abhrak

chattaan mein upasthit maaika
paratadaar maaika

abhrak (angreji:Mica) ek bahupayogi khanij hai jo aagneya evam kaayaantarit chattaanon mein khandon ke roop mein paaya jaata hain. ise bahut patali-patali paraton mein cheera ja sakta hai. yeh rangarahit ya halake peele, hare ya kaale rang ka hota hai.

abhrak ek jatil siliket yaugik hai. ismein poteshiym, sodiym aur lithiym jaise kshaareeya padaarth bhi mile rahate hain. aagneya chattaanon mein praaya: abhrak paaya jaata hai. vaayu tatha dhoop aadi se prabhaavit hokar kabhi-kabhi siliket khanij bhi abhrak mein badal jaata hai.

anukram

prakaar

abhrak ko do vargon mein vibhaajit kiya jaata hai: (1) maskovaait varg, (2) baayotaait varg.

  • maskovaait varg mein teen jaatiyaaain hain:
  • maskovaait
  • pairaagonaait
  • laipidolaait
  • baayotaait varg mein bhi teen jaatiyaaain hain:
  • baayotaait
  • flogopaait
  • jinvaldaait

in donon jaatiyon ke mukhya khanij kramash: shvetaabhrak tatha krushnaabhrak hain.

khanijaatmak gun

poorvokt donon prakaar ke khanijon ke gun lagbhag ek se hi hain. raasaayanik sangathan mein thoda sa bhed hone ke kaaran inke rang mein antar paaya jaata hai. shvetaabhrak ko potaishiym abhrak tatha krushnaabhrak ko maiganeeshiym aur lauh abhrak kehte hain. shvetaabhrak mein jal ki maatra 4 se 6 pratishat tak vidyamaan rahati hai.

abhrak varg ke sabhi khanij monoklinik samudaaya mein sfateeya hote hain. adhiktar ye paratadaar aakruti mein paae jaate hain. shvotaabhrak ki paratein rangaheen, athva halke katthai ya hare rang ki hoti hain. lohe ki vidyamaanata ke kaaran krushnaabhrak ka rang kaalaapan liye hota hai. in khanijon ki satah chikni tatha moti ke samaan chamakadaar hoti hai. ek disha mein in khanijon ki parton ko badi suvidha se alag kiya ja sakta hai. ye paratein bahut namya (fleksibul) tatha pratyasth (ilaistik) hoti hain. iska anumaan isi se lagaaya ja sakta hai ki yadi ham ek inch ke hajaaravein bhaag ke baraabar motaai ki parat lein aur use ek chauthaai inch vyaas ke belan ke aakaar mein mod daalein to apni pratyaasthata ke kaaran vah pun: failakar samatal ho jaaegi. in khanijon ki kathorata 2 se 3 tak hai. thode se dabaab se yeh naakhoon se khurache ja sakte hain. inka aapekshik ghanatv 2.7 se 3.1 tak hota hai.

abhrak varg ke khanijon par amlon ka koi prabhaav naheen padta. abhrak ailyoomeeniym tatha potesiym ke jatil siliket hain, jinmein vibhijh maatra mein maiganeeshiym tatha lauh evam sodiym, kailsiym, leethiym, taaiteniym, kromiym tatha anya tatv bhi praaya: vidyamaan rahate hain. maskovaait sarvaadhik mahattvapoorn abhrak hai. yadyapi maskovaait sarvaadhik saamaanya shilaanirmaata (rock-faurmig) khanij hai tathaapi iske nikshep, jinse upayogi abhrak praapt hota hai, keval Bhaarat tatha braajeel ke kuchh seemit kshetron mein pigmetaait pattikaaon (veins) mein hi vidyamaan hain. sampoorn sansaar ki aavashyakta ka 80 pratishat abhrak Bhaarat mein hi milta hai.

praaptisthaan

chitr:Mica output2.PNG
maaika ke praaptisthaan (2005)

abhrak ke utpaadan mein Bhaarat agraganya desh hai, yadyapi yeh kainaada, braajeel, aadi deshon mein bhi prachur maatra mein praapt hota hai, tathaapi vahaaain ka abhrak adhikaanshat: chhote aakaar ki paraton mein athva choore ke roop mein milta hai. badi staronvaale abhrak ke utpaadan mein Bhaarat ko hi ekaadhikr praapt hai.

abhrak ki patali-patali paraton mein bhi vidyut‌ rokane ki shakti hoti hai aur isi praakrutik gun ke kaaran iska upayog anek vidyutayantron mein anivaarya roop se hota hai. iske atirikt kuchh anya udyogon mein bhi abhrak ka prayog hota hai. baayotaait abhrak katipya aushadhiyon ke nirmaan mein prayukt hota hai.

Bihar ki abhrakapetika pashchim mein gaya jile se hajaareebaag tatha munger hoti hui poorab mein Bhaagalpur jile tak lagbhag 90 meal ki lanbaai aur 12-16 meal ki chaudaai mein faili hui hai. iska sarvaadhik utpaadak kshetr kodarma tatha aaspaas ke kshetron mein seemit hai. bhaarateeya abhrakashilaaeain subhaaj (shist) hain, jimein anek parivartan hue hain. abhrak mukhyat: pustak ke roop mein praapt hota hai. is samay Bihar kshetr mein 600 se bhi adhik chhoti badi abhrak ki khaanein hain. in khaanon mein anek ki gaharaai 700 foot tak chali gayi hai. Bihar mein atyuttam jaati ka laal (roobi) abhrak paaya jaata hai jiske liye yeh pradesh sampoorn sansaar mein prasiddh hai:.

Andhra mein nellor jile ki abhrak petika dur tatha sangam ke madhya sthit hai. iski lanbaai 60 tatha chaudaai 8-10 meal hai. is petika mein anek sthaanon par abhrak ka khanan hota hai. yadyapi adhikaansh abhrak ka varn hara hota hai, tathaapi kuchh sthaanon par "Bengal roobi' ke samaan laal varn ka kuchh abhrak bhi praapt hota hai.

bhaarateeya abhrak ke utpaadan mein Rajasthan ka dviteeya sthaan hai. Rajasthan ki abhramakaya petika Jaipur se Udaipur tak faili hai tatha usamein pigmetaait milte hain. Rajasthan se praapt abhrak mein se keval alpaansh hi uchch koti ka hota hai; adhikaansh mein ya to dhabbe hote hain athva paratein tooti ya mudi hoti hain.

Bihar, Rajasthan aur Andhra ke vishaal abhrakakshetron ke atirikt kuchh maskovaait Bihar ke maanabhoom, sinhabhoom tatha paalaamaoo jilon mein bhi milta hai. isi prakaar adhovarg ka kuchh abhrak udeesa ke sanbalapur, aaaingul tatha dheinkaanal mein paaya gaya hai. Andhra mein kudappa, tatha Madras mein salem, maalaabaar tatha neelagiri jilon mein bhi abhrak ke nikshep hain, kintu ye adhik mahatva ke naheen. Mysore ke hasan tatha Mysore aur pashchim bangal ke medineepur tatha baaainkuda jilon mein bhi alp maatra mein abhrak paaya gaya hai.

upayogita

power traanjistaron ke liye abhrak ke insuletar

yadyapi desh mein abhrak prachur maatra mein paaya jaata hai, tathaapi iska adhikaansh kachche maal ke roop mein videshon ko bhej diya jaata hai. hamaare apne udyog mein iski khapat praaya: naheen ke baraabar hai. ismein sandeh naheen ki adhik maatra niryaat ke kaaran is khanij dvaara videshi mudra ka upaarjan yathesht ho jaata hai, kintu yadi isko desh mein hi parishkrut padaarth ke roop diya ja sake to aur bhi adhik aay hone ki sambhaavana hai.

vyaapaar ki drushti se abhrak ke do khanij shvetaabhrak aur flogopaait adhik mahattvapoorn hain. abhrak ka prayog badi-badi chaadaron ke roop mein tatha chhote-chhote ya choorn ke roop mein hota hai. badi-badi paratonvaala abhrak mukhyataya vidyut‌ udyog mein kaam aata hai. vidyut‌ ka asanvaahak hone ke kaaran iska upayog kandeinsar, kamyootetar, telephone, daayanemo aadi ke kaam mein hota hai. paaradarshak tatha taaparodhak hone ke kaaran yeh lainp ki chimni, stov, bhatthiyon aadi mein prayukt hota hai. abhrak ke chhote-chhote tukadon ko chipkaakar maaikaanaait banaaya jaata hai. abhrak ke chhote-chhote tukade rabad udyog mein, rang banaane mein, masheenon mein chiknaai dene ke liye tatha maanapatron aadi ki sajaavat ke kaam aate hain.

abhrak ooshma tatha vidyut‌ ka kuchaalak hai. yahi gun iske vyaapaarik mahatva ka aadhaar hai. pavanamaapi yantr tatha uttam koti ke darpan abhrak ki sahaayata se banaae jaate hain. baayalar ke jacket ke aavaran banaane mein bhi iska upayog hota hai. vidyut‌ayantr tatha upakaran, jaise daayanamo, aarmechar, heetar, telephone ke daayal banaane mein bhi iska upayog hota hai. radio, vaayuyaan tatha motor engine ke purjon mein bhi abhrak ka upayog badhta ja raha hai. isse khaad bhi banaai jaati hai.

abhrak paaradarshak hota hai. saath hi taap ke aakasmik utaar-chadhaav ka bhi asapar adhik asar naheen hota hai. isliye yeh bhattiyon mein agninirodhak palastar karne ke kaam aata hai. rangaheen paaradarshak kaagaj, vibhijh prakaar ke khilaune, rangamanch ke paradon ki sajaavat tatha chamakeele peint kalar bhi abhrak ki sahaayata se banaae jaate hain.

aayurved chikitsa mein abhrak bhasm kaafi prachalit aushadhi hai jo kshaya, prameh, pathari aadi rogon ke nidaan mein prayukt hoti hai.

aayurved mein abhrak

sanskrut mein jise abhrak kehte hain vahi hindi mein abarak, baingala mein abhr, faarasi mein sitaara jameen tatha laitin aur angreji mein maaika kahalaata hai. kaale rang ka abhrak ayurvedik aushadhi ke kaam mein lene ka aadesh hai. saadhaaranat: agni ka ispar prabhaav naheen hota, fir bhi aayurved mein iska bhasm banaane ki reetiyaaain hain. yeh bhasm sheetal, dhaatuvardhak aur tridosh, vishvikaar tatha krumidosh ko nasht karanevaala, deh ko drudh karanevaala tatha apoorv shaktidaayak kaha gaya hai. kshaya, prameh, bavaaseer, pathari, mootraaghaat ityaadi rogon mein yeh laabhadaayak kaha gaya hai.

abhrak ki pramukh khaanein

baahari kadiyaaain