai, pratyut karmopama, bhootopama, roopopama, siddhopama, arthopama (luptopama) jaise maulik upama-prakaaron ka bhi drushtaantapur:sar varnan kiya hai (nirukt 3. 13-18). isse spasht hai ki alankaar ka udaya yaask (saptam shati E.poo.) se bhi poorv ho chuka tha. kaashyap tatha vararuchi, brahmadatt tatha nandisvaami ke naam tarunavaachaspati ne aadya aalankaarikon mein avashya liye hain parantu inke granth aur mat ka parichay naheen milta. raajashekhar dvaara "kaavyameemaansa" mein nirdisht bruhaspati, upamanyu, suvarnanaabh, prachetaayan, shesh, pulastya, paaraashar, utathya aadi ashtaadash aachaaryon mein se keval bharat ka "naatyashaastr" hi aajkal upalabdh hai. anya aachaarya keval kaalpanik satta dhaaran karte hain. itna to nishchit hai ki yoonaani aalochna ke udaya shataabdiyon poorv "alankaarashaastr" praamaanik shaastrapaddhati ke roop mein pratishthit ho chuka tha.

kaavya-sanpradaaya

"alankaarasarvasv" ke teekaakaar samudrabandh ne is shaastr ke anek sanpradaayon ki vishishtata ki sundar vivran prastut kiya hai. kaavya ke vibhinn angon par mahatva tatha bal dene se vibhinn sanpradaayon ki vibhinn shataabdiyon mein utpatti hui. mukhya sanpradaayon ki sankhya chhah maani ja sakti hai-

(1) ras sanpradaaya,

(2) alankaar sanpradaaya,

(3) reeti ya gun sanpradaaya,

(4) vakrokti sanpradaaya,

(5) dhvani sanpradaaya tatha

(6) auchitya sanpradaaya.

in sanpradaayon ne apne naam ke anusaar tattat (ve ve gun) 'kaavya ki aatma' arthaat mukhya praan sveekaar kiya hai.

(1) ras sanpradaaya ke ke mukhya aachaarya bharat muni hain (dviteeya shataabdi) jinhonne naatyaras ka hi mukhyat: vishleshan kiya aur us vivran ko avaantar aachaaryon ne kaavyaras ke liye bhi praamaanik maana.

(2) alankaar sanpradaaya ke pramukh aachaarya bhaamah (chhathi shataabdi ka poorvaardh), dandi (saataveen shataabdi), udbhat (aathaveen shataabdi) tatha rudrat (naveen shataabdi ka poorvaardh) hain. is mat mein alankaar hi kaavya ki aatma maana jaata hai. is shaastr ke itihaas mein yahi sanpradaaya praacheenatam tatha vyaapak prabhaavapoorn angeekrut kiya jaata hai.

(3) reeti sanpradaaya ke pramukh aachaarya vaaman (ashtam shataabdi ka uttaraardh) hain jinhonne apne "kaavyaalankaarasootr" mein reeti ko spasht shabdon mein kaavya ki aatma maana hai (reetiraatma kaavyasya). dandi ne bhi reeti ke ubhaya prakaar--vaidarbhi tatha gaudi--ki apne "kaavyaadarsh" mein badi maarmik sameeksha ki thi, parantu unki drushti mein kaavya mein alankaar ki hi pramukhata rahati hai.

(4) vakrokti sanpradaaya ki udbhaavana ka shreya aachaarya kuntak ko (10 veen shataabdi ka uttaraardh) hai jinhonne apne "vakrokti jeevit" mein "vakrokti" ko kaavya ki aatma (jeevit) sveekaar kiya hai.

(5) dhvani sanpradaaya ka pravatrtan aanandavardhan (navam shataabdi ka uttaraardh) ne apne yugaantarakaari granth "dhvanyaalok" mein kiya tatha iska pratishthaapan Abhinav gupt (10veen shataabdi) ne dhvanyaalok ki lochan teeka mein kiya. mammat (11veen shataabdi ka uttaraardh), ruyyak (12veen shataabdi ka poorvaardh), hemachandr (12veen shataabdi ka uttaraardh), peeyooshavarsh jayadev (13veen shataabdi ka uttaraardh), vishvanaath kaviraaj (14veen shataabdi ka poorvaardh), panditraaj jagannaath (17veen shataabdi ka madhyakaal)--isi sanpradaaya ke pratishthit aachaarya hain.

(6) auchitya sanpradaaya ke pratishthaata kshemeindr (11veen shataabdi ka madhyakaal) ne bharat, aanandavardhan aadi praacheen aachaaryon ke mat ko grahan kar kaavya mein auchitya tatv ko pramukh tatv angeekaar kiya tatha ise svatantr sanpradaaya ke roop mein pratishthit kiya. alankaarashaastr is prakaar lagbhag do sahasr varshon kaavyatatvon ki sameeksha karta aa raha hai.

mahatva

yeh shaastr atyant praacheen kaal se kaavya ki sameeksha aur kaavya ki rachana mein aalochakon tatha kaviyon ka maarganirdesh karta aaya hai. yeh kaavya ke antarang aur bahirang donon ka vishleshan badi maarmikta se prastut karta hai. sameekshaasansaar ke liye alankaarashaastr ki kaavyatatvon ki chaar atyant mahatvapoorn den hai jinka sarvaang vivechan, antarang pareekshan tatha vyaavahaarik upayog bhaarateeya saahityik maneeshiyon ne badi sookshmata se anek granthon mein pratipaadit kiya hai. ye mahaneeya kaavya tatv hain--auchitya, vakrokti, dhvani tatha ras.

auchitya ka tatv lok vyavahaar mein aur kaavyakala mein nitaant vyaapak siddhaant hai. auchitya ke aadhaar par hi rasameemaansa ka praasaad khada hota hai. aanandavardhan ki yeh ukti sameekshaajagat mein maulik tathya ka upanyaas karti hai ki anauchitya ko chhodkar rasabhang ka koi doosra kaaran naheen hai aur auchitya ka upanibandhan ras ka rahasyabhoot upanisht hai-

anauchityaadrute naanyat rasabhangasya kaaranam.
auchityopanidhbandhastu rasasyopanisht para (dhvanyaalok).

vakrokti lokaatikraant gochar vachan ke vinyaas ki saahityik sanjnyaa hai. vakrokti ke maahaatmya se hi koi bhi ukti kaavya ki rasapeshal sookti ke roop mein parint hoti hai. Europe mein kroche dvaara nirdisht "abhivyanjanaavaad" (eksapreshanijm) vakrokti ko bahut kuchh sparsh karanevaala kaavyatatv hai.

dhvani ka tatv sanskrut aalochna ki teesari mahati den hai. hamaare aalochakon ka kehna hai ki kaavya utana hi naheen prakat karta jitna hamaare kaanon ko prateet hota hai, pratyut vah nitaant goodh arthon ko bhi hamaare hrudaya tak pahuainchaane ki kshamata rakhata hai. yeh sundar manoram arth "vyanjana" naamak ek vishisht shabdavyaapaar ke dvaara prakat hota hai aur is prakaar vyanjak shabdaarth ko dhvanikaavya ke naam se pukaarate hain. saubhaagya ki baat hai ki angreeji ke maanya aalochak ebarakraanbi tatha richrds ki drushti is tatv ki or abhi-abhi aakrusht hui hai.

rasatatv ki meemaansa bhaarateeya aalochakon ke manovaigyaanik sameekshaapaddhati ke anusheelan ka manoram fal hai. kaavya alaukik aanand ke unmeelan mein hi charitaarth hota hai chaahe vah kaavya shravya ho ya drushya. hrudayapaksh hi kaavya ka kalaapaksh ki apeksha nitaant madhuratar tatha shobhan paksh hai, is tathya par bhaarateeya aalochna ka nitaant aagrah hai. bhaarateeya aalochna jeevan ki samasya ko sulajhaane vaale darshan ki chhaanabeen se kathamapi paraaङamukh naheen hoti aur is prakaar yeh paashchaatya jagat ke teen shaastron-- "poetiks", "retaariks" tatha "aisthetiks"- ka pratinidhitv akele hi apne aap karti hai. praacheenata, gambheerta tatha manovaigyaanik vishleshan mein yeh pashchimi aalochna se kaheen adhik mahatvashaali hai; is vishay mein do mat naheen ho sakte.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain