akshar

bhaashaavijnyaaan mein 'akshar' ya shabdaansh (angreji: syllable silaabal) dhvaniyon ki sangathit ikaai ko kehte hain. kisi bhi shabd ko anshon mein todkar bola ja sakta hai aur shabdaansh shabd ke vah ansh hote hain jinhein aur zyaada chhota naheen banaaya ja sakta varana shabd ki dhvaniyaaain badal jaati hain.

udaaharanat: 'achaanak' shabd ke teen shabdaansh hain - 'a', 'cha' aur 'nak'. yadi ruk-ruk kar 'a-cha-nak' bola jaaye to shabd ke teenon shabdaansh khandit roop se dekhe ja sakte hain lekin shabd ka uchchaaran sunane mein sahi prateet hota hai. agar 'nak' ko aage toda jaae to shabd ki dhvaniyaaain glat ho jaateen hain - 'a-cha-na-k'. is shabd ko 'a-chaan-k' bhi naheen bola jaata kyonki is se bhi uchchaaran glat ho jaata hai.

kuchh chhote shabdon mein ek hi shabdaansh hota hai, jaise 'mein', 'kaan', 'haath', 'chal' aur 'ja'. kuchh shabdon mein do shabdaansh hote hain, jaise 'chalakar' ('chal-kar'), khaana ('kha-na'), rumaal ('Ru-maal') aur sabji ('sab-ji'). kuchh mein teen ya us se bhi adhik shabdaansh hote hain, jaise 'mahattvapoorn' ('m-hatv-poorn') aur 'antarraashtreeya' ('ant-ar-raash-treeya').

parichay

akshar shabd ka arth hai - 'jo na ghat sake, na nasht ho sake'. iska prayog pehle 'vaani' ya 'vaak‌' ke liye evam shabdaansh ke liye hota tha. 'varn' ke liye bhi akshar ka prayog kiya jaata raha. yahi kaaran hai ki lipi sanketon dvaara vyakt varnon ke liye bhi aaj 'akshar' shabd ka prayog saamaanya jan karte hain. bhaasha ke vaigyaanik adhyayan ne akshar ko angreji 'silebal' ka arth pradaan kar diya hai, jismein svar, svar tatha vyanjan, anusvaar sahit svar ya vyanjan dhvaniyaaain sammilit maani jaati hain.

ek hi aaghaat ya bal mein boli jaane waali dhvani ya dhvani samudaaya ki ikaai ko akshar kaha jaata hai. ikaai ki pruthakata ka aadhaar svar ya svararat‌ (vokvauyad) vyanjan hota hai. vyanjan dhvani kisi uchchaaran mein svar ka poorv ya par ang bankar hi aati hai. astu, akshar mein svar hi merudand hai. akshar se svar ko na to pruthak‌ hi kiya ja sakta hai aur na bina svar ya svararat‌ vyanjan ke akshar ka nirmaan hi sambhav hai. uchchaaran mein yadi vyanjan moti ki tarah hai to svar dhaage ki tarah. yadi svar sashakt samraat hai to vyanjan ashakt raaja. isi aadhaar par praay: akshar ko svar ka paryaaya maan liya jaata hai, kintu aisa hai naheen, fir bhi akshar nirmaan mein svar ka atyadhik mahatva hota hai. katipya bhaashaaon mein vyanjan dhvaniyaaain bhi akshar nirmaan mein sahaayak siddh hoti hain. angreji bhaasha mein na, r, l‌ jaisi vyanjan dhvaniyaaain svararat‌ bhi uchcharit hoti hain evam svaradhvani ke samaan akshar nirmaan mein sahaayak siddh hoti hain. angreji silebal ke liye hindi mein akshar shabd ka prayog kiya jaata hai. dau॰ raamavilaas sharma ne silebal ke liye 'svarik' shabd ka prayog kiya hai. (bhaasha aur samaaj, pru. 59). chooainki akshar shabd ka bhaasha aur vyaakaran ke itihaas mein anek arthachhaaya ke liye prayog kiya gaya hai, isliye silebal ke arth mein iske prayog se bhramasrujan ki aashanka rahati hai.

shabd ke uchchaaran mein jis dhvani par shikhrata ya uchchata hoti hai vahi akshar ya silebal hota hai, jaise haath mein aa dhvani par. is shabd mein ek akshar hai. 'akalpit' shabd mein teen akshar hain - a, kal‌, pit‌ ; aajaadi mein teen - aa ja di; arthaat‌ shabd mein jahaaain jahaaain svar ke uchchaaran ki pruthakata pai jaae vahaaain-vahaaain akshar ki pruthakata hoti hai.

dhvani utpaadan ki drushti se vichaar karne par fuffus sanchalan ki ikaai ko akshar ya svarik (silebal) kehte hain, jismein ek hi sheershadhvani hoti hai. shareer rachana ki drushti se akshar ya svarik ko fuffus spandan bhi kah sakte hain, jiska uchchaaran dhvani tantr mein avarodhan hota hai. jab dhvani khand ya alpatam dhvani samooh ke uchchaaran ke samay avayav sanchalan akshar mein uchchatam ho to vah dhvani aksharavat‌ hoti hai. svar dhvaniyaaain bahudha aksharavat‌ uchcharit hoti hai evam vyanjan dhvaniyaaain kvachit‌. shabdagat uchchaaran ki nitaant pruthak‌ ikaai ko akshar kaha jaata hai, yatha

  1. ek akshar ke shabd : aa,
  2. do akshar ke shabd : bhaarateeya, urdoo,
  3. teen akshar ke shabd : boliye, jamaanat,
  4. chaar akshar ke shabd : adhunaatan, kathinaai,
  5. paaainch akshar ke shabd : avyaavahaarikta, amaanushikta

kisi shabd mein aksharon ki sankhya is baat par katai nirbhar naheen karti ki usamein kitni dhvaniyaaain hain, balki is baat par ki shabd ka uchchaaran kitne aaghaat ya jhatke mein hota hai arthaat‌ shabd mein kitni avyavahit dhvani ikaaiyaaain hain. akshar mein prayukt sheersh dhvani ke atirikt shesh dhvaniyon ko 'aksharaang' ya 'gahvar dhvani' kaha jaata hai. udaaharan ke liye 'chaar' mein ek akshar (silebal) hai jismein aa sheersh dhvani tatha ch evam r gahvar dhvaniyaaain hain.

shabdaanshon ka dhaancha

kisi bhi shabdaansh mein ek 'shabdaansh kendra' hota hai, jo hamesha svar varn hi hota hai aur uske ird-gird anya varn milte hain jo vyanjan bhi ho sakte hain aur svar bhi. 'kaan' shabdaansh ka shabdaansh kendra 'aa' ka svar hai jisse pehle 'k' aur baad mein 'na' ke varn aate hain.

inhein bhi dekhein