adbhut

saahityakaaron dvaara paribhaashaahindi ke aachaarya Dave ne adbhut ras ka yeh lakshan kiya hai - 'aahacharaj dekhe sune bismai baadht. chitt adbhut ras bismaya badhai achal sachakit nimitt'[2].

bharatamuni ne veer ras se adbhut ki utpatti bataai hai tatha iska varn peela evam devata brahma kaha hai. vishvanaath ke anusaar iske devata gandharv hain. 'vismaya' ki paribhaasha 'sarasvateekanthaabharan' mein di gayi hai - 'vismayashchittavistaar: padaarthaatishyaadibhi:' kisi alaukik padaarth ke gochareekaran se utpann chitt ka vistaar vismaya hai. vishvanaath ne 'saahityadarpan' mein is paribhaasha ko duharaate hue vismaya ko chamatkaar ka paryaaya bataaya hai - 'chamatkaarashchittavistaar roopo vismayaaparaparyaaya:' [3]. ataev chitt ki vah chamatkrut avastha, jismein vah saamaanya ki paridhi se baahar uthakar vistaar laabh karta hai, 'vismaya' kahalaayegi. vaastav mein yeh vismaya ya chamatkaar pratyek gahari anubhooti ka aavashyak ang hai aur iseeliye yeh pratyek ras ki prateeti mein vartamaan rahata hai. bhaanudatt ne kaha hai ki vismaya sabhi rason mein sanchaar karta hai. vishvanaath rasaasvaad ke prakaar ko samajhaate hue kehte hain ki ras ka praan 'lokottar chamatkaar' hai [4] aur is prakaar sarvatr, sampoorn rasagarbhit sthaanon mein adbhut ras maana jaana chaahiye. is sambandh mein unhonne nimnalikhit panktiyaaain uddhrut ki hain - 'rase saarashchamatkaar: sarvatraapyanubhuyate. tachchamatkaarasaaratve sarvatraapyadbhuto ras:. tasmaadadbhutamevaah kruti naaraayano rasam.' [5] arthaat sab rason mein chamatkaar saararoop se (sthaayi) hone se sarvatr adbhut ras hi prateet hota hai. ataev, Narayan pandit keval ek adbhut ras hi maanate hain.

manovaijnyaaanikon ke anusaar manovijnyaaaniyon ne bhi vismaya ko pradhaan bhaavon mein gruheet kiya hai tatha usaki pravrutti 'jijnyaaasa' se bataai hai. vaastav mein aadim maanav ko prakruti ki kreedaasthali ke sansarg mein bhaya evam aashcharya athva vismaya, in do bhaavon ki hi mukhyataya prateeti hui hogi. kala evam kaavya ke aakarshan mein vismaya ki bhaavana sarvaadhik mahattv rakhati hai. kavi evam kalaakaar jis vastu ka saundarya chitrit karna chaahate hain, usamein koi lok ko atikraant karne wala tatv vartamaan rahata hai, jo apni asaadhaaranata se bhaav ko abhibhoot kar leta hai. angreji saahitya ke romantic kaviyon ne kaavya ki aatma vismaya ko hi sveekaar kiya tha. ataev, adbhut ras ka mahattv swayam siddh hai. saahitya shaastriyon ne ras ke virodh evam avirodh ka vyaakhyaan kiya hai.