alaauddeen khilji

alaauddeen khilji(1296-1316)Delhi saltanat ke khilji vansh ka doosra shaasak tha . vo ek vijeta tha aur usane apna saamraajya dakshin mein madurai tak faila diya tha. iske baad itna bada bhaarateeya saamraajya agale teen sau saalon tak koi bhi shaasak sthaapit naheen kar paaya tha. vah apne mevaad chittaud ke vijay abhiyaan ke baare mein bhi prasiddh hai . aisa maana jaata hai ki avadhi mein malik muhammad jaayasi dvaara likhe padmaavat mein varnit raani padmaavati ki sundarata par mohit tha. uske samay mein uttar poorv se mangol aakraman bhi hue. usane usaka bhi datakar saamana kiya. alaauddeen khilji ke bachapan ka naam Ali 'gurashaasp' tha. jalaaluddeen khilji ke takht par baithane ke baad use 'ameer-A-tujuk' ka pad mila. malik chhajjoo ke vidroh ko dabaane mein mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaane ke kaaran jalaaluddeen ne use kada-manikpur ki soobedaari saunp di. bhilsa, chanderi evam devagiri ke safal abhiyaanon se praapt apaar dhan ne usaki sthiti aur majboot kar di. is prakaar utkarsh par pahuainche alaauddeen khilji ne apne chaacha jalaaluddeen ki hatya 22 October 1296 ko kar di aur Delhi mein sthit balaban ke laal mahal mein apna raajyaabhishek sampann karavaaya.

anukram

nirmaan kaarya

alaauddeen ke darbaar mein ameer khusaron tatha hasan nijaami jaise uchch koti ke viddhaanon ko sanrakshan praapt tha. sthaapatya kala ke kshetr mein alaauddeen khilji ne vruttaakaar 'alaai darvaaja' athva 'kushk-A-shikaar' ka nirmaan karavaaya. uske dvaara banaaya gaya 'alaai darvaaja' praarambhik Turkey kala ka ek shreshth namoona maana jaata hai. lk

shaasan vyavastha

raajyaabhishek ke baad utpann kathinaaiyon ka safalta poorvak saamana karte hue alaauddeen ne kathor shaasan vyavastha ke antargat apne raajya ki seemaaon ka vistaar karna praarambh kiya. apni praarambhik safalataaon se protsaahit hokar alaauddeen ne 'sikndar dviteeya' (saani) ki upaadhi grahan kar iska ullekh apne sikkon par karavaaya. usane vishv-vijay evam ek naveen dharm ko sthaapit karne ke apne vichaar ko apne mitr evam Delhi ke kotavaal 'alaaul mulk' ke samajhaane par tyaag diya. yadyapi alaauddeen ne khleefa ki satta ko maanyata pradaan karte hue 'yaamin-ul-khilaaft-naasiri-ameer-ul-momineen' ki upaadhi grahan ki, kintu usane khleefa se apne pad ki sveekrut leni aavashyak naheen samajhi. ulema varg ko bhi apne shaasan kaarya mein hastakshep naheen karne diya. usane shaasan mein islaam dharm ke siddhaanton ko pramukhata na dekar raajyahit ko sarvopari maana. alaauddeen khilji ke samay nirankushata apne charam seema par pahuainch gayi. alaauddeen khilji ne shaasan mein na to islaam ke siddhaanton ka sahaara liya aur na hi ulema varg ki salaah li. mukesh

vidrohon ka daman

alaauddeen khilji ke raajya mein kuchh vidroh hue, jinmein 1299 E. mein Gujarat ke safal abhiyaan mein praapt dhan ke bantavaare ko lekar 'navi musalmaanon' dvaara kiye gaye vidroh ka daman nusarat khaaain ne kiya. doosra vidroh alaauddeen ke bhateeje akat khaaain dvaara kiya gaya. apne mangol musalmaanon ke sahayog se usane alaauddeen par praan ghaatak hamla kiya, jiske badalein mein use pakad kar maar diya gaya. teesara vidroh alaauddeen ki bahan ke ladke malik umar evam mangoo khaaain ne kiya, par in donon ko haraakar unki hatya kar di gayi. chautha vidroh Delhi ke haaji maula dvaara kiya gaya, jiska daman sarkaar hameeddeen ne kiya. is prakaar in sabhi vidrohon ko safalta poorvak daba diya gaya. alaauddeen ne turk ameeron dvaara kiye jaane vaale vidroh ke kaaranon ka adhyayan kar un kaaranon ko samaapt karne ke liye 4 adhyaadesh jaari kiye. pratham adhyaadesh ke antargat alaauddeen ne daan, upahaar evam peinshan ke roop me ameeron ko di gayi bhoomi ko jabt kar us par adhikaadhik kar laga diya, jisse unke paas dhan ka abhaav ho gaya. dviteeya adhyaadhesh ke antargat alaauddeen ne guptachar vibhaag ko sangathit kar 'bareed' (guptachar adhikaari) evam 'munahin' (guptachar) ki niyukti ki. truteeya adhyaadhesh ke antargat alaauddeen khilji ne madyanished, bhaaaing khaane evam juaa khelne par poorn pratibndh laga diya. chauthe adhyaadesh ke antargat alaauddeen ne ameeron ke aapas mein mel-jol, saarvajanik samaarohon evam vaivaahik sambandhon par pratibndh laga diya. sultaan dvaara laaye gaye ye chaaron adhyaadesh poornat: safal rahe. alaauddeen ne khooton, mukdamon aadi hindu lagaan adhikaariyon ke visheshaadhikaar ko samaapt kar diya.

saamraajya vistaar

alaauddeen khilji saamraajyavaadi pravruti ka vyakti tha. usane uttar Bhaarat ke raajyon ko jeet kar un par pratyaksh shaasan kiya. dakshin Bhaarat ke raajyon ko alaauddeen ne apne adheen kar unase vaarshik kar vasoola.

Gujarat vijay

1298 E. mein alaauddeen ne uloog khaaain evam nusarat khaaain ko Gujarat vijay ke liye bheja. Ahmedabad ke nikat 'baghel raaja karn' (raajakaran) aur alaauddeen ki sena mein sangharsh hua. raaja karn ne paraajit hokar apni putri 'deval devi' ke saath bhaag kar devagiri ke shaasak raamachandr Dave ke yahaaain sharan li. alaauddeen khilji karn ki sampatti evam usaki patni kamala devi ko saath lekar vaapas Delhi aa gaya. kaalaantar mein alaauddeen khilji ne kamala devi se vivaah kar use apni sabse priya raani banaaya. yaheen par nusarat khaaain ne hindu hijde malik kaafoor ko ek hajaar deenaar mein khreeda. yuddh mein vijay ke pashchaat sainikon ne soorat, somanaath aur kaimbe tak aakraman kiya.

jaisalamer vijay

alaauddeen khilji ki sena ke kuchh ghode chheen lene ke kaaran sultaan khilji ne jaisalamer ke shaasak dooda evam uske sahayogi tilk Singh ko 1299 E. mein paraajit kiya aur jesalamer ki vijay ki.

ranathambhaur vijay

ranathambhaur ke shaasak hammeeradev apni yogyata evam saahas ke liye prasiddh the . alaauddeen ke liye ranathambhaur ko jeetna isliye bhi aavashyak tha, kyonki hammeeradev ne vidrohi mangol neta muhammad shaah evam kehab ko apne yahaaain sharan de rakhi thi, isliye bhi alaauddeen ranathambhaur ko jeetna chaahata tha. at: July, 1301 E. mein alaauddeen ne ranathambhaur ke kile ko apne kbje mein kar liya. hammeeradev veeragati ko praapt hue . alaauddeen ne ranamal aur uske saathiyon ka vadh karva diya, jo hammeeradev se vishvaasaghaat karke usase aa mile the. 'taareekh-A-alaai' evam 'hammeer mahaakaavya' mein hammeeradev aur unke parivaar ke logon ka jauhar dvaara mrutyu praapt hone ka varnan hai. ranathambhaur yuddh ke dauraan hi nusarat khaaain ki mrutyu hui. hammeer raaso ke anusaar hammeer ki raani rangade ke netrtv me rajput mahilaao ne jauhar (aag me koodakar ) kiya tatha Rajkumari deval de ne padmala taalaab me koodakar jal jauhar kiya tha

chittaud aakraman evam mevaad vijay

mevaad ka shaasak raana ratan Singh the , jinki rajdhani chittaud thi. chittaud ka kila saamarik drushtikon se bahut surakshit sthaan par bana hua tha. isliye yeh kila alaauddeen ki nigaah mein chadha hua tha. kuchh itihaasakaaron ne ameer khusarav ke raani shaiba aur sulemaan ke prem prasang ke ullekh aadhaar par aur 'padmaavat ki katha' ke aadhaar par chittaud par alaauddeen ke aakraman ka kaaran raani padmini ke anupan saundarya ke prati uske aakarshan ko thaharaaya hai. antat: 28 January 1303 E. ko sultaan chittaud ke kile par adhikaar karne mein safal hua. raana ratan Singh yuddh mein shaheed huye aur unki patni raani padmini ne anya striyon ke saath jauhar kar liya. kile par adhikaar ke baad sultaan ne lagbhag 30,000 rajput veeron ka katl karva diya. usane chittaud ka naam khijr khaaain ke naam par 'khijraabaad' rakha aur khijr khaaain ko saunp kar Delhi vaapas aa gaya. chittaud ko pun: svatantr karaane ka prayatn raajapooton dvaara jaari tha. isi beech alaauddeen ne khijr khaaain ko vaapas Delhi bulaakar chittaud durg ki jimmedaari rajput sardaar maaladev ko saunp di. alaauddeen ki mrutyu ke pashchaat guhilaut raajavansh ke hammeeradev ne maaladev par aakraman kar 1321 E. mein chittaud sahit poore mevaad ko aajaad karva liya. is tarah alaauddeen ki mrutyu ke baad chittaud ek baar fir poorn svatantr ho gaya.

maalava vijay

maalava par shaasan karne wala mahalakadev evam usaka senaapati haranand (koka pradhaan) bahaadur yoddha the. 1305 E. mein alaauddeen ne multaan ke soobedaar aain-ul-mulk ke netrutv mein ek sena ko maalava par adhikaar karne ke liye bheja. donon pakshon ke sangharsh mein mahalakadev evam usaka senaapati haranand maara gaya. November, 1305 mein kile par adhikaar ke saath hi ujjain, dhaaraanagari, chanderi aadi ko jeet kar maalava samet Delhi saltanat mein mila liya gaya. 1308 E. mein alaauddeen ne sivaana par adhikaar karne ke liye aakraman kiya. vahaaain ke paramaar rajput shaasak sheetaladev ne kada sangharsh kiya, parantu antat: vah maara gaya. kamaaluddeen gurg ko vahaaain ka shaasak niyukt kiya gaya.

jaalaur

jaalaur ke shaasak kaanhanadev ne 1304 E. mein alaauddeen ki adheenata ko sveekaar kar liya tha, par dheere-dheere usane apne ko pun: svatantr kar liya. 1305 E. mein kamaaluddeen gurg ke netrutv mein sultaan ki sena ne kaanhanadev ko yuddh mein paraajit kar usaki hatya kar di. is prakaar jaalaur par adhikaar ke saath hi alaauddeen ki Rajasthan vijay ka kathin kaarya poora hua. 1311 E. tak uttar Bhaarat mein sirf Nepal, Kashmir evam asam hi aise bhaag bache the, jin par alaauddeen adhikaar naheen kar saka tha. uttar Bhaarat ki vijay ke baad alaauddeen ne dakshin Bhaarat ki or apna rukh kiya. kaanhaddev prabandh ke anusaar kaanhaddev ke putr veeram Dave ka prem alaauddeen ki putri firoja se tha jo is aakraman ka mukhya kaaran tha

dakshin vijay

alaauddeen khilji ke samakaaleen dakshin Bhaarat mein sirf teen mahattvapoorn shaktiyaaain theen-

devagiri ke Yadav dakshin-poorv telangaana ke kaakateeya aur dvaarasamudr ke hoyasal alaauddeen dvaara dakshin Bhaarat ke raajyon ko jeetne ke uddeshya ke peechhe dhan ki chaah evam vijay ki laalasa thi. vah in raajyon ko apne adheen kar vaarshik kar vasool karna chaahata tha. dakshin Bhaarat ki vijay ka mukhya shreya 'malik kaafoor' ko hi jaata hai. alaauddeen khilji ke shaasan kaal mein dakshin mein sarvapratham 1303 E. mein telangaana par aakraman kiya gaya. telangaana ke shaasak prataap rudradev dviteeya ne apni ek sone ki moorti banavaakar aur uske gale mein sone ki janjeer daal kar aatmasamarpan hetu malik kaafoor ke paas bheja tha. isi avsar par prataap rudradev ne malik kaafoor ko sansaar prasiddh kohinoor heera diya tha.

devagiri

shaasak banane ke baad alaauddeen dvaara 1296 E. mein devagiri ke viruddh kiye gaye abhiyaan ki safalta par, vahaaain ke shaasak raamachandr Dave ne prati varsh elichpur ki aay bhejane ka vaada kiya tha, par raamachandr Dave ke putr shankar Dave (sinhan Dave) ke hastakshep se vaarshik kar ka bhugataan rok diya gaya. at: naaib malik kaafoor ke netrutv me ek sena ko devagiri par dhaava bolne ke liye bheja gaya. raaste mein raaja karn ko yuddh mein paraast kar kaafoor ne usaki putri deval devi, jo kamala devi evam karn ki putri thi, ko Delhi bhej diya, jahaaain par usaka vivaah khijr khaaain se kar diya gaya. raaste bhar loot paat karta hua kaafoor devagiri pahuaincha aur pahuainchate hi usane devagiri par aakraman kar diya. bhayaanak loot-paat ke baad raamachandr Dave ne aatmasamarpan kar diya. kaafoor apaar dhan-sampatti, dher saare haathi evam raaja raamachandr Dave ke saath vaapas Delhi aaya. raamachandr ke sultaan ke samaksh prastut hone par sultaan ne uske saath udaarata ka vyavahaar karte hue 'rai raayaan' ki upaadhi pradaan ki. use sultaan ne Gujarat ki navasaari jaageer evam ek lakh svarn take dekar vaapas bhej diya. kaalaantar mein raaja raamachandr Dave alaauddeen ka mitr ban gaya. jab malik kaafoor dvaarasamudr vijay ke liye ja raha tha, to raamachandr Dave ne usaki bharpoor sahaayata ki thi.

telangaana

telangaana mein kaakateeya vansh ke raaja raajya karte the. tatkaaleen telangaana ka shaasak prataap rudradev tha, jiski rajdhani Warangal thi. November, 1309 mein malik kaafoor telangaana ke liye ravaana hua. raaste mein raamachandr Dave ne kaafoor ki sahaayata ki. kaafoor ne heeron ki khaanon ke jile aseeragadh (meraagadh) ke maarg se telangaana mein pravesh kiya. 1310 E. mein kaafoor apni sena ke saath Warangal pahuaincha. prataap rudradev ne apni sone ki moorti banavaakar gale mein ek sone ki janjeer daalkar aatmasamarpan svaroop kaafoor ke paas bheja, saath hi 100 haathi, 700 ghode, apaar dhan raashi evam vaarshik kar dene ke vaayade ke saath alaauddeen khilji ki adheenata sveekaar kar li.

hoyasal

hoyasal ka shaasak veer ballaal truteeya tha. iski rajdhani dvaarasamudr thi. 1310 E. mein malik kaafoor ne hoyasal ke liye prasthaan kiya. is prakaar 1311 E. mein saadhaaran yuddh ke pashchaat ballaal Dave ne aatmasamarpan kar alaauddeen ki adheenata grahan kar li. usane maabar ke abhiyaan mein kaafoor ki sahaayata bhi ki. sultaan alaauddeen ne ballaal Dave ko 'khilat', 'ek mukat', 'chhatr' evam das lakh take ki thaili bheint ki.

mrutyu

jalodar rog se grasit alaauddeen khilji ne apna antim samay atyant kathinaaiyon mein vyateet kiya aur 5 January 1316 E. ko vah mrutyu ko praapt ho gaya.

baahari kadiyaaain