afreeka ka itihaas

Africa ka itihaas ko maanav vikaas ka itihaas bhi kaha ja sakta hai. maanav sabhyata ki neenv poorvi Africa mein homo sepiyens prajaati ke vaanar dvaara raakhi gayi. yahi prajaati aaj ke aadhunik manushya ki poorvaj prajaati hai. likhit itihaas mein sabse pehle varnan milta hai misr sabhyata ka jo neel nadi ke sameep isa se 4000 varsh poorv praarambh hui.

praagaitihaas

meesojoik yug ke aaranb mein, Africa pruthvi ke painjiya bhoobhaag ke anya mahaadveepon se juda.[1] Africa mein bhi is super-mahaadveep ke apekshaakrut yooneefaurm jantu-jagat hi the, jinman theropauds, prosauropauds evam praacheen ornithisshiyans ki bahutaayat thi. aisa traaijiyaik kaal ke ant tak raha.[1] antim traaijiyaik kaaleen jeevaashm vaise to Africa paryant milte hain, kintu uttari bhaag ki apeksha dakshini bhaag mein adhik mile hain.[1] traaijiyaik aur juraasik kaal ko pruthak karti samay seema vishv ke anya bhaagon ke saath hi yahaan bhi inke viluptikran ko ingit karti hai, haalaanki Africa ke is kaal ke baare mein abhi adhik gahan shodh naheen hue hain.[1]

aaranbhik juraasik kaal ko bhi antim traayajiyaik kaal ki bhaanti hi baanta gaya hai, jismein dakshini bhaag mein adhik paaye gaye aautakraups evam uttari bhaag mein apekshaakrut kam paaye gaye jeevaashm beds rakhe gaye.[1] juraasik kaal ki pragati ke saath saath hi daayanosaurs ke adhik aayanik samooh jaise sauropauds evam ornithopauds Africa mein badhne lage.[1] madhya juraasik kaal ko Africa ke sandarbh mein na to adhik darshaaya gaya na adhik adhyayan hi kiya gaya hai.[1] juraasik kaal ke antim bhaag ko bhi tanjaaniya ke teinduguru ke aashcharyajanak jantu-jagat ke alaava adhik dhyaan se shodh naheen kiya gaya hai.[1] teinduguru ke antim juraasik kaaleen jantu pashchimi uttari amareeka ke mauris faurmeshan se mel khaate the.[1]

madhya meesojoik kaal mein, lagbhag 150-160 arab varsh poorv, maidaagaaskar Africa mahaadveep se alag hua tha, haalaanki vah Bhaarat evam shesh gondavaana bhoomikhnd se juda raha.[1] maidaagaaskar ke jeevaashmon mein abelisaurs evam taaitainosaurs the.[1]

afreeki theropaud spaainosauras –sabase bada gyaat maansaahaari daayanosaur tha

baad mein aaranbhik kretaishiys yug mein, Bhaarat-maidaagaaskar bhookhand sthaayi roop se alag hote hue vartamaan sthiti mein pahunche.[1]

maidaagaaskar ki tulana mein afrika ki mukhya-bhoomi meesojoik yug paryant apni jagah par apekshaakrut adhik sthir rahi.[1] kintu sthir rahane par bhi ismein nirantar door hote painjiya ke anya bhoobhaagon se bahut antar aaya.[1] antim kreteshiys yug ke aarambh mein dakshin amareeka bhi Africa se alag ho gaya tha. is tarah andh mahaasaagar ka dakshinaardh bhaag poorn hua.[1] is ghataana ka vaishvik jalavaayu par gahra prabhaav pada, kyonki isse saagareeya dhaaraaon mein bada antar aaya.[1]

kreteshiys yug mein Africa mein alosauraueds evam spaainosauraueds badhte rahe. ye sabse bade maansabhakshiyon mein se the.[1] is praagaitihaasik kaal ke ikosistam mein taaitainosaurs khaas shaakaahaari the.[1] juraasik sthalon ki apeksha kreteshiys puraataatvik sthal adhik milte hain, kintu praay: radio deting dvaara inki kaalaganana asambhav hoti hai. is kaaran inki sahi-sahi kaal-sthiti naheen pata chal paati hai.[1] praagaitihaasajnya lui jaikabs ne maalaavi ke maidaanon mein adhyayan karte hue paaya ki[tathya vaanchhit] "afreeki bhoomi aur gahan adhyayan maangati hai tatha yeh khoj ki kheti ke liye nishchaya hi upajaaoo bhoomi siddh hogi."[1]

poorv itihaas

Lucy, ek ostrelopithekas afaarensis kankaal, jo 24 November, 1974 ko avaash ghaati, ithiyopiya mein afaar dipreshan mein mila tha.

adhikaansh puraatatvavettaaon dvaara pruthvi ka praacheenatam basa kshetr maana jaata hai. yahaan se hi maanav prajaati ka udbhav hua tha.[2][3] beesaveen shataabdi ke madhya mein puraatatvavettaaon dvaara yahaan 70 lakh varsh puraane maanav astitv ke pramaan svaroop jeevaashm mile hain. kai jeevaashm vanamaanush jaise puraamaanavon ke hain, jinhein aaj ke maanav ka poorvaj maana jaata hai. inmein ostrelopithekas afaarensis ke jeevaashm hain, jinki kaal-ganana (rediyometri dvaara) lagbhag 3.9-3.0 million varsh E.poo. ki hui hai.[4] pairainthropas boisei (c. 2.3–1.4 million varsh E.poo.)[5] tatha homo esgaistar (c. 1.9 miliyn–6000,000 varsh E.poo.) ki bhi khoj hui hai.[6]

maanavata ke poorv-itihaas bhar mein Africa mein (anya mahaadveepon ki bhaanti) yahaan koi raashtra ya raajya naheen tha, balki shikaari-banjaaron ke samooh the jaise khoi ya sain.[7][8][9]

him yug ke ant tak, lagbhag 10,500 E.poo. mein sahaara fir se ek harit upajaaoo ghaati kshetr ban gaya tha, evam yahaan ki afreeki aabaadi Africa ke aantarik evam tateeya uchch-bhoomi kshetron se up-sahaara Africa ke kshetron mein laut aaye.[tathya vaanchhit] haalaanki yahaan ke ushn aur shushk hote jalavaayu ka yahi sanket tha, ki 5000 E.poo. tak yeh kshetr shushk evam aavaas-virodhi ho jaayega. tab yahaan ki aabaadi sahaara kshetr se neel nadi ki ghaati ki or badh chali. yaheen par inhonne apne sthaayi aur ardh-sthaayi aavaas banaaye. jalavaayu mein badi mandi aayi aur madhya evam poorvi afreeki kshetron mein bhaari aur lambi varsha ki kami ho gayi. is samay tak poorvi Africa mein sookhe ki sthiti aa gayi thi. yeh khaaskar antim 200 varshon mein ithiyopiya aadi mein hua tha.

afreeka mein pashu-paalan krushi se pehle aaya tha. yeh baad mein bhi aakhet-sangrahan sanskruti ke saath saath chalta raha. yeh anumaanit hai ki 6000 E.poo. ke lagbhag uttari Africa mein pashupaalan khoob chal raha tha.[10] sahaara-neel kshetron mein log kai pashuon ko paalne lage the, jaise gadhe, khaas kism ki bakariyaan aadi jo Algeria se nyoobiya kshetr mein khaas dekha gaya hai. 4000 E.poo. tak sahaara kshetr ki jalavaayu drutagati se shushkatar hoti gayi.[11] is mausam parivartan ke kaaran nadiyaan aur jheelein sikud kar chhoti hoti gayeen aur marusthaleekaran pair pasaarata gaya. is kaaran se aabaadi vaale kshetron se log pashchim Africa ke krushi-sahaayak ushnakatibndheeya kshetron mein sthaanaantarit hone lage.[11]

pratham shataabdi E.poo tak uttari Africa mein lauh kaarya bhi aarambh hue aur sahaara ke paar up-sahaaraayi afreeka ke uttari kshetron tak file gaye.[12] 500 E.poo. tak dhaatu-kaarya pashchim afreeka mein aam baat ho gayi thi. 500 E.poo. tak dhaatu prayog poorvi evam pashchimi afreeka mein bhi dhang se hone laga tha. haalaanki anya kshetron mein ye kaarya isaveen ki aaranbhik shataabdiyon tak bhi naheen pahuncha tha. misr, uttari afreeka, nyoobiya evam ithiyopiya ki taamr nirmit bartan aadi vastuen pashchim Africa se khudaai mein nikli hain. inki kaal-ganana 500 E.poo. ki bataayi gayi hai. isse sanket milte hain ki sahaara-paar vyaapaar ke jaal is samay tak fail chuke the.[11]


aaranbhik sabhyataaen

anukram

sandarbh

  1. a aa i E u oo A ai O au k kh g gh ch chh j jh nya jaikabs, lui L. (1997). "afreekan daayanosaurs" daayanaasaurs ka vishvakosh sanpaadit: Phillip J. kyoori evam laivin paidiyn. aikedemik press, pru.2-4.
  2. jenetik stadi roots hyoomans in Africa, BBC samaachaar | SCI/TECH
  3. Migration of Early Humans From Africa Aided By Wet Weather, sciencedaily.com
  4. Kimbel, William H. & Yoel Rak & Donald C. Johanson. (2004) ostrelopithekas afaarensis ki khopadi, oksford yunivrsiti press, san.raajya, ISBN 0-19-515706-0.
  5. taj kaulin. (2002) the vairaayati of laaif, oksford yunivrsiti press, ISBN 0-19-860426-2.
  6. saayare, April pule. (1999) Africa, tventi-first century books. ISBN 0-7613-1367-2.
  7. van Sertima, Ivan. (1995) Egypt: Child of Africa/S V12 (Ppr), Transaction Publishers. pp. 324–325. ISBN 1-56000-792-3.
  8. Mokhtar, G. (1990) UNESCO General History of Africa, Vol. II, Abridged Edition: Ancient Africa, University of California Press. ISBN 0-85255-092-8.
  9. Eyma, A. K. & C. J. Bennett. (2003) Delts-Man in Yebu: Occasional Volume of the Egyptologists' Electronic Forum No. 1, Universal Publishers. p. 210. SBN 1-58112-564-X.
  10. Diamond, Jared. (1999) "Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York:Norton, pp.167.
  11. a aa i O'Brien, Patrick K. (General Editor). Oxford Atlas of World History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. pp.22–23
  12. Martin evam O'miyra "Africa, truteeya sanskaran," indiyaana: indiyaana yunivrsiti press, 1995 [1]