akshapaad Gautam

akshapaad, nyaayasootr ke rachayita aachaarya. prakhyaat nyaayasootron ke nirmaata ka naam padmapuraan (uttar khand, adhyaaya 263), skandapuraan (kaalika khand, a. 170, gaandharv tantr, naishadhacharit (sarg 17) tatha vishvanaath ki nyaayavrutti mein maharshi gotam ya (Gautam) thaharaaya gaya hai. iske vipreet nyaayabhaashya, nyaayavaartik, taatparyateeka tatha nyaayamanjari aadi vikhyaat nyaayashaastreeya granthon mein akshapaad in sootron ke lekhak maane gaye hain. mahaakavi bhaas ke anusaar nyaayashaastr ke rachayita ka naam medhaatithi hai (pratima naatak, pancham ank). in vibhinn maton ki ek vaakyata siddh ki ja sakti hai. mahaabhaarat (shaanti parv, a. 265) ke anusaar Gautam medhaatithi do vibhinn vyakti na hokar ek hi vyakti hain (medhaatithirmahaapraajnyao gautamastapasi sthit:). Gautam (ya gotam) spashtat: vanshabodhak aakhya hai tatha medhaatithi vyaktibodhak sanjnyaa hai. akshapaad ka shabdaarth hai - 'pairon mein aaainkhavaala'. falat: is naam ko saarthakata siddh karne ke liye anek kahaaniyaaain gadh li gayi hain jo sarvatha kalpit, niraadhaar aur pramaan shoonya hain.

nyaayasootron mein paaainch adhyaaya hain aur ye hi nyaaya darshan (ya aanveekshiki) ke mool aadhaar granth hai. inki sameeksha se pata chalta hai ki nyaayadarshan aarambh mein adhyaatm pradhaan tha arthaat aatma ke svaroop ka yathaarth nirnaya karna hi iska uddeshya tha. tark tatha yukti ka yeh sahaara avashya leta tha, parantu aatma ke svaroop ka parichay in saadhanon ke dvaara karaana hi iska mukhya taatparya tha. us yug ka siddhaant tha ki jo prakriya aatmatatv ka gyaan praapt kara sakti hai vahi theek tatha maanya hai. usase vitreep maanya naheen hoti:

yaya yaya bhavet punsaan vyutpatti: pratyagaatmani.
sa saiv prakriya saadhvi vipreeta tatoऽnyatha .

parantu aage chalakar nyaaya darshan mein us tark pranaali ki visheshat: udbhaavana ki gayi jiske dvaara anaatma se aatma ka pruthak roop bhali-bhaaainti samjha ja sakta hai aur jismein vaad, jalp, vitanda, chhal, jaati aadi saadhanon ka prayog hota hai. in tarkapradhaan nyaayasootron ke rachayita akshapaad prateet hote hain. vartamaan nyaayasootron mein donon yugon ke chintanon ki upalabdhi ka spasht nirdesh hai. nyaayadarshan ke mool rachayita Gautam medhaatithi hain aur uske prati sanskrut-naveen vishyon ka samaavesh kar mool granth ke sanshodhak-akshapaad hain. aayurved ka prakhyaat granth charakasanhita bhi isi sanskaar paddhati ka parint aadarsh hai. mool granth ke praneta maharshi agnivesh hain, parantu iske pratisanskarta charak maane jaate hain. nyaayasootr bhi isi prakaar akshapaad dvaara pratisanskrut granth hai.

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