abhinay

abhinay kisi abhineta ya abhinetri ke dvaara kiya jaane wala vah kaarya hai jiske dvaara ve kisi katha ko darshaate hain, saadhaaranataya kisi paatr ke maadhyam se. abhinay ka mool granth naatyashaastr maana jaata hai. iske rachayita bharatamuni the.

jab prasiddh ya kalpit katha ke aadhaar par naatyakaar dvaara rachit roopak mein nirdisht samvaad aur kriya ke anusaar naatyaprayokta dvaara sikhaae jaane par ya swayam nat apni vaani, shaareerik cheshta, bhaavabhangi, mukhamudra veshabhoosha ke dvaara darshakon ko, shabdon ko shabdon ke bhaavon ka prijnyaaan aur ras ki anubhooti karaate hain tab us sampoorn samanvit vyaapaar ko abhinay kehte hain. bharat ne naatyakaaron mein abhinay shabd ki nirukti karte hue kaha hai: "abhinay shabd 'neenya' dhaatu mein 'abhi' upasarg lagaakar bana hai. abhinay ka uddeshya hota hai kisi pad ya shabd ke bhaav ko mukhya arth tak pahuaincha dena; arthaat‌ darshakon ya saamaajikon ke hrudaya mein bhaav ya arth se abhibhoot karna". kaviraaj vishvanaath ne sahitya darpan ke chhathe parichhed ke aarambh mein kaha hai: 'bhavedabhinyoSvasthaanukaar:' arthaat avastha ka anukaran hi abhinay kahalaata hai.

abhinay karne ki pravrutti bachapan se hi manushya mein tatha anya anek jeevon mein hoti hai. haath, pair, aaainkh, munh, sir chalaakar apne bhaav prakat karne ki pravrutti sabhya aur asabhya jaatiyon mein samaan roop se pai jaati hai. unke anukaran krutyon ka ek uddeshya to yeh rahata hai ki isse unhein vaastavik anubhav jaisa aanand milta hai aur doosra yeh ki isse unhein doosaron ko apna bhaav bataane mein sahaayata milti hai. isi doosare uddeshya ke kaaran shaareerik ya aangik cheshtaaon aur mukhamudraaon ka vikaas hua jo jangali jaatiyon mein boli hui bhaasha ke badle ya usaki sahaayak hokar abhinay prayog mein aati hai.

anukram

chaar prakaar ke abhinay

bharat ne chaar prakaar ka abhinay maana hai - aangik, vaachik, aahaarya aur saatvik.

aangik abhinay

aangik abhinay ka arth hai shareer, mukh aur cheshtaaon se koi bhaav ya arth prakat karna. sir, haath, kati, vaksh, paarshv aur charan dvaara kiya jaanevaala abhinay ya aangik abhinay kahalaata hai aur aaainkh, bhaunh, adhar, kapol aur thodhi se kiya hua mukhaj abhinay, upaang abhinay kahalaata hai. cheshtaakrut abhinay use kehte hain jismein poore shareer ki vishesh cheshta ke dvaara abhinay kiya jaata hai jaise laingade, kubade, ya boodhe ki cheshtaaeain dikhaakar abhinay karna. ye sabhi prakaar ke abhinay vishesh ras, bhaav tatha sanchaari bhaav ke anusaar kiye jaate hain.

shareer athva aangik abhinay mein sir ke tarah, drushti ke chhattees, aaainkh ke taaron ke nau, put ke nau, bhaunhon ke saat, naak ke chhah, kapol ke chhah, adhar ke chhah aur thodhi ke aath abhinay hote hain. vyaapak roop se mukhaj cheshtaaon mein abhinay chhah prakaar ke hote hain. bharat ne kaha hai ki mukharaag se yukt shaareerik abhinay thoda bhi ho to usase abhinay ki shobha dooni ho jaati hai. yeh mukharaag chaar prakaar ka hota hai---svaabhaavik, prasann, rakt aur shyaam. greeva ka abhinay bhi vibhinn bhaavon ke anusaar nau prakaar ka hota hai.

aangik abhinay mein terah prakaar ka sanyukt hast abhinay, chaubees prakaar ka asanyukt hast abhinay, chaunsath prakaar ka nrutt hast ka abhinay aur chaar prakaar ka haath ke kaaran ka abhinay bataaya gaya hai. iske atirikt vaksh ke paaainch, paarshv ke paaainch, udar ke teen, kati ke paaainch, uru ke paaainch, jangha ke paaainch aur pair ke paaainch prakaar ke abhinay bataae gaye hain. bharat ne solah bhoomichaariyon aur solah aakaashachaariyon ka varnan karke das aakaashamandal aur us bhaum mandal ke abhinay ka parichay dete hue gati ke abhinay ka vistaar se varnan kiya hai ki kis bhoomika ke vyakti ki manch par kis ras mein, kaisi gati honi chaahiye, kis jaati, aashram, varn aur vyavasaaya vaale ko rangamanch par kaise chalana chaahiye tatha rath, vimaan, aarohan, avarohan, aakaashagaman aadi ka abhinay kis gati se karna chaahiye. gati ke hi samaan aasan ya baithane ki vidhi bhi bharat ne vistaar se samajhaai hai. jis prakaar Europe mein ghanavaadiyon (kyoobrists) ne abhinyakaushal ke liye vyaayaam ka vidhaan kiya hai vaise hi bharat ne bhi abhinay ka aisa vistrut vivran diya hai ki abhinay ke sambandh mein sansaar mein kisi desh mein abhinay kala ka vaisa saangopaang niroopan naheen hua.

saatvik abhinay

saatvik abhinay to un bhaavon ka vaastavik aur haardik abhinay hai jinhein ras siddhaantavaale saatvik bhaav kehte hain aur jiske antargat, sved, stambh, kanp, ashru, vaivarnya, romaanch, svarabhang aur pralaya ki ganana hoti hai. inmein se sved aur romaanch ko chhodkar shesh sabka saatvik abhinay kiya ja sakta hai. ashru ke liye to vishesh saadhana aavashyak hai, kyonki bhaav magn hone par hi usaki siddhi ho sakti hai.

vaachik abhinay

abhineta rangamanch par jo kuchh mukh se kehta hai vah sabka sab vaachik abhinay kahalaata hai. saahitya mein to ham log vyaakruta vaani hi grahan karte hain, kintu naatak mein avyaakruta vaani ka bhi prayog kiya ja sakta hai. chidiyon ki boli, seeti dena ya dhoron ko haaainkate hue chatakaari dena aadi sab prakaar ki dhvaniyon ko mukh se nikaalna vaachik abhinay ke antargat aata hai. bharat ne vaachik abhinay ke liye 63 lakshanon ka aur unke dosh-gun ka bhi vivechan kiya hai. vaachik abhinay ka sabse bada gun hai apni vaani ke aaroh-avaroh ko is prakaar saadh lena ki kaha hua shabd ya vaakya apne bhaav aur prabhaav ko banaae rakhe. vaachik abhinay ki sabse badi visheshata yahi hai ki yadi koi javanika ke peechhe se bhi bolata ho to keval usaki vaani sunakar hi usaki mukhamudra, bhaavabhangima aur aakaanksha ka gyaan kiya ja sake.

aahaarya abhinay

aahaarya abhinay vaastav mein abhinay ka ang na hokar nepathyakarm ka ang hai aur usaka sambandh abhineta se utana naheen hai jitna nepathyasajja karanevaale se. kintu aaj ke sabhi pramukh abhineta aur naatyaprayokta yeh maanane lage hain ki pratyek abhineta ko apni mukhasajja aur roopasajja swayam karni chaahiye.

bharat ke naatyashaastr mein sabse vichitr prakaran hai chitraabhinya ka, jismein unhonne rituon, bhaavon, anek prakaar ke jeevon, devataaon, parvat, nadi, saagar aadi ka, anek avasthaaon tatha praat:, saayan, chandajyotsna aadi ke abhinay ka vivran diya hai. yeh samoocha abhinyavidhaan prateekaatmak hi hai, kintu ye prateek us prakaar ke naheen hain jis prakaar ke Europeeya prateekaabhinyavaadiyon ne grahan kiye hain.

paashchaatya deshon mein abhinay ka itihaas

yoonaan mein devataaon ki pooja ke saath jo nrutya praarambh hua vahi vahaaain ka abhinyakala ka pratham roop tha jismein nrutya ke dvaara katha ke bhaav ki abhivyakti ki jaati thi. yoonaan mein praarambh mein dhaarmik vedi ke chaaron or jaae naatakeeya nrutya hote the unamein sabhi log samaan roop se bhaag lete the, kintu peechhe chalakar samavet gaayakon mein se kuchh chune hue samarth abhineta hi mukhya bhoomikaaon ke liye chun liye jaate the jaae ek ka hi naheen, kai ki bhoomikaaon ka abhinay karte the kyonki mukhauta pahanane ki reeti ke kaaran yeh sambhav ho gaya tha. mukhaute ke prayog ke kaaran vahaaain vaachik abhinay to bahut samunnat hua kintu mukhamudraaon se abhinay karne ki reeti pallavit na ho saki.

italeevaasiyon mein abhinay ki ruchi badi svaabhaavik hai. naatak likhe jaane se bahut pehle se hi vahaaain yeh saadhaaran pravrutti rahi hai ki kisi dal ko jahaaain koi vishay diya gaya ki vah jhat usaka abhinay prastut kar deta tha. sangeet, nrutya aur drushya ke is prem ne vahaaain ke raajaneetik aur dhaarmik sangharsh mein bhi abhinyakala ko jeevit rakhane mein badi sahaayata di hai.

Europe mein abhinay kala ko sabse adhik mahatva diya sheksapiyr ne. usane swayam maanav svabhaav ke sabhi charitron ka chitran kiya hai. usane haimalet ke samvaad mein shreshth abhinay ke mool tatvon ka samaavesh karte hue bataaya hai ki abhinay mein vaani aur shareer ke angon ka prayog svaabhaavik roop se karna chaahiye, atiranjit roop se naheen.

18veen shataabdi mein hi Europe mein abhinay ke sambandh mein vibhinn siddhaanton aur pranaaliyon ka praadurbhaav hua. fraanseesi vishvakoshakaar deni didro ne udaattavaadi (klaasikl) fraanseesi naatak aur usaki roodh abhinay paddhati se oobakar vaastavik jeevan ke naatak ka siddhaant pratipaadit kiya aur bataaya ki naatak ko France ke burjuva (madhyavargeeya) jeevan ki vaastavik pratichhaaya banana chaahiye. usane abhineta ko yeh sujhaaya ki prayog ke samay apne par dhyaan dena chaahiye, apni vaani sunani chaahiye aur apne aavegon ki smrutiyaaain hi prastut karni chaahiye. kintu " Moscow stage aind inpeeriyl theatre' ke bhootapoorv prayokta aur kalaasanchaalak thiyodor kaumisaarajevaski ne is siddhaant ka khandan karte hue likh tha: "ab yeh siddh ho chuka hai ki yadi abhineta apne abhinay par saavadhaani se dhyaan rakhata rahe to vah na darshakon ko prabhaavit kar sakta hai aur na rangamanch par kisi bhi prakaar ki rachaanaatmak srushti kar sakta hai, kyonki use apne aantarik svaatm par jo pratibinb prastut karte hain unapar ekaagr hone ke badle vah apne baahya svaatm par ekaagr ho jaata hai jisse vah itna adhik aatmachetan ho jaata hai ki usaki apni kalpana shakti nasht ho jaati hai. at:, shreshthatar upaaya yeh hai ki vah kalpana ke aashray par abhinay kare, navanirmaan kare, nayaapan laae aur keval apne jeevan ke anubhavon ka anukaran ya pratiroopan na kare. jab koi abhineta kisi bhoomika ka abhinay karte hue apni swayam ki utpaadit kalpana ke vishv mein vichran karne lagta hai us samay use na to apne oopar dhyaan dena chaahiye, na niyantran rakhana chaahiye aur na to vah aisa kar hi sakta hai, kyonki abhineta ki apni bhaavana se udbhoot aur usaki aajnyaa ke anusaar kaam karanevaali kalpana abhinay ke samay uske aaveg aur abhinay ko niyantrit karti, path dikhlaati aur sanchaalan karti hai.

20veen shataabdi mein anek naatyavidyaalayon, naatyasansthaaon aur rangashaalaaon ne abhinay ke sambandh mein anek nae aur spasht siddhaant pratipaadit kiye. maarks reenahaart ne Germany mein aur firmi gemiye ne peris mein us prakrutivaadi naatyapaddhati ka prachalan kiya jiska pratipaadan France mein aande aantvaaain ne aur Germany mein kroneg ne kiya tha aur jiska vikaas barlin mein otobraahm ne aur Moscow mein staanislavaski ne kiya. in prayoktaaon ne beech-beech mein prakrutivaadi abhinay mein ya to reetivaadi (formalists) logon ke vichaaron ka sannivesh kiya ya san‌ 1910 ke pashchaat‌ kromisaarajevaski ne abhinay ke sanshleshanaatmak siddhaanton ka jo pravarttan kiya tha unka bhi thoda bahut samaavesh kiya; kintu adhikaansh fraanseesi abhineta 18veen shataabdi ki praacheen romaansavaadi (romantic) paddhati ka ardhodaatt (soodo-klaasikl) abhinyapaddhati ka hi prayog karte rahe.

san‌ 1910 ke pashchaat‌ jitne abhinyasiddhaant prasiddh hue unamein sarvaprasiddh maaskon Art theatre ke prayokta staanislavaski ki pranaali hai jiska siddhaant yeh hai ki koi bhi abhineta rangamanch par tabhi svaabhaavik aur sachcha ho sakta hai jab vah un aavegon ka pradarshan kare jinka usane apne jeevan mein anubhav kiya ho. abhinay mein yeh aantarik prakrutivaad staanislavaski ki koi nai soojhi naheen thi kyonki kuchh fraanseesi naatyajnyaon ne 18veen shataabdi mein inheen vichaaron ke aadhaar par apni abhinay paddhatiyaaain pravartit ki theen. staanislavaski ke anusaar ve hi abhineta prem ke drushya ka pradarshan bhali-bhaaainti kar sakte hain jo vaastavik jeevan mein prem kar rahe hon.

staanasilvaski ke siddhaant ke viruddh prateekavaadiyon (sinbolists), reetivaadiyon (faarmaalists) aur abhivyanjanaavaadiyon (ekspreshanists) ne nai reeti chalaai jismein satyata aur jeevanatulyata ka poorn bahishkaar karke kaha gaya ki abhinay jitna hi kam, vaastavik aur kam jeevanatulya hoga utana hi achha hoga. abhineta ko nishchit charitranirmaan karne ka prayatn karna chaahiye. use goodh vichaaron ka roodh reeti se apni vaani, apni cheshta aur mudraaon dvaara prastut karna chaahiye aur vah abhinay roodh, jeevan-saamya-heen, chitramaya aur kathaputali--nrutya--shaili mein prastut karna chaahiye.

roodhivaadi log aage chalakar meyarahold, taayarof aur aravin piskaatar ke netrutv mein abhinay mein itni uchhal-kood, natavidya aur layagati ka prayog karne lage ki rangamanch par unka abhinay aisa prateet hone laga maanon koi sarakas ho raha ho jismein uchhal-kood, shareer ka kalaatmak santulan aur isi prakaar ki gatiyon ki pradhaanata ho. yeh abhinay hi ghanavaadi (kyoobistik) abhinay kahalaane laga. in layavaadiyon mein se meyarahold to aage chalakar kuchh prakrutivaadi ho gaya kintu liyopold jessavar, nikolasaaivarenov aadi abhivyanjanaavaadi, ya yon kahiye ki atiranjit abhinyavaadi log kuchh to roodhivaadiyon ki pranaaliyon ka anusaran karte rahe aur kuchh manovaigyaanik prakrutivaadi paddhati ka.

is prakaar abhinay ki drushti se Europe mein paaainch prakaar ki abhinay paddhatiyaaain chaleen :

(1) roodhivaadi ya sthir reetivaadi (faarmalist),

(2) prakrutivaadi (nechuralist),

(3) abhivyanjanaavaadi (ekspeshanist) jo atiranjit abhinay karte the,

(4) ghanavaadi (kyoobist) jo santulit vyaayaamapoorn gatiyon dvaara yantraatmak abhinay karte the aur

(5) prateekavaadi (sibolists), jinhonne apne abhinay mein pratyek bhaav ke anusaar kuchh nishchit mukhamudraaeain aur aangik gatiyaaain prateek ke roop mein maan li theen aur un sab bhaavon ki avasthaaon mein se log unheen prateekon ka abhinay karte the. kintu ye prateek bhaarateeya mudraaprateekon se poornat: bhinn the. yeh prateekavaad Europe mein safal naheen ho saka.

20veen shataabdi ke chauthe dashak se, arthaat‌ dviteeya mahaayuddh ke aaspaas, Europe ki abhinyapranaali mein parivartan hua aur praaya: sabhi Europeeya tatha Amreeki rangashaalaaon mein pratyek abhineta se yeh aasha ki jaane lagi ki vah apne abhinay mein koi naveenata aur maulikta dikhaakar atyant apratyaashit dhang ka abhinay karke logon ko santusht kare. aajkal abhineta ke liye yeh aavashyak maana jaane laga hai ki vah apni kalpana ka prayog karke naatak ke bhaav ki pratyek paristhiti mein apne abhinay ka aisa sanshlisht sanyojan kare ki usase naatak mein kuchh vishesh chetna aur sajeevata utpann ho. usaka dharm hai ki vah rangashaala ke vyaavahaarik drushtikon ko dhyaan mein rakhakar apni pratibha ke bal se naatakakaar ki bhaavana ka uchit aur spasht sanrakshan karta hua naatak ka pravaah aur prabhaav banaae rakhe.

aajkal ke prasiddh abhinetaaon ka kathan hai ki abhineta ko kisi vishesh paddhati ka anusaran naheen karna chaahiye aur na kisi abhineta ka anusaran karna chaahiye. vaastav mein abhinay ka koi ek siddhaant naheen hai, jo do naatakon ke liye ya do abhinetaaon ke liye kisi ek paristhiti mein samaan kaha ja sake. aajkal ke abhineta sanchaalak (aiktar-manager) isi mat ke hain ki achhe abhineta ko sansaar ke sab naatakon ki sab bhoomikaaon ke liye koi nishchit pranaali dhooaindh nikaalani chaahiye aur tadanusaar apne ko swayam shikshit karte chalana chaahiye. aajkal ke adhikaansh naatyagharon ka mat hai ki naatak ko prabhaavashaali banaane ke liye abhineta ko na to bahut adhik prakrutivaadi hona chaahiye aur na adhik abhivyanjanaavaadi ya layavaadi. atiranjit abhinay to kabhi karna hi naheen chaahiye.

aajkal ki abhinyapranaali mein ek charitraabhinya (kairektar aikting) ki reeti chali hai jismein ek abhineta kisi vishesh prakaar ke charitra mein visheshata praapt karke sad sab naatakon mein usi prakaar ki bhoomika grahan karta hai. chalachitron ke kaaran is prakaar ke charitra abhineta bahut badhte ja rahe hain.

bhoomika mein sveekrut pad, prakruti, ras aur bhaav ke anusaar chhah prakaar ki gatiyon mein abhinay hota hai---atyant karun mein stabdh gati, shaant mein mand gati, shrrungaar, haas aur beebhats mein saadhaaran gati, veer mein drut gati, raudr mein vegapoorn gati aur bhaya mein ativegapoorn gati. in sabka vidhaan vibhinn bhaavon, vyaktiyon, avasthaaon aur paristhitiyein par avalanbit hota hai. abhinay ka kshetr bahut vyaapak hai. sankshep mein yahi kaha jaae sakta hai ki abhineta ko maulik hona chaahiye aur kisi paddhati ka anusaran na karke yeh prayatn karna chaahiye ki apni rachana ke dvaara naatakakaar jo prabhaav darshakon par daalna chaahata hai usaka uchit vibhaajan ho sake.

paatr praapt karna

koi bhi abhineta use diye gaye paatr ko kaise samajh sakta hai? diye gaye paatr ko manch par nibhaane ke liye har abhineta apna tarika apnaata hai. lekin vah karne se pahele abhineta ko lipi ko bahot hi gaur se samaj lena chaahiye, dusare paatro ki panktiyaan ki jaanch bhi kar leni chhahiye. lipi padne ke baad jo bhi khaayaal kaahaani aur paatr ke baare me aate hai use lipi me hi likh lena chhahiye. dusare paatro ke dvaara apne paatr ke baare me bohot si jaankaari bhi mil sakti hai. apne paatr ki kafi visheshtaae panktiyaan se hi meal sakti hai agar lipi ko gaur se pada jaae,visheshtaae jaise ki paatr dikhnane me kaisa hai - yadi achha dikhta hai ya bura, uska vyavaahrar, uska bhartaav, aavaaj aur anya chheeje. yadi agar aap koi jinda aadmi ya aurat ka paatr nibha raahe hai to koshish kare ki aap unahe gaur se dekhe, paryaaveshan kare, unki chhaal dekhe, unke baat karne ka tareeka dekhe, unke kaal ke baare me pad ke bhi paatr ko achhe se nibhaane ke liye jitna ho sake research kare. abhineta ko apne nideshak se zaroor baat karni chhahiye taaki nideshak ke deemaag me jo paatr ka vichaar hai usaka upayog kar sake. kuchh nisdeshak paatr ke baare me bohot jaankaari de kar kaam aasaan kar dete hai, aur kuchh nideshak kuchh nahi kehte, is kaaran abhineta ko nideshak ke saat paatr ke upar bahas nahi karni chhahiye aur apni kalpana ka pura faayda uthaana chaahiye. ho sake to abhayaas karte samya paatr ke kapade pehen kar kare kyoki usse paatr ko mahsoos karna aasaan ho jaata hai. apne khaali samya me abhineta ko apni panktiyaan dorhaani chaahiye, us tarah kabhi-kabhi apne paatr ke baare me kuchh naya pata chalta hai. agaar koi bhaavana hai jo dikhaane me mushakeel ho rahi ho tab dimaag me kalapna ki madd se koi sthithi bana ke us bhaavana ko us sthithi se jod kar uska pryog kare. har abheeneta ka apna apna tareeka hota hai paatr ko praapt karne ka aur is kaaran har abheeneta ko vo hi tareeka istamaal karna chaahiye jo use aaraamadaayak lage.

sandarbh granth

  • bharat : naatyashaastr;
  • ke. ainbros : klaisikl daansej aind kaustyooms ov India (1952);
  • nandikeshvar : abhinyadarpan (1934);
  • seetaaraam chaturvedi : Abhinav naatyashaastr (1950);
  • shaaradaatanaya : bhaavaprakaashan (1930);
  • laadins nikal : world drama (1951);
  • Sydney dablyoo. Carol : aikting aan di stage (1947);
  • N. dindase : di theatre (1948);
  • N. cherakaasov : nots ov A soviyt aiktar (1956);
  • saara varnahaat : di Art ov di theatre (1930).