afreeka ki bhoo-prakruti

Africa ka bhautik maanachitr
ithiyopiya ka pathaar

Africa ooainche pathaaron ka mahaadveep hai,[1] iska nirmaan atyant praacheen evam kathor chattaanon se hua hai. is laava nirmit pathaar ko dhaal (shield) kehte hain. Germany ke prasiddh jalavaayuvetta tatha bhooshaastravetta alfred veganar ne poorv jalavaayu shaastr, poorv vanaspati shaastr, bhooshaastr tatha bhoogarbhashaastr ke pramaanon ke aadhaar par yeh pramaanit kiya ki ek arab varsh pahalein samast sthal bhaag ek sthal bhaag ke roop mein sanlagn tha evam is sthalapind ka naamakaran painjiya (poorn pruthvi) kiya.[2] kaarban yug mein painjiya ke do tukade ho gaye jinmein se ek uttar tatha doosra dakshin mein chala gaya. painjiya ka uttari bhaag laareshiya tatha dakshini bhaag gondavaana land ko pradarshit karta tha.[3]Africa mahaadesh ka dharaatal praacheen gondavaana land ka hi ek bhaag hai. bade pathaaron ke beech anek chhote-chhote pathaar vibhinn dhaal vaale hain. iske uttar mein vishv ka bruhattam shushk marusthal sahaara upasthit hai.[4] iske nadi besinon ka maanav sabhyata ke vikaas mein ullekhaneeya yogadaan raha hai, jismein neel nadi besin ka vishesh sthaan hai. samudratateeya maidaanon ko chhodkar kisi bhi bhaag ki ooainchaai 325 meter se kam naheen hai. mahaadveep ke uttari-pashchimi bhaag tatha sudoor dakshin mein moddaar parvat milte hain. Africa ke uttar-pashchim mein etalas parvat ki shreniyaaain hain, jo Europe ke aalps parvatamaala ki hi ek shaakha hai. ye parvat dakshin-pashchim se uttar-poorv disha mein faile hue hain aur uttar ki apeksha dakshin mein adhik ooainche hain. iski sabse ooainchi choti jebel toobakal hai jiski ooainchaai 4,167 meter hai. yahaaain khaare paani ki kai jheelein hain jinhein shot kehte hain. madhya ka nimn pathaar bhoomadhya rekha ke uttar pashchim mein andh mahaasaagar tat se poorv mein neel nadi ki ghaati tak faila hua hai. iski ooainchaai 300 se 600 meter hai. yeh ek pathaar keval marusthal hai jo sahaara tatha Libya ke naam se prasiddh hai. yeh ek praacheen pathaar hai tatha naaijar, kaango (jaayare), bahar L gajal tatha chaad nadiyon ki ghaatiyon dvaara kat-fat gaya hai. is pathaar ke madhya bhaag mein ahagar evam tibesti ke uchch bhaag hain jabki poorvi bhaag mein Cameroon, nimba evam foota jaalaun ke uchch bhaag hain. Cameroon ke pathaar par sthit Cameroon (4,069 meter) pashchimi Africa ki sabse ooaincha choti hai. Cameroon gini khaadi ke samaanaantar sthit ek shaant jvaalaamukhi hai. pathaar ke poorvi kinaare par drekensabarg parvat hai jo samudra tat ki or ek deevaar ki bhaaainti khada hai. drekensabarg ka sthaaneeya naam kvaathaalamba hai evam yeh 3,000 meter tak ooaincha hai. kep praant mein yeh pathaar dakshin ki or chabootare ke roop mein samudra tak neeche utarata hai. in chabootaron ko kaaroo kehte hain. inmein uttari chabootare ko mahaan kaaroo tatha dakshini chabootare ko laghu kaaroo kehte hain. dakshini-pashchimi bhaag mein kaalaahaari ka maroosthal hai.

poorv evam dakshin ka uchch pathaar bhoomadhya rekha ke poorv tatha dakshin mein sthit hai tatha apekshaakrut adhik ooaincha hai. praacheen samay mein yeh pathaar dakshin Bhaarat ke pathaar se mila tha. baad mein beech ki bhoomi ke dhainsane ke kaaran yeh hind mahaasaagar dvaara alag ho gaya. is pathaar ka ek bhaag abeesiniya mein laal saagar ke tateeya bhaag se hokar misr desh tak pahuainchati hai. ismein ithopiya, poorvi Africa evam dakshini Africa ke pathaar sammilit hain. Africa ke uttar-pashchim mein ithopiya ka pathaar hai. is pathaar ka adhikaansh bhaag 2,400 meter se ooaincha hai tatha praacheenakaaleen jvaalaamukhi ke udgaar se nikle hue laava se nirmit hai.[5] isi pathaar se neel nadi ki sahaayak neeli neel nadi niklati hai. neel nadi ki kai sahaayak nadiyon ne is pathaar ko kaat kar ghaatiyaaain bana di hain. ithopiya ki parvateeya gaaainth se kai uchch shreniyaaain nikalkar poorvi Africa ke jheel pradesh se hoti hui dakshin ki or jaati hain. ithopiya ki uchch bhoomi ke dakshin mein poorvi Africa ki uchch bhoomi hai. is pathaar ka nirmaan bhi jvaalaamukhi ki kriya dvaara hua hai. is shreni mein kilimaanjaaro (5,895 meter), robenajaaro (5,180 meter) aur keniya (5,490 meter) ki barfeeli chotiyaaain bhoomadhyarekha ke sameep paayi jaati hain. ye teenon jvaalaamukhi parvat hain. keniya tatha kilimaanjaaro gutaka parvat bhi hain. kilimanjaaro Africa ka sabse ooaincha parvat evam choti hai.

Africa ke daraar ghaati ki kuchh jheelon ka aakaasheeya drushya
dakshin Africa ke tat ka upagrah se kheencha gaya chitr

Africa mahaadveep ki ek mukhya bhautik visheshata pruthvi ki aantarik halchalon ke kaaran Africa ke pathaar ke poorvi bhaag mein bhransh ghaatiyon ki upasthiti hai. yeh daraar ghaati poorvi Africa ki mahaan daraar ghaati ke naam se prasiddh hai tatha uttar se dakshin faili hai. bhransh ghaati ek lambi, sankari evam gahari ghaati hai jiske kinaare ke dhaal khade hain. praacheen kaal mein pruthvi ki aantarik shaktiyon ke kaaran is pathaar par do vipreet dishaaon se dabaav pada jisse usamein kai samaanaantar daraarein pad gayeen. jab do samaanaantar daraaron ke beech ka bhaag neeche dhains gaya to us dhainse bhaag ko daraar ghaati kehte hain. inke donon kinaare deevaar ki tarah dhaal vaale hote hain. yeh vishv ki sabse lambi daraar ghaati hai tatha 4,800 kilometer lambi hai. Africa ki mahaan daraar ghaati ki do shaakhaaeain hain- poorvi evam pashchimi. poorvi shaakha dakshin mein malaavi jheel se roodaalf jheel tatha laal saagar hoti hui sahaara tak faili hui hai tatha pashchimi shaakha malaavi jheel se nyaasa jheel evam taangaanika jheel hoti hui elabart jheel tak chali gayi hai. bhransh ghaatiyon mein anek gahari jheelein hain. rukava, kiyoo, Edward, alabart, taana va nyaasa jheelein bhransh ghaati mein sthit hain. Africa mahaadveep ke chaaro or sankare tateeya maidaan hain jinki ooainchaai 180 meter se bhi kam hai. bhoomadhya saagar evam andh mahaasaagar ke taton ke sameep apekshaakrut chaude maidaan hain. Africa mahaadveep mein tatavarti pradesh seemit evam anupayogi hain kyonki adhikaansh bhaagon mein pathaari kagaar tat tak aa gaye hain aur shesh mein tat mein daladali evam pravaal bhitti se prabhaavit hain. maureetaaniya aur senegal ka tatavarti pradesh kaafi vistrut hai, gini ki khaadi ka tat daladali evam anoop jheelon se prabhaavit hai. jagah-jagah par reteele teele hain tatha achhe potaashrayon ka abhaav hai. pashchimi Africa ka tat ki saamaanyat: gini tat ke samaan hai jismein laigoon evam daladalon ki adhikta hai. dakshini Africa mein pathaar evam tat mein bahut hi kam antar hai. poorvi Africa mein pravaalabhittiyon ki adhikta hai. Africa mein nimn maidaanon ka abhaav hai. keval kaango, jembeji, oreinj, naaijar tatha neel nadiyon ke sainkare besin hain.

sandarbh

  1. paande, raamanaaraayan (January 1981). bhoogol parichay, bhaag-2. Kolkata: bhaarati sadan. pa॰ 162-177.
  2. sihan, savindr (July 2002). bhautik bhoogol. Gorakhpur: vasundhara prakaashan. pa॰ 47.
  3. maamoriya, chaturbhuj (July 2008). Asia ka bhoogol. Agra: saahitya bhavan. pa॰ 18.
  4. paandeya, daaktar shyaam Narayan (July 1996). maadhyamik bhoogol shaastr, bhaag-2. Kolkata: kamala pustak bhavan. pa॰ 124.
  5. prasaad, suresh (July 1981). bhautik aur praadeshik bhoogol. Kolkata: bhaarati sadan. pa॰ 107-120.