abul kalaam aajaad

maulaana abul kalaam aajaad
11 November 188822 February 1958
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad.jpg
maulaana aajaad
janmasthal : makka,usmaani saamraajya
mrutyusthal: Delhi,Bhaarat
aandolan: bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam
pramukh sangathan: bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress


maulaana abul kalaam aajaad ya abul kalaam gulaam muhiyuddeen (11 November, 1888 - 22 February, 1958) (baangla: আaaবaaুaaল কaaাaaলaaাaaম মaaুaaহaaিaaযaa়aaুaaদaa্aaদaaিaaন আaaহaaমaaেaaদ আaaজaaাaaদ, urdoo: مaaوaaلaaاaaنaaا اaaبaaوaaاaaلaaکaaلaaاaaم مaaحaaی اaaلaaدaaیaaن اaaحaaمaaد آaaزaaاaaد) ek prasiddh bhaarateeya muslim vidvaan the. ve kavi, lekhak, patrakaar aur bhaarateeya svatantrata senaani the. Bhaarat ki aajaadi ke vaad ve ek mahattvapoorn raajaneetik rahe. ve mahaatma Gandhi ke siddhaanto ka samarthan karte the. unhonne hindu-muslim ekta ke liye kaarya kiya, tatha ve alag muslim raashtra (Pakistan) ke siddhaant ka virodh karne vaale muslim netaao mein se the. khilaafat aandolan mein unki mahatvapoorn bhoomika rahi. 1923 mein ve bhaarateeya national kaagreins ke sabse kam umr ke preseedeint bane. ve 1940 aur 1945 ke beech kaagreins ke preseedeint rahe. aajaadi ke vaad ve Bhaarat ke saansad chune gaye aur ve Bhaarat ke pehle shiksha mantri bane.

ve dhaaraasan satyaagrah ke aham inkalaabi (kraantikaari) the. ve 1940-45 ke beet bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress ke adhyaksh rahe jis dauraan Bhaarat chhodo aandolan hua tha. Congress ke anya pramukh netaaon ki tarah unhein bhi teen saal jail mein bitaane pade the. svatantrata ke baad ve Bhaarat ke pehle shiksha mantri bane aur vishvavidyaalaya anudaan aayog ki sthaapana mein unke sabse avismaraneeya kaaryon me se ek tha.

anukram

jeevan

maulaana aajaad afagaan ulemaaon ke khaanadaan se taalluk rakhate the jo baabar ke samay heraat se Bhaarat aae the. unki maaain arabi mool ki theen aur unke pita mohammad khairuddeen ek faarasi (Irani, nrujaateeya roop se) the. mohammad khairuddeen aur unke parivaar ne bhaarateeya svatantrata ke pehle aandolan ke samay 1857 mein Calcutta chhod kar makka chale gaye. vahaaain par mohammad khairooddeen ki mulaakaat apni hone waali patni se hui. mohammad khairooddeen 1890 mein Bhaarat laut gaye. mauhammad khairooddeen ko Calcutta mein ek muslim vidvaan ke roop mein khyaati mili. jab aajaad maatr 11 saal ke the tab unki maata ka dehaant ho gaya. unki aaranbhik shiksha islaami taur tareekon se hui. ghar par ya masjid mein unhein unke pita tatha baad mein anya vidvaanon ne padhaaya. islaami shiksha ke alaava unhein darshanashaastr, itihaas tatha ganit ki shiksha bhi anya guruon se mili. aajaad ne urdoo, faarasi, hindi, arabi tatha angrejee bhaashaaon mein mahaarath haasil ki. solah saal unhein vo sabhi shiksha mil gayi theen jo aamtaur par 25 saal mein mila karti thi.

terah saal ki aayu mein unka vivaah julaikha begm se ho gaya. ve devabandi vichaaradhaara ke kareeb the aur unhonne kuraan ke anya bhaavaroopon par lekh bhi likhe. aajaad ne angreji samarpit svaadhyaaya se seekhi aur paashchaatya darshan ko bahut padha. unhein muslim paaramparik shiksha ko raas naheen I aur ve aadhunik shikshaavaadi sar saiyyad Ahmad khaaain ke vichaaron se sahamat the.

kraantikaari aur patrakaar ke roop mein

aajaad angreji hukoomat ke khilaaf the. unheinne angreji sarkaar ko aam aadmi ke shoshan ke liye jimmevaar thaharaaya. unhonne apne samay ke muslim netaaon ki bhi aalochna ki jo unke anusaar desh ke hit ke samaksh saampradaayik hit ko tarajeeh de rahe the. anya muslim netaaon se alag unhone 1905 mein Bengal ke vibhaajan ka virodh kiya aur all India muslim league ke alagaavavaadi vichaaradhaara ko khaarij kar diya. unhonne Iran, iraak misr tatha Syria ki yaatraaen ki. aajaad ne kraantikaari gatividhiyon mein bhaag lena aarambh kiya aur unhein shri Aurobindo aur shyaamasunhar chakravarti jaise kraantikaariyon se samarthan mila.

aajaad ki shiksha unhe ek dafaatar (kiraani) bana sakti thi par raajaneeti ke prati unke jhukaav ne unhein patrakaar bana diya. unhone 1912 mein ek urdoo patrika al hilaal ka sootrapaat kiya. unka udyeshya musalmaan yuvakon ko kraantikaari aandolanon ke prati utsaahit karna aur hindu-muslim ekta par bal dena tha. unhone tatkaaleen netaaoain ko yeh dikhaakar achanbhit kar diya ki ve muslim hote hue bhi kraantikaari gatividhiyon ka samarthan kar rah hain jo us samay aam baat naheen thi. unhone Congressi netaaon ka vishvaas Bengal, Bihar tatha Mumbai mein kraantikaari gatividhiyon ke gupt aayojanon dvaara jeeta. unhein 1920 mein raaainchi mein jail ki saja bhugatani padi.

asahayog aandolan

jail se nikalne ke baad ve jaliyaanvaala baag hatyaakaand ke virodhi netaaon mein se ek the. iske alaava ve khilaaft aandolan ke bhi pramukh the. khilaaft Turkey ke usmaani saamraajya ki pratham vishvayuddh mein haarne par unapar lagaae harjaane ka virodh karta tha. us samay otoman (usmaani turk) makka par kaabij the aur islaam ke khaleefa vahi the. iske kaaran vishvabhar ke muslimon mein rosh tha aur Bhaarat mein yeh khilaaft aanndolan ke roop mein ubhara jismein usmaanon ko haraane vaale mitr raashtron (Britain, France, Italy) ke saamraajya ka virodh hua tha.

gaaaindhi ji ke asahayog aandolan mein unhonne sakriya roop se bhaag liya.

aajaadi ke baad

svatantr Bhaarat ke pehle shiksha mantri the. unhonne gyaarah varshon tak raashtra ki shiksha neeti ka maargadarshan kiya. maulaana aajaad ko hi 'bhaarateeya pradyogiki sansthaan' arthaat 'I.ti.I.' aur 'vishvavidyaalaya anudaan aayog' ki sthaapana ka shreya hai. unhonne shiksha aur sanskruti ko vikisit karne ke liye utkrusht sansthaanon ki sthaapana ki.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

  1. sangeet naatak academy (1953)
  2. saahitya academy (1954)
  3. lalitkala academy (1954)

keindreeya salaahakaar shiksha board ke adhyaksh hone par sarkaar se kendra aur raajyon donon ke atirikt vishvavidyaalayon mein saarabhaumik praathamik shiksha, 14 varsh tak ki aayu ke sabhi bachchon ke liye ni:shulk aur anivaarya shiksha, kanyaaon ki shiksha, vyaavasaayik prashikshan, krushi shiksha aur takaneeki shiksha jaise sudhaaron ki vakaalat ki.[krupaya uddharan jodein]


aalochna

unhe varsh 1992 mein maranoparaant Bhaarat ratn se sammaanit kiya gaya.

yeh bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain