abhinvagupt

abhinvagupt (975-1025) daarshanik, rahasyavaadi evam saahityashaastr ke moordhanya aachaarya. Kashmiri shaiv aur tantr ke pandit. ve sangeetajnya, kavi, naatakakaar, dharmashaastri evam tarkashaastri bhi the.

abhinvagupt ka vyaktitv bada hi rahasyamaya hai. mahaabhaashya ke rachayita patanjali ko vyaakaran ke itihaas mein tatha bhaamateekaar vaachaspati mishr ko advait vedaant ke itihaas mein jo gaurav tatha aadaraneeya utkarsh praapt hua hai vahi gaurav Abhinav ko bhi tantr tatha alankaarashaastr ke itihaas mein praapt hai. inhonne ras siddhaant ki manovaigyaanik vyaakhya (abhivyanjanaavaad) kar alankaarashaastr ko darshan ke uchch star par pratishthit kiya tatha pratyabhijnyaa aur trik darshanon ko praudh bhaashya pradaan kar inhein tark ki kasauti par vyavasthit kiya. ye kore shushk taarkik hi naheen the, pratyut saadhanaajagat ke guhya rahasyon ke marmajnya saadhak bhi the.

anukram

jeevanavrutt

abhinvagupt ka janm Kashmir mein dasham shataabdi ke madhya bhaag mein hua tha (lagbhag 950 E. -- 960 E. ke beech). inka kul apni vidya, vidvata tatha taantrik saadhana ke liye Kashmir mein nitaant prakhyaat tha. inke pitaamah ka naam tha varaahagupt tatha pita ka narasinhagupt jo logon mein "chukhul" ya "chukhulak" ke ghareloo naam se bhi prasiddh the. Abhinav mein gyaan ki itni teevr pipaasa thi ki iski trupti ke liye inhonne Kashmir ke baahar Jalandhar ki yaatra ki aur vahaaain ardhatryanbak mat ke pradhaan aachaarya shanbhunaath se kaulik mat ke siddhaanton aur upaasanaatatvon ka pragaadh anusheelan kiya. inhonne apne guruon ke naam hi naheen diye hain, pratyut unase adheet shaastron ka bhi nirdesh kiya hai. inhonne vyaakaran ka adhyayan apne pita narasinhagupt se, brahmavidya ka bhootiraaj se, kram aur trikdarshanon ka Lakshman gupt se, dhvani ka bhatteindraraaj se tatha naatyashaastr ka adhyayan bhatt tot (ya taut) se kiya. inke guruon ki sankhya bees tak pahuainchati hai.

abhinvagupt ke aavirbhaavakaal ka pata unheen ke granthon ke samayanirdesh se bhali bhaaainti lagta hai. inke aaranbhik granthon mein kramastotr ki rachana 66 laukik sanvat (991 E.) mein aur bhairavastotr ki 68 samvat (993 E.) mein hui. inki ishvar-pratyabhijnyaa-vimrshini ka rachanaakaal 90 laukik sanvat (1015 E.) hai. falat: inki saahityik rachanaaon ka kaal 990 E. se lekar 1020 E. tak maana ja sakta hai. is prakaar inka samay dasham shati ka uttaraardh tatha ekaadash shati ka aaranbhik kaal sveekaar kiya ja sakta hai.

grantharachana

abhinvagupt tantrashaastr, saahitya aur darshan ke praudh aachaarya the aur in teenon vishyon par inhonne 50 se oopar maulik granthon, teekaaon tatha stotron ka nirmaan kiya hai. abhiruchi ke aadhaar par inka sudeergh jeevan teen kaalavibhaagon mein vibhkt kiya ja sakta hai:

(k) taantrik kaal - jeevan ke aarambh mein abhinvagupt ne tantrashaastron ka gahan anusheelan kiya tatha upalabdh praacheen tantragranthon par inhonne addhaitaparak vyaakhyaaeain likhkar logon mein vyaapt bhraant siddhaanton ka safal niraakaran kiya. kram, trik tatha kul tantron ka Abhinav ne kramash: adhyayan kar tadvishyak granthon ka nirmaan isi kram se sampann kiya. is yug ki pradhaan rachanaaeain ye hain -- bodhapanchadashika, maalineevijya kaartik, paraatrinshikaavivran, tantraalok, tantrasaar, tantrochchaya, tantrovatadhaanika. tantraalokatrik tatha kul tantron ka vishaal vishvakosh hi hai jismein tantrashaastr ke siddhaanton, prakriyaaon tatha tatsanbaddh naana maton ka poorn, praamaanik tatha praanjal vivechan prastut kiya gaya hai. yeh 37 parichhedon mein vibhkt viraat grantharaaj hai jismein bandh ka kaaran, mokshavishk naana mat, prapanch ka abhivyakti prakaar tatha satta, paramaarth ke saadhak upaaya, moksh ke svaroop, shaivaachaar ki vividh prakriya aadi vishyon ka sundar praamaanik vivran dekar Abhinav ne tantr ke gambhir tatvon ko vastut: aalokit kar diya hai. antim teenon granth isi ke kramash: sankshipt roop hain jinmein sankshep poorvaapekshaya hrasv hota gaya hai.

(kh) aalankaarik kaal - alankaaragranthon ka anusheelan tatha pranayan is kaal ki vishishtata hai. is yug se sambaddh teen praudh rachanaaon ka parichay praapt hai - kaavya-kautuk-vivran, dhvanyaalokalochan tatha abhinvabhaarati. kaavyakautuk Abhinav ke naatyashaastr ke guru bhattataut ki anupalabdh prakhyaat kruti hai jispar inka "vivran" anyatr sanketit hi hai, upalabdh naheen. lochan aanandavardhan ke "dhvanyaalok" ka praudh vyaakhyaanagranth hai tatha abhinvabhaarati, bharat muni ke naatyashaastr ke poorn granth ki paandityapoorn prameyabahul vyaakhya hai. yeh naatyashaastr ki ekamaatr teeka hai.

(g) daarshanik kaal - abhinvagupt ke jeevan mein yeh kaal unke paanditya ki praudhi aur utkarsh ka yug hai. paramat ka tarkapaddhati se khandan aur svamat ka praudh pratipaadan is kaal ki vishishtata hai. is kaal ki praudh pratipaadan is kaal ki vishishtata hai. is kaal ki praudh rachanaaon mein ye nitaant prasiddh hain---bhagavadgeetaarthasangrah, paramaarthasaar, ishvar-pratyabhijnyaa-vimrshini tatha ishvar-pratyabhijnyaa-vivruti-vimrshini. antim donein granth abhinvagupt ke praudh paanditya ke nikshagraava hain. ye utpalaachaarya dvaara rachit "ishvarapratyabhajnya" ke vyaakhyaan hain. pehle mein to keval kaarikaaon ki vyaakhya aur doosare utpal ki hi svopajnya vrutti (aajkal anupalabdh) "vivruti" ki praanjal teeka hai. praacheen gananaanusaar chaar sahasr shlokon se sampann hone ke kaaran pehli teeka "chatu:sahasri" (laghvi) tatha doosari "ashtaadashasahasri" (athva bruhati) ke naam se bhi prasiddh hai jinmein teeka ab tak aprakaashit hi hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • tantraalok
  • tantrasaar

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