alankaar (saahitya)

alankaar alankruti ; alankaar : alam arthaat bhooshan. jo bhooshit kare vah alankaar hai. alankaar, kavita-kaamini ke saundarya ko badhaane vaale tatv hote hain. jis prakaar aabhooshan se naari ka laavanya badh jaata hai, usi prakaar alankaar se kavita ki shobha badh jaati hai. kaha gaya hai - 'alankaroti iti alankaar:' (jo alankrut karta hai, vahi alankaar hai.) bhaarateeya saahitya mein anupraas, upama, roopak, ananvaya, yamak, shlesh, utpreksha, sandeh, atishyokti, vakrokti aadi pramukh alankaar hain.

is kaaran vyutpatti se upama aadi alankaar kahalaate hain. upama aadi ke liye alankaar shabd ka sankuchit arth mein prayog kiya gaya hai. vyaapak roop mein saundarya maatr ko alankaar kehte hain aur usi se kaavya grahan kiya jaata hai. (kaavyan graahmamalankaaraat. saundaryamalankaar: - vaaman). chaarutv ko bhi alankaar kehte hain. (teeka, vyaktivivek). bhaamah ke vichaar se vakraarthavija ek shabdokti athva shabdaarthavaichitrya ka naam alankaar hai. (vakraabhidhetashabdoktirishta vaachaamalan-kruti:.) rudrat abhidhaanaprakaaravishesh ko hi alankaar kehte hain. (abhidhaanaprakaashavishesha ev chaalankaara:). dandi ke liye alankaar kaavya ke shobhaakar dharm hain (kaavyashobhaakaraan dharmaan alankaaraan prachakshate). saundarya, chaarutv, kaavyashobhaakar dharm in teen roopon mein alankaar shabd ka prayog vyaapak arth mein hua hai aur shesh mein shabd tatha arth ke anupraasopamaadi alankaaron ke sankuchit arth mein. ek mein alankaar kaavya ke praanabhoot tatv ke roop mein graheet hain aur doosare mein susajjitkarta ke roop mein.

anukram

aadhaar

saamaanyat: kathaneeya vastu ko achhe se achhe roop mein abhivyakti dene ke vichaar se alankaar prayukt hote hain. inke dvaara ya to bhaavon ko utkarsh pradaan kiya jaata hai ya roop, gun, tatha kriya ka adhik teevr anubhav karaaya jaata hai. at: man ka oj hi alankaaron ka vaastavik kaaran hai. ruchibhed aaeainbar aur chamatkaarapriya vyakti shabdaalankaaron ka aur bhaavuk vyakti arthaalankaaron ka prayog karta hai. shabdaalankaaron ke prayog mein purarukti, prayatnalaaghav tatha uchchaaran ya dhvanisaamya mukhya aadhaarbhoot siddhaant maane jaate hain aur punarukti ko hi aavrutti kehkar iske varn, shabd tatha pad ke kram se teen bhed maane jaate hain, jinmein kramash: anupraas aur chhek evam yamak, pararuktaavadaabhaas tatha laataanupraas ko grahan kiya jaata hai. vrutyanupraas prayatnalaaghav ka udaaharan hai. vruttiyon aur reetiyon ka aavishkar isi prayatnalaaghav ke kaaran hota hai. shrutyanupraas mein dhvanisaamya spasht hai hi. in pravruttiyon ke atirikt chitraalankaaron ki rachana mein kautoohalapriyta, vakrokti, anyokti tatha vibhaavanaadi arthaalankaaron ki rachana man vaichitrya mein aanand maanane ki vrutti kaaryarat rahati hain. bhaavaabhivyanjan, nyoonaadhikaarini tatha tarkana naamak manovruttiyon ke aadhaar par arthaalankaaron ka gathan hota hai. gyaan ke sabhi kshetron mein alankaarein ki saamagri li jaati hai, jaise vyaakaran ke aadhaar par kriyaamoolak bhaavik aur visheshya-visheshan-moolak alankaaron ka prayog hota hai. manovijnyaaan se smaran, bhram, sandeh tatha utpreksha ki saamagri li jaati hai, darshan se kaarya-kaaran-sambandhi asangati, hetu tatha pramaan aadi alankaar liye jaate hain aur nyaayashaastr ke kramash: vaakyanyaaya, tarkanyaaya tatha lokanyaaya bhed karke anek alankaar gathit hote hain. upama jaise kuchh alankaar bhautik vigyaan se sambandhit hain aur rasaalankaar, bhaavaalankaar tatha kriyaachaatureevaale alankaar naatyashaastr se grahan kiye jaate hain..

sthaan aur mahatva

aachaaryon ne kaavyashareer, uske nityadharm tatha bahirang upakaarak ka vichaar karte hue kaavya mein alankaar ke sthaan aur mahatva ka vyaakhyaan kiya hai. is sambandh mein inka vichaar, gun, ras, dhvani tatha swayam ke prasang mein kiya jaata hai. shobhaasrashta ke roop mein alankaar swayam alankaarya hi maan liye jaate hain aur shobha ke vruddhikaarak ke roop mein ve aabhooshan ke samaan upakaarak maatr maane jaate hain. pehle roop mein ve kaavya ke nityadharm aur doosare roop mein ve anityadharm kahalaate hain. is prakaar ke vichaaron se alankaarashaastr mein do pakshon ki neenv pad gayi. ek paksh ne, jo ras ko hi kaavya ki aatma maanata hai, alankaaron ko gaun maankar unhein asthirdharm maana aur doosare paksh ne unhein gunon ke sthaan par nityadharm sveekaar kar liya. kaavya ke shareer ki kalpana karke unka niroopan kiya jaane laga. aachaarya vaaman ne vyaapak arth ko grahan karte hue sankeern arth ki charcha ke samay alankaaron ko kaavya ka shobhaakaar dharm na maankar unhein keval gunon mein atishyata laanevaala hetu maana (kaavyashobhaaya: karttaaro dharma guna:. tadatishyahetavastvalankaara:. -ka. soo.). aachaarya aanandavardhan ne inhein kaavyashareer par katakakundal aadi ke sadrush maatr maana hai. (tamarthamavalanbate yeऽङaignan te guna: smruta:. angaashritaastvalankaara mantavya: katakaadivt. - dhvanyaalok). aachaarya mammat ne gunon ko shauryaadik angi dharmon ke samaan tatha alankaaron ko un gunon ka angadvaara se upakaar karanevaala bataakar unheen ka anusaran kiya hai (ye rasasyaangini dharma: shauyaadaya ivaatman:. utkarshahetavastesyurachalasthityo guna:.. upakurvanti te santan yeऽङaagadvaaren jaatuchit. haaraadivdalankaaraasteऽnupraasopamaadaya:.) unhonne gunon ko nitya tatha alankaaron ko anitya maankar kaavya mein unke na rahane par bhi koi haani naheen maani (tadadoshau shabdaarthau sagunaavanalankruti pun: kvaapi- ka.pr.). aachaarya hemachandr tatha aachaarya vishvanaath donon ne unhein angaashrit hi maana hai. hemachandr ne to "angaashritaastvalankaara:" kaha hi hai aur vishvanaath ne unhein asthir dharm batakar kaavya mein gunon ke samaan aavashyak naheen maana hai (shabdaarthayorasthira ye dharma: shobhaatishyin:. rasaadeenupakurvantoऽlankaaraasteऽङaagadaadivt.—asa.dr.). isi prakaar yadyapi agnipuraanakaar ne "vaagvaidhagdhyapradhaaneऽpi rasaevaatrajeevitm" kehkar kaavya mein ras ki pradhaanata sveekaar ki hai, tathaapi alankaaron ko nitaant anaavashyak na maankar unhein shobhaatishaayi kaaran maan liya hai (arthaalankaararahita vidhvev sarasvati).

in maton ke virodh mein 13veen shati mein jayadev ne alankaaron ko kaavyadharm ke roop mein pratishthit karte hue unhein anivaarya sthaan diya hai. jo vyakti agni mein ushnata na maanata ho, usi ki buddhivaala vyakti vah hoga jo kaavya mein alankaar na maanata ho. alankaar kaavya ke nityadharm hain (angeekaroti ya: kaavyan shabdaarthaavanalankruti. asau na manyate kasmaadanushnamanalan kruti.- chandraalok).

is vivaad ke rahate hue bhi aanandavardhan jaise samanvayavaadiyon ne alankaaron ka mahatva pratipaadit karte hue unhein aantar maanane mein hichk naheen dikhaai hai. rason ko abhivyanjana vaachyavishesh se hi hoti hai aur vaachyavishesh ke pratipaadak shabdon se rasaadi ke prakaashak alankaar, roopak aadi bhi vaachyavishesh hi hain, ataev unhein antarang rasaadi hi maanana chaahiye. bahirangata keval prayatnasaadhya yamak aadi ke sambandh mein maani jaaegi (yato rasa vaachyavisheshairevaaksheptavya:. tasmaann teshaan bahirangatvan rasaabhivyaktau. yamakadushkaramaargeshu tu tat sthitmev. - dhvanyaalok). abhinvagupt ke vichaar se bhi yadyapi rasaheen kaavya mein alankaaron ki yojana karna shav ko sajaane ke samaan hai (tathaahi achetanan shavashareeran kundalaadyupetamapi na bhaati, alankaaryasyaabhaavaat-lochan), tathaapi yadi unka prayog alankaarya sahaayak ke roop mein kiya jaaega to ve katakavat na rahakar kunkum ke samaan shareer ko sukh aur saundarya pradaan karte hue adbhut saundarya se mandit kareinge; yahaaain tak ki ve kaavyaatma hi ban jaaeainge. jaise khelta hua baalak raaja ka roop banaakar apne ko sachmuch raaja hi samajhta hai aur uske saathi bhi use vaisa hi samajhte hain, vaise hi ras ke poshak alankaar bhi pradhaan ho sakte hain (sukavi: vidgdhapurandhreevat bhooshanan yadyapi shlishtan yojayati, tathaapi shareerataapattirevaasya kashtasanpaadya, kunkumapeetikaaya iv. baalakreedaayaamapi raajatvamivetthamamumarthan manasi krutvaah.-lochan).

vaaman se pehle ke aachaaryon ne alankaar tatha gunon mein bhed naheen maana hai. bhaamah "bhaavik" alankaar ke liye gun shabd ka prayog karte hain. dandi donon ke liye "maarg" shabd ka prayog karte hain aur yadi agnipuraanakaar kaavya mein anupam shobha ke aajaaek ko gun maanate hain (ya: kaavye mahateen haayaamanugruh naatyasau gun:) to dandi bhi kaavya ke shobhaakar dharm ko alankaar ki sanjnyaa dete hain. vaaman ne hi gunon ki upama yuvati ke sahaj saundarya se aur shaaleenata aadi uske sahaj gunon se dekar gunarahit kintu alankaaramayi rachana kaavya naheen maana hai. isi ke pashchaat is prakaar ke vivechan ki parampara prachalit hui.

vargeekaran

dhvanyaalok mein "ananta hi vaagviklpa:" kehkar alankaaron ki aganeyata ki or sanket kiya gaya hai. dandi ne "te chaadyaapi viklpyante" kehkar inki nitya sankhyavruddhi ka hi nirdesh kiya hai. tathaapi vichaarakon ne alankaaron ko shabdaalankaar, arthaalankaar, rasaalankaar, bhaavaalankaar, mishraalankaar, ubhayaalankaar tatha sansrushti aur sankar naamak bhedon mein baaainta hai. inmein pramukh shabd tatha arth ke aashrit alankaar hain. yeh vibhaag anvayavyatirek ke aadhaar par kiya jaata hai. jab kisi shabd ke paryaayavaachi ka prayog karne se pankti mein dhvani ka vahi chaarutv na rahe tab mool shabd ke prayog mein shabdaalankaar hota hai aur jab shabd ke paryaayavaachi ke prayog se bhi arth ki chaaruta mein antar na aata ho tab arthaalankaar hota hai. saadrushya aadi ko alankaaron ke mool mein paakar pehle pehle udbhat ne vishyaanusaar, kul 44 alankaaron ko chhah vargon mein vibhaajit kiya tha, kintu inse alankaaron ke vikaas ki bhinn avasthaaon par prakaash padne ki apeksha bhinn pravruttiyon ka hi pata chalta hai. vaigyaanik vargeekaran ki drushti se to rudrat ne hi pehli baar safalta praapt ki hai. unhonne vaastav, aupamya, atishya aur shlesh ko aadhaar maankar unke chaar varg kiye hain. vastu ke svaroop ka varnan vaastav hai. iske antargat 23 alankaar aate hain. kisi vastu ke svaroop ki kisi aprastut se tulana karke spashtataapoorvak use upasthit karne par aupamyamoolak 21 alankaar maane jaate hain. arth tatha dharm ke niyamon ke vipryaya mein atishyamoolak 12 alankaar aur anek arthonvaale padon se ek hi arth ka bodh karaanevaale shleshamoolak 10 alankaar hote hain.

vibhaajan

alankaar ke mukhyat: bhed maane jaate hain-- shabdaalankaar, arthaalankaar tatha ubhayaalankaar. shabd ke parivruttish sthalon mein arthaalankaar aur shabdon ki parivrutti na sahanevaale sthalon mein shabdaalankaar ki vishishtata rahane par ubhayaalankaar hota hai. alankaaron ki sthiti do roopein mein ho sakti hai-- keval roop aur mishrit roop. mishran ki dvividhta ke kaaran "sankar" tatha "sansrushti" alankaaron ka udaya hota hai.

shabdaalankaaron mein anupraas, yamak, shlesh tatha vakrokti ki pramukhata hai. arthaalankaaron ki sankhya lagbhag ek sau pachees tak pahuainch gayi hai.

sab arthaalankaaron ki moolabhoot visheshataaon ko dhyaan mein rakhakar aachaaryon ne inhein mukhyat: paanch vargon mein vibhaajit kiya hai :

  • (1) saadrushyamoolak - upama, roopak aadi;
  • (2) virodhamoolak- vishay, virodhabhaas aadi;
  • (3) shrunkhalaabandh- saar, ekaavali aadi;
  • (4) tark, vaakya, lokanyaayamoolak kaavyaling, yathaasankhya aadi;
  • (5) goodhaarthaprateetimoolak - sookshm, pihit, goodhokti aadi.

upama alankaar

kaavya mein jab kisi prasiddh vyakti ya vastu ki samata doosare samaan gun vaale vyakti ya vastu se ki jaati hai tab upama alankaar hota hai. udaaharan -

peepar paat saris man dola.
raadha badan chandr so sundar.

atishyokti alankaar

atishyokti = atishya + ukti = badha-chadhaakar kehna. jab kisi baat ko badha chadha kar bataaya jaaye, tab atishyokti alankaar hota hai. udaaharan -

hanumaan ki pooainchh mein, lag na paayi aag.
lanka saari jal gayi, gaye nishaachar bhaag..
aage nadiya khari apaar, ghora kaise utare
raana ne socha is paar, tab tak chetak tha us paar..[1]

vibhaavana alankaar

jahaaain kaaran ke na hote hue bhi kaarya ka hona paaya jaata hai, vahaaain vibhaavana alankaar hota hai. udaaharan -

binu pag chalai sunai binu kaana.
kar binu karm karai vidhi naana.
aanan rahit sakal ras bhogi.
binu vaani vakta bad jogi .

sandarbh

  1. "aatm udagaar" (peeechateeemael). Anurag Agrawal. http://aatmudgaar.blogspot.com/2008/04/blog-post_07.html. abhigman tithi: 2008.

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