ajanta gufaaeain

yunesko vishv dharohar sthal
ajanta gufaae
vishv dharohar soochi mein ankit naam
ajanta gufaaen
desh Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
prakaar saanskrutik
maanadand i, ii, iii, vi
sandarbh 242
yunesko kshetr Asia-prashaant
shilaalekhit itihaas
shilaalekh 1983 (saatavaan satr)

ajanta gufaaen Maharashtra, Bhaarat mein sthit paashaan kat sthaapatya gufaaen hain. yeh sthal dviteeya shataabdi E.poo. ke hain. yahaan bauddh dharm se sambandhit chitran evam shilpakaari ke utkrusht namoone milte hain.[1] inke saath hi sajeev chitran[2] bhi milte hain. yeh gufaaen ajanta naamak gaanve ke sannikt hi sthit hain, jo ki Maharashtra ke Aurangabad jile mein hain. (nirdeshaank: 20° 30' u0 75° 40' poo0) ajanta gufaaen san 1983 se yunesko ki vishv dharohar sthal ghoshit hai."[3]

'''naishanal jyaugraafik ''' ke anusaar: aastha ka bahaav aisa tha, ki aisa prateet hota hai, jaise shataabdiyon tak ajanta samet, lagbhag sabhi bauddh mandir, hindu raajaaon ke shaasan aur aashray ke adheen banavaaye gaye hon.[4]

anukram

kshetr

8 kimi door se ajanta gufaaon ka vihangam drushya ; iska aakaar ghode ki naal jaisa hai.
ajanta gufaaen- ticket kaaryaalaya se ek drushya
ajanta gufaaon se jaatak kathaaen

gufaaen ek ghane jungle se ghiri, ashv naal aakaar ghaati mein ajanta gaanv se 3½ ki॰mee॰ door bani hain. yeh gaanv Maharashtra ke Aurangabad shahar se 106 ki॰mee॰ door basa hai. iska niktatam kasba hai jalagaaainv, jo 60 ki॰mee॰ door hai, bhusaaval 70 ki॰mee॰ door hai. is ghaati ki talahati mein pahaadi dhaara vaaghoor bahti hai. yahaan kul 29 gufaaen (bhaarateeya puraataatvik sarvekshan vibhaag dvaara aadhikaarik gananaanusaar) hain, jo ki nadi dvaara nirmit ek prapaat ke dakshin mein sthit hai. inki nadi se oonchaai 35 se 110 feet tak ki hai.

ajanta ka math jaisa samooh hai, jismein kai vihaar (math aavaaseeya) evam chaitya gruh hain (stoop smaarak hall), jo ki do charanon mein bane hain. pratham charan ko galati se heenayaan charan kaha gaya hai, jo ki bauddh dharm ke heenayaan mat se sambandhit hain. vastut: hinaayan sthavirvaad ke liye ek shabd hai, jismein buddh ki moort roop se koi nishedh naheen hai. ajanta ki gufa sankhya 9, 10, 12, 13 15e (antim gufa ko 1956 mein hi khoja gaya aur abhi tak sankhyit naheen kiya gaya hai.) ko is charan mein khoja gaya tha. in khudaaiyon mein buddh ko stoop ya math roop mein darshit kiya gaya hai.

doosare charan ki khudaaiyaan lagbhag teen shataabdiyon ki sthirta ke baad khoji gayeen. is charan ko bhi galat roop mein mahaayaan charan 9bauddh dharm ka doosra bada dhada, jo ki kamtar kattar hai, evam buddh ko seedhe gaaya aadi roop mein chitron ya shilpon mein darshit karne ki anumati deta hai.) kai log is charan ko vaakaatak charan kehte hain. yeh vatsagulm shaakha ke shaasit vansh vaakaatak ke naam par hai. is dviteeya charan ki nirmaan tithi kai shikshaavidon mein vivaadit hai. haal ke varshon mein, kuchh bahumat ke sanket ise paaainchaveen shataabdi mein maanane lage hain. vaultar M.spink, ek ajanta visheshanya ke anusaar mahaayan gufaaen 462-480 E. ke beech nirmit huin theen. mahaayan charan ki gufaaen sankhya hain 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, evam 29. gufa sankhya 8 ko lambe samay tak hinaayan charan ki gufa samjha gaya, kintu vartamaan mein tathyon ke aadhaar par ise mahaayan ghoshit kiya gaya hai.

mahaayanahinaayan charan mein do chaityagruh mile the, jo gufa sankhya 9 va 10 mein the. is charan ki gufa sankhya 12, 13, 15 vihaar hain. mahaayan charan mein teen chaitya gruh the jo sankhya 19, 26, 29 mein the. antim gufa anaavaasit thi, apne aarambh se hi. anya sabhi mili gufaaen 1-3, 5-8, 11, 14-18, 20-25, va 27-28 vihaar hain.

khudaai mein mile vihaar kai naapon ke hain, jinmein sabse bada 52 feet ka hai. praay: sabhi vargaakaar hain. inke roop mein bhi bhinnata hai. kai saadhaaran hain, to kai alankrut hain, kuchh ke dwaar mandap bane hain, to kai ke naheen bane hain. sabhi vihaaron mein ek aavashyak ghatak hai – ek vruhat hall kamara. vaakaatak charan vaalon mein, kaiyon mein pavitra sthaan naheen bane hain, kyonki ve keval dhaarmik sabhaaon evam aavaas maatr hetu bane the. baad mein unamein pavitra sthaan jode gaye. fir to yeh ek maanak ban gaya. is pavitra sthaan mein ek kendreeya kakhsh mein buddh ki moorti hoti thi, praay: dharmachakrapravartan mudra mein baithe hue. jin gufaaon mein naveenatam feechars hain, vahaan kinaare ki deevaaron, dwaar mandapon par aur praangan mein gaun pavitra sthal bhi bane dikhte hain. kai vihaaron ke deevaaron ke falak nakkaashi se alankrut hain, deevaaron aur chhaton par bhitti chitran kiya hua hai.

pratham shataabdi mein hue bauddh vichaaron mein antar se, buddh ko devata ka darja diya jaane laga aur unki pooja hone lagi aur parinaamat: buddh ko pooja-archana ka kendra banaaya gaya, jisse mahaayan ki utpatti hui.

poorv mein, shikshaavidon ne gufaaon ko teen samoohon mein baanta tha, kintu saakshyon ko dekhte hue aur shodhon ke chalte use nakaar diya gaya. us siddhaant ke anusaar 200 E.poo se 200 E. tak ek samooh, dviteeya samooh chhathi shataabdi ka aur truteeya samooh saataveen shataabdi ka maana jaata tha.

aangl-bhaarateeyon dvaara vihaaron hetu prayukt abhivyanjan gufa-mandir anupayukt maana gaya. ajanta ek prakaar ka mahaavidyaalaya math tha. hven tsaang bataata hai, ki dinnaag, ek prasiddh bauddh daarshanik, tatvajnya, jo ki tarkashaastr par kai granthon ka lekhak tha, yahaan rahata tha. yeh abhi anya saakshyon se pramaanit hona shesh hai. apne charam par, vihaar sainkadon ko samaayojit karne ki saamarthya rakhate the. yahaan shikshak aur chhaatr ek saath rahate the. yeh ati du:khad hai, ki koi bhi vaakaatak charan ki gufa poorn naheen hai. yeh is kaaran hua, ki shaasak vaakaatak vansh ekaaek shakti-viheen ho gaya, jisse usaki praja bhi sankat mein aa gayi. isi kaaran sabhi gatividhiyaan baadhit hokar ekaaek ruk gayeen. yeh samay ajanta ka antim kaal raha.

gufa – ek ‌apahala kadam

teerth yaatra
bauddh
dhaarmik sthal
Dharma Wheel.svg
chaar mukhya sthal
lumbini · bodh gaya
saaranaath · kusheenagar
chaar anya sthal
shraavasti · raajageer
sanakissa · vaishaali
anya sthal
Patna · gaya
kaushaambi · Mathura
kapilvastu · devadaha
kesariya · paava
naalanda · Varanasi
baad ke sthal
saaainchi · ratnaagiri
ellora · ajanta
bhaarahat
dekhein samvaad
gufa san0 1 se ek chitrakaari ka namoona
gufa san0 1

yeh ek pratham kadam hai aur iska anya gufaaon ke samayaanusaar kram se koi matlab naheen hai. yeh ashvanaal aakaar ki dhaal par poorvi or se pratham gufa hai. spink ke anusaar, yeh is sthal par bani antim gufaaon mein se ek hai aur vaakaatak charan ke samaapti ki or hai. haalaanki koi shilaalekhit saakshya upasthit naheen hain, fir bhi yeh maana jaata hai, ki vaakaatak raaja harisena, is uttam sanrakshit gufa ke sanrakshak rahe hon. iska prabal kaaran yeh hai, ki harisena aarambh mein ajanta ke sanrakshan mein sammilit naheen tha, kintu lambe samay tak inse alag naheen rah saka, kyonki yeh sthal uske shaasan kaal mein gatividhiyon se bhara raha aur usaki bauddh praja ko us hindu raaja ka is pavitra kaarya ko aashray dena prasann kar sakta tha. yahaan darshit kai vishay raajasik hain.

is gufa mein, atyant vistrut nakkaashi kaarya kiya gaya hai, jismein kai ati ubhare hue shilp bhi hain. yahaan buddh ke jeevan se sambandhit kai ghatnaaen ankit hain, saath hi anek alankaran namoone bhi hain. iska dvi stanbhi dwaar-mandap, jo unneesaveen shataabdi tak drushya tha (tab ke chitraanusaar), vah ab lupt ho chuka hai. is gufa ke aage ek khula sthaan tha, jiske donon or khambhedaar galiyaare the. iska star apekshaakrut ooncha tha. iske dwaar mandap ke donon or kothiyaan hain. iske ant mein khambhedaar prakoshthon ki anupasthiti, bataati hai, ki yeh mandap ajanta ke antim charan ke saath naheen bana tha, jab ki khambhedaar prakoshth ek niyamit ang ban chuke the. porch ka adhikaansh kshetr kabhi muraal se bhara raha hoga, jiske kai avashesh abhi bhi shesh hain. yahaan teen dwaar path hain, ek kendreeya, va do kinaare ke. in dvaarapathon ke beech do vargaakaar khidkiyaan taraashi huin hain, jinse antas ujjvalit hota tha.

hall ki pratyek deevaar lagbhag 40 feet lambi aur 20 feet oonchi hai. baarah stambh andar ek vargaakaar kauloned banaate hain, jo chhat ko sahaara dete hain, saath hi deevaaron ke saath saath ek galiyaara sa banaate hain. peechhe ki deevaar par ek garbhagruh numa chhavi taraashi gayi hai, jismein buddh apni dharmachakrapravartan mudra mein baithe darshit hain. peechhe, baayeen evam daanyi deevaar mein chaar chaar kamre bane hain. yeh deevaarein chitrakaari se bhareen hain, jo ki sanrakshan ki uttam avastha mein hain. darshit drushya adhiktar upadeshon, dhaarmik, evam alankaran ke hain. inke vishay jaatak kathaaon, Gautam buddh ke jeevan, aadi se sambandhit hain.

gufa sankhya 2

gufa sankhya 2 mein chitrakaari
ajanta gufaaon se chitrakaari
ajanta gufaaen
ajanta gufaaen

gufa sankhya 1 se lagi gufa san02, deevaaron, chhaton evam stambhon par sanrakshit apni chitrakaari ke liye prasiddh hai. yeh atyant hi sundar dikhti hai, evam gufa sankhya ke lagbhag samaan hi dikhti hai, kintu sanrakshan ki kaheen behtar sthiti mein hai.

falak

is gufa mein do dwaar-mandap hain, jo ki san 1 se bahut alag hai. balki alakon ki nakkaashi bhi usase alag dikhti hai. is gufa ko sahaara diye do achhe khaase mote stambh hain, jo ki bhaari nakkaashi se alankrut hain. haan, aakaar, naap evam bhoomi yojana mein avashya yeh pehli gufa se kaafi milti hai.

dwaar-mandap

saamane ka porch donon or stambhon se yukt prakoshthon se yukt hai. poorv mein rikt chhode sthaanon par bane kamre aavashyak hone par baad mein, sthaan ki aavashyakta hone par bane, kyonki baad mein aavaas ki adhik aavashyakta badhi. sabhi baad ki vaakaatak nirmaanon mein, porch ke ant mein prakoshth aavashyak ang ban gaye. is ki chhaton aur deevaaron par bane bhitti chitron ka paryaapt maatra mein prakaashan hua hai. inmein buddh ke janm se poorv bodhistv roop ke anya janmon ki kathaaen hain. porch ki peechhe ki deevaar ke beech ek dwaar-path hai, jisse hall mein pravesh hota hai. dwaar ke donon or vargaakaar chaudi khidkiyaan hain, jo prachur prakaash upalabdh karaateen hain. iske saath hi sandarata evam sammiti laati hain.

sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain