afreeka ki bhaashaaen

bhaashaai vibhinnata ko darshaata Africa ka ek maanachitr

yunesko ke anusaar Africa mein 2000 se bhi jyaada bhaashaaeain boli jaati hai.[1] adhiktar bhaashaaen afreeki mool ki hai parantu Europeeya evam Asiaee prabhaav bhi dekha ja sakta hai.

Africa mahaadveep mein bushamain (bulmanivaasi), vaantoo, soodaan tatha saami-haami-parivaar ki bhaashaaeain boli jaati hain. Africa ke samast uttari bhag mein saami bhashaaon ka aadhiptya praaya: do hajaar varshon se raha hai. idhar do-teen shataabdiyon se dakshin ke kone par aur samast pashchimi kinaare par Europeeya jaatiyon ne kabja karke mool nivaasiyon ko mahaadveep me bheetari bhaagon ki or hata diya. kintu ab afreeki nivaasiyon mein jaagruti ho chali hai aur falasvaroop unki niji bhaashaaeain apna adhikaar praapt kar rahi hain.

afreeki bhaashaaoain ko nimnalikhit samoohon mein baanta ja sakta hai.

  • afro-Asiaee bhaashaaeain mukhya roop se Asia ke seemaavarti praanton mein boli jaati hai. yeh praant hai haarn of Africa, uttari Africa, sahel evam dakshin pashchimi Asia.
  • naaijar-kaango bhaasha samooh up-sahaara kshetr mein boli jaati. yeh bhaasha samooh vishv ka sabse bada bhaasha samooh man jaata hai.
  • khoisaan bhaasha samooh mein lagbhag 50 bhaashaaeain hai evam yeh mukhya roop se dakshin Africa mein boli jaati hai.

upaniveshavaad ka ant hote-hote adhiktar afreeki deshon ne Europeeya bhaashaaoain ko apna liya aur unhein sthaaneeya bhaashaaoain ke saath raashtreeya bhaasha ka darja diya. angreji evam French bhaasha Africa mein pramukhata se boli jaati hai. inke alaava arabi,purtagaali, afreekaan aur malaagaasi aisi bhaashaaeain hai jo Africa mein baahar se aakar kaafi prachalit hui.

anukram

saami-haami-parivaar

haami bhaag ki bhaashaaeain samast uttari Africa mein faili hui hain aur inko bolanevaali kuchh jaatiyaaain dakshin aur madhyavarti Africa mein ghusati chali gayi hain. saami bhaag ki bhaashaaeain mukhya roop se Asia me boli jaati hain par unki pradhaan bhaasha arabi ne saare attari Africa mein bhi ghar kar liya hai. pashchim me morakko se lekar poorav mein svej tak tatha samast misr mein yahi shaasan tatha saahitya ki mukhya bhaasha hai. Algeria aur morakko ki raajabhaasha arabi hai hi. habshi raajabhaasha saami hai.

saami-haami-parivaar ke haami bhaag ke paaainch mukhya lakshan hain :

  • (1) pad banaane ke liye sanjnyaaaon mein upasarg aur kriyaaon mein pratyaya lagaae jaate hain,
  • (2) kriya ke kaal ka bodh utana naheen hota jitna kriya ke poorn jaae jaane ya apoorn rahane ka,
  • (3) lingabhed purushatv aur streetv par abalanbit na hokar aadhaar par hai. bade aur shaktishaali jeev aur padaarth (talavaar, badi moti ghaas, badi chattaan, haathi chaahe nar ho ya maada, aadi ke bodhak shabd) streeling mein hote hain,
  • (4) haami ki keval ek bhaasha (naami) me dvivchan milta hai, anyon me naheen. bahuvachan banaane ke kai dhang hain. anaaj, baaloo, ghaas aadi chhoti cheejaaain ko samoohasvaroop bahuvachan mein hi rakha jaata hai aur yadi ekatv ka vichaar karna hota hai to pratyaya judta hai jaise lis‌ (bahut se aaainsoo), lis (ek aaainsoo), bil‌ (patinge), bill (ek pating),
  • (5) haami bhaashaaon ka ek vichitr lakshan bahuvachan mein lingabhed kar dena hai. is niyam ko dhruvaabhimukh kehte hain. jaise somaali bhaasha mein libi hiddoo (sher pu.). libihhyahodi (bahut se sher, stri.), hoyodi (maata, stri.), hoyo inki (maataaeain, pu.). bahut se sher streeling mein aur bahut si maataaeain pulling mein hain.

haami bhaashaaon me vibhktisoochak pratyaya naheen paae jaate. ye bhaashaaeain paraspar kaafi bhinn hain par sarvanaam-t‌ pratyayaant streeling aadi ekataasoochak lakshan hain. haami ki mukhya praacheen bhaashaaeain misri aur kopti theen. misri bhaasha ke lekh chhah hajaar varsh poorv tak ke milte hain. iske do roop the--ek dharmagranthon ka aur doosra janasaadhaaran ka. janasaadhaaran ki misri ki hi ek bhaasha kopti hai jiske isavi doosari sadi se aathaveen sadi tak ke granth miltak hain. yeh 16veen sadi tak ki bolachaal ki bhaasha thi. vartamaan bhaashaaon mein habsh desh ki khameer, poorvi Africa ke kushi samooh ki, somaaleelaind ki somaali aur leebiyaaki leebi (ya babar) prasiddh hain. vartamaan kaal ki mistri bhaasha gathan mein bahut saral aur seedhi hain. usaki dhaatueain (mool shabd) kuchh ekaakshar hai aur kuchh anekaakshar.

bushamain parivaar

is jaati ke log dakshini afeeka me mool nivaasi samajhe jaate hain. inki bahut si boliyaaain hain graamageeton aur graamakathaaon ko chhodkar in boliyon mein koi anya saahitya naheen hai. roop ki drushti se ye bhaashaaeain ant mein pratyaya jodnevaali yogaatmak ashlisht avastha mein hain. inke kuchh lakshan soodaan parivaar ki bhaashaaon se milte hain. aur kuchh baantoo parivaar ki juloo ki dhvaniyon par is parivaar ki bhaashaaon ka prabhaav pada ho. bushamain mein chhah "klik' dhvaniyaaain bhi hain. ling purushatv aur streetv par nirbhar na hokar praanivrg aur apraanivrg par avalanbit hai aur is baat se draavid bhaashaaon ke chetan aur achetan ling se samata rakhata hain. bahuvachan banaane ke kai dhang hain jinmein abhyaas mukhya hai. hoteintaat bhaashaaeain bhi bushamain ke antargat samajhi jaati hain. hoteintaat shabd praaya: ekaakshar hote hain. teen vachan (ek, dvi, bahu) hote hain. uttam purush ke dvivchan aur bahuvachan ke sarvanaam ke do roop (vaachyasamaaveshak aur vyatirikt) paae jaate hain soor ka bhi astitv hai.

baantoo parivaar

ye bhaashaaeain praaya: samast dakshini Africa mein, bhoomadhyarekha ke neeche ke bhaagon me boli jaati hain. inke dakshin pashchim mein hoteintaat aur bushamain hain aur uttar mein soodaan parivaar ki vibhinn bhaashaaeain. is parivaar mein kareeb ek sau pachaas bhaashaaeain hain jo teen (poorvi, madhyavarti, pashchimi) samoohon mein baaainti jaati hain. in bhaashaaon mein koi saahitya naheen hain. pradhaan bhaashaaeain kaafir, jooloo, sesuto, kaango aur svaheeli hain.

baantoo bhaashaaeain yogaatmak ashlisht aakruti ki hai aur paraspar susanbaddh hein inka pradhaan lakshan apasarg jodkar pad banaane ka hain aur paraspar susanbaddh hain. inka pradhaan lakshan upasarg jodkar pad banaane ka he. ant mein pratyaya jaaaindkar bhi pad banaae jaate hai, par upasarg ki apeksha kam. udaaharan ke liye sanpradaan kaarak ka arth "ku' upasarg se niklata hain, yatha kuti (hamako), kuni (unako), kuje (usako). bahuvachana—aaabantu (bahut se aadmi), amuntu (ek aadmi). baantoo bhaashaaon ka doosra pradhaan lakshan dhvanisaamanjasya hai. ye bhaashaaeain soonane me madhur hoti hain. sabhi shabd svaraant hote hain aur sanyukt vyanjanon ka abhaav sa hai.

soodaan parivaar

ye bhaashaaeain bhoomadhyarekha ke uttar mein pashchim se poorv tak faili hui hain. inke uttar me haami parivaar ki bhaashaaeain hein. kul 435 bhaashaaon me se keval paaainch chh: hi lipibddh pai jaati hain. iname baain, mom, kanoori-haausa tatha pyool mukhya hain. noobi mein chauthi se saataveen sadi isavi ke kopti lipi me lishe lekh milte hain.

in bhaashaaon ki aakruti mukhya roop se ayogaatmak ekaakshar dhaatuon ke astitv aur upasarg tatha pratyayon ke nitaant abhaav ke kaaran cheeni bhaashaaon ki tarah yahaaain bhi arth ka bhed sooro par aadhaarit hain. shabdon me ling naheen hota. aavashyakta padne par nar aur maada me bodhak shabdon dvaara ling dikhaaya jaata hain. bahuvachan ka bhaav saaf-saaf in bhaashaaon me nahi jhalakata. vaakya adhikaanshat: chhote chhote, ek sanjnyaa aur ek kriya ke hote hain. soodaani bhaashaaon mein ek tarah ke muhaavare hote hain jinhein dhvanichit, shabdachitr ya varnanaatmak kriyaavishesh kah sakte hain: jaise, iv bhaasha me "jo' dhaatu ka arth chalana hota hai aur isse kai darjan muhaavare bante hain jinka arth seedhe chalana, jaldi chalana, chhote chhote kadam rakhakar chalana, lambe aadmi ki chaal chalana, choohe aadi chhote jaanvaron ki tarah chalana, ityaadi arth prakat hote hai.

soodaan parivaar me chaar samooh hain - senegal bhaashaaeain, iv bhaashaaeain, madhya Africa samooh aur neel nadi ke oopari hisse ki boliyaaain.

soodaan aur baantoo donon parivaaron me kuchh samaan lakshan paae jaate hain. donon me sanjnyaaaon ko vibhinn ganon mein vibhkt karte hain. is vibhaag ke abhaav mein sanjnyaa aur kriya ka bhed keval vaakya mein shabd ke sthaan se hi prakat hota hai. sur bhi donon me praaya: milte hain.

sandarbh granth

  • meie (Meillet) : le laang doo maand (peris);
  • baabooraam Saxena : saamaanya bhaashaavijnyaaan (prayog)
  1. "Africa". UNESCO. 2005. http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.php-URL_ID=8048&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-03-01.