abhijnyaaanashaakuntalam

shakuntala raaja ravi varma ki kruti.
dushyant ko patra likhti shakuntala
raaja ravi varma ki kruti.
hataash shakuntala
raaja ravi varma ki kruti.

abhigyaan shaakuntalam mahaakavi kaalidaas ka vishvavikhyaat naatak hai ‌ajiska anuvaad praaya: sabhi videshi bhaashaaon mein ho chuka hai. ismein raaja dushyant tatha shakuntala ke pranaya, vivaah, virh, pratyaakhyaan tatha punarmiln ki ek sundar kahaani hai. pauraanik katha mein dushyant ko aakaashavaani dvaara bodh hota hai par is naatak mein kavi ne mudrika dvaara iska bodh karaaya hai.

iski naatakeeyata, iske sundar kathopakathan, iski kaavya-saundarya se bhari upamaaeain aur sthaan-sthaan par prayukt hui samayochit sooktiyaaain; aur in sabse badhkar vividh prasangon ki dhvanyaatmakata itni adbhut hai ki in drushtiyon se dekhne par sanskrut ke bhi anya naatak abhigyaan shaakuntal se takkar naheen le sakte; fir anya bhaashaaon ka to kehna hi kya !

anukram

maulik na hone par bhi maulik

kaalidaas ne abhigyaan shaakuntal ki kathaavastu maulik naheen chuni. yeh katha mahaabhaarat ke aadiprv se li gayi hai. yon padmapuraan mein bhi shakuntala ki katha milti hai aur vah mahaabhaarat ki apeksha shakuntala ki katha ke adhik nikat hai. is kaaran vintaranitj ne yeh maana hai ki shakuntala ki katha padmapuraan se li gayi hai. parantu vidvaanon ka kathan hai ki padmapuraan ka yeh bhaag shakuntala ki rachana ke baad likha aur baad mein prakshipt prateet hota hai. mahaabhaarat ki katha mein durvaasa ke shaap ka ullekh naheen hai. mahaabhaarat ka dushyant se yadi theek ulata naheen, to bhi bahut adhik bhinn hai.

mahaabhaarat ki shakuntala bhi kaalidaas ki bhaanti salajj naheen hai. vah dushyant ko vishvaamitr aur menaka ke sambandh ke falasvarup hue apne janm ki katha apne munh se hi sunaati hai. mahaabhaarat mein dushyant shakuntala ke roop par mugdh hokar shakuntala se gaandharv vivaah ki praarthana karta hai; jis par shakuntala kehti hai ki main vivaah is shart par kar sakti hoon ki raajasinhaasan mere putr ko hi mile. dushyant us samay to sveekaar kar leta hai aur baad mein apni rajdhani mein lautakar jaan-boojhakar lajjaavash shakuntala ko grahan naheen karta. kaalidaas ne is prakaar aparishkrut roop mein praapt hui katha ko apni kalpana se adbhut roop mein nikhaar diya hai. durvaasa ke shaap ki kalpana karke unhonne dushyant ke charitra ko ooncha uthaaya hai. kaalidaas ki shakuntala bhi aabhijaatya, saundarya aur karuna ki moorti hai. iske atirikt kaalidaas ne saari katha ka nirvaah, bhaavon ka chitran ityaadi jis dhang se kiya hai, vah maulik aur apoorv hai.

katha

shakuntala raaja dushyant ki patni thi jo Bhaarat ke suprasiddh raaja bharat ki maata aur menaka apsara ki kanya thi. mahaabhaarat mein likha hai ki shankutala ka janm vishvaamitr ke veerya se menaka apsara ke garbh se hua tha jo ise van mein chhodkar chali gayi thi. van mein shankuton (pakshiyon) aadi ne hinsak pashuon se iski raksha ki thi, isi se iska naam shakuntala pada. van mein se ise kanv rishi utha laae the aur apne aashram mein rakhakar kanya ke samaan paalate the.

ek baar raaja dushyant apne saath kuchh sainikon ko lekar shikaar khelne nikle aur ghoomate firte kanv rishi ke aashram mein pahuainche. rishi us samay vahaaain upasthit naheen the; isse yuvati shakuntala ne hi raaja dushyant ka aatithya satkaar kiya. usi avsar par donon mein prem aur fir gandharv vivaah ho gaya. kuchh dinon baad raaja dushyant vahaaain se apne raajya ko chale gaye. kanv muni jab lautakar aae, tab yeh jaanakar bahut prasann hue ki shakuntala ka vivaah dushyant se ho gaya. shakuntala us samay garbhavati ho chuki thi. samay paakar uske garbh se bahut hi balavaan‌ aur tejasvi putr utpann hua, jiska naam 'bharat' rakha gaya. kehte hain, 'Bhaarat' naam 'bharat' ke naam par hi pada.

kuchh dinon baad shakuntala apne putr ko lekar dushyant ke darbaar mein pahuainchi. parantu shakuntala ko beech mein durvaasa rishi ka shaap mil chuka tha. raaja ne ise bilkul naheen pahachaana aur spasht kah diya ki na to main tumhein jaanta hooain aur na tumhein apne yahaaain aashray de sakta hooain. parantu isi avsar par ek aakaashavaani hui, jisse raaja ko vidit hua ki yeh meri hi patni hai aur yeh putr bhi mera hi hai. unhein kanv muni ke aashram ki sab baatein smaran ho aain aur unhonne shakuntala ko apni pradhaan raani banaakar apne yahaaain rakh liya.

'abhigyaan shaakuntalam' mein anek maarmik prasangon ko ullekh kiya gaya hai. ek us samay, jab dushyant aur shakuntala ka pratham milan hota hai. doosra us samay, jab kanv shakuntala ko apne aashram se patigruh ke liye vida karte hain. us samay to swayam rishi kehte hain ki mere jaise rishi ko apni paalita kanya mein yeh moh hai to jinki auras putriyaan patigruh ke liye vida hoti hain us samay unki kya sthiti hoti hogi.

teesara prasang hai, shakuntala ka dushyant ki sabha mein upasthit hona aur dushyant ko usako pahachaanane se inkaar karna. chautha prasang hai us samay ka, jab machhuaare ko praapt dushyant ke naam waali angoothi usako dikhaai jaati hai. aur paanchavaan prasang maareechi maharshi ke aashram mein dushyant-shakuntala ke milan ka.

dhvanyaatmak sanket

shakuntala mein kaalidaas ka sabse bada chamatkaar uske dhvanyaatmak sanketon mein hai. ismein kavi ko vilkshan safalta yeh mili hai ki usane kaheen bhi koi bhi vastu nishprayojan naheen kahi. koi bhi paatr, koi bhi kathop-kathan, koi bhi ghatna, koi bhi praakrutik drushya nishprayojan naheen hai. sabhi ghatnaaen yeh drushya aage aane waali ghatnaaon ka sanket chamatkaarik reeti se pehle hi de dete hain. naatak ke praarambh mein hi greeshm-varnan karte hue van-vaayu ke paatal ki sugandhi se milkar sugandhit ho uthane aur chhaaya mein letate hi neend aane lagne aur diwas ka ant ramaneeya hone ke dvaara naatak ki katha-vastu ki mote taur par soochana de di gayi hai, jo kramash: pehle shakuntala aur dushyant ke milan, uske baad neend-prabhaav se shakuntala ko bhool jaane aur naatak ka ant sukhad hone ki soochak hai. isi prakaar naatak ke praarambhik geet mein bhramaron dvaara shireesh ke foolon ko jra-jra-sa choomane se yeh sanket milta hai ki dushyant aur shakuntala ka milan alpasthaayi hoga. jab raaja dhanush par baan chadhaae harin ke peechhe daude ja rahe hain, tabhi kuchh tapasvi aakar rokate hain. kehte hain-'mahaaraaj' yeh aashram ka harin hai, is par teer na chalaana.' yahaan harin ke atirikt shakuntala ki or bhi sanket hai, jo harin ke samaan hi bholi-bhaali aur asahaaya hai. 'kahaan to harinon ka atyant chanchal jeevan aur kahaan tumhaare vajr ke samaan kathor baan !' isse bhi shakuntala ki asahaayata aur saralata tatha raaja ki nishthurata ka marmasparshi sanket kiya gaya hai. jab dushyant aur shakuntala ka prem kuchh aur badhne lagta hai, tabhi nepathya se pukaar sunaai padti hai ki 'tapasviyo, aashram ke praaniyon ki raksha ke liye taiyaar ho jaao. shikaari raaja dushyant yahaan aaya hua hai.' ismein bhi dushyant ke haathon se shakuntala ki raksha ki or sanket kiya gaya prateet hota hai, parantu yeh sanket kisi ke bhi kaan mein sunaai naheen diya; shakuntala ko kisi ne naheen bachaaya. isse sthiti ki karunaajanakata aur bhi adhik badh jaati hai.

chauthe ank ke praarambhik bhaag mein kanv ke shishya ne prabhaat ka varnan karte hue sukh aur du:kh ke nirntar saath lage rahane ka tatha priya ke viyog mein striyon ke asahya du:kh ka jo ullekh kiya hai, vah dushyant dvaara shakuntala ka parityaag kiye jaane ke liye pehle se hi prushthabhoomi-si bana deta hai. paanchavein ank mein raani hansapadika ek geet gaati hain, jismein raaja ko unki madhur-vrutti ke liye ulaahana diya gaya hai. dushyant bhi yeh sveekaar karte hain ki unhonne hansapadika se ek hi baar prem kiya hai. isse kavi yeh gambheer sanket deta hai ki bhale hi shakuntala ko dushyant ne durvaasa ke shaap ke kaaran bhoolakar chhoda, parantu ek baar pyaar karne ke baad raaniyon ki upeksha karna unke liye koi nai baat naheen thi. anya raaniyaan bhi usaki is madhukar-vrutti ka shikaar theen. hansapaadika ke is geet ki prushthabhoomi mein shakuntala ke parityaag ki ghatna aur bhi kroor aur kathor jaan padti hai. isi prakaar ke dhvanyaatmak sanketon se kaalidaas ne saatavein ank mein dushyant, shakuntala aur uske putr ke milne ke liye sukhad prushthabhoomi taiyaar kar di hai. indr raaja dushyant ko apoorv sammaan pradaan karte hain. uske baad hemakoot parvat par prajaapati ke aashram mein pahunchate hi raaja ko anubhav hone lagta hai ki jaise vah amrut ke sarovar mein snaan kar rahe hon. is prakaar ke sanketon ke baad dushyant aur shakuntala ka milan aur bhi adhik manohar ho uthata hai.

kaavya-saundarya

jarman kavi gete ne abhigyaan shaakuntalam ke baare mein kaha tha-

''yadi tum yuvaavastha ke fool praudhaavastha ke fal aur anya aisi saamagriyaan ek hi sthaan par khojana chaaho jinse aatma prabhaavit hota ho, trupt hota ho aur shaanti paata ho, arthaat yadi tum svarg aur martyalok ko ek hi sthaan par dekhna chaahate ho to mere mukh se sahasa ek hi naam nikal padta hai - shaakuntalam, mahaan kavi kaalidaas ki ek amar rachana !''

isi prakaar sanskrut ke vidvaanon mein yeh shlok prasiddh hai-

kaavyeshu naatakan ramyan tatr ramya shakuntala.
tatraapi ch chaturthoऽङakastatr shlokachatushtayam..

iska arth hai - kaavya ke jitne bhi prakaar hain unamein naatak vishesh sundar hota hai. naatakon mein bhi kaavya-saundarya ki drushti se abhigyaan shaakuntalam ka naam sabse oopar hai. abhigyaan shaakuntalam ka naam sabse oopar hai. abhigyaan shaakuntalam mein bhi usaka chaturth ank aur is ank mein bhi chautha shlok to bahut hi ramaneeya hai.

abhigyaan shaakuntal mein naatakeeyata ke saath-saath kaavya ka ansh bhi yathesht maatra mein hai. ismein shrungaar mukhya ras hai; aur uske sanyog tatha viyog donon hi pakshon ka paripaak sundar roop mein hua hai. iske atirikt haasya, veer tatha karun ras ki bhi jahaan-tahaan achhi abhivyakti hui hai. sthaan-sthaan par sundar aur manoharini utaprekshaaen na keval paathak ko chamatkrut kar deti hain, kintu abheesht bhaav ki teevrata ko badhaane mein hi sahaayak hoti hain. saare naatak mein kaalidaas ne apni upamaaon aur utprekshaaon ka upayog kaheen bhi keval alankaar-pradarshan ke liye naheen kiya. pratyek sthaan par unki upama ya utpreksha arth ki abhivyakti ko rasapoorn banaane mein sahaayak hui hai.

kaalidaas apni upamaaon ke liye sanskrut-saahitya mein prasiddh hain. shaakuntal mein bhi unki upayukt upama chunane ki shakti bhali-bhaanti prakat hui. shakuntala ke vishay mein ek jagah raaja dushyant kehte hain ki 'vah aisa fool hai, jise kisi ne soongha naheen hai; aisa navapallav hai, jis par kisi ke nakhon ki kharonch naheen lagi; aisa ratn hai, jismein chhed naheen kiya gaya aur aisa madhu hai, jiska svaad kisi ne chakha naheen hai.' in upamaaon ke dvaara shakuntala ke saundarya ki ek anokhi jhalak hamaari aankhon ke saamane aa jaati hai. isi prakaar paanchavein ank mein dushyant shakuntala ka parityaag karte hue kehte hain ki 'he tapasvini, kya tum vaise hi apne kul ko kalankit karna aur mujhe patit karna chaahati ho, jaise tat ko todkar bahne waali nadi tat ke vruksh ko to giraati hi hai aur apne jal ko bhi malin kar leti hai.' yahaan shakuntala ki chat ko todkar bahne waali nadi se di gayi upama raaja ke manobhaav ko vyakt karne mein vishesh roop se sahaayak hoti hai. isi prakaar jab kanv ke shishya shakuntala ko saath lekar dushyant ke paas pahunchate hain to dushyant ki drushti un tapasviyon ke beech mein shakuntala ke oopar jaakar padti hai. vahaan shakuntala ke saundarya ka vistrut varnan na karke kavi ne unke mukh se keval itna kahalava diya hai ki 'in tapasviyon ke beech mein vah ghoonghat waali sundari kaun hai, jo peele patton ke beech mein nai konpal ke samaan dikhaai pad rahi hai.' is chhoti-si upama ne peele patte aur konpal ki sadrushyata ke dvaara shakuntala ke saundarya ka poora hi chitraankan kar diya hai. isi prakaar sarvadaman ko dekhkar dushyant kehte hain ki 'yeh prataapi baalak us agni ke sfuling ki bhaanti prateet hota hai, jo dhadhakati aag banane ke liye idhan ki raah dekhta hai.' is upama se kaalidaas ne na keval baalak ki tejasvita prakat kar di, balki yeh bhi spasht roop se soochit kar diya hai ki yeh baalak bada hokar mahaaprataapi chakravarti samraat banega. is prakaar ki manohar upamaaon ke anek udaaharan shaakuntal mein se diye ja sakte hain kyonki shaakuntal mein 180 upamaaen prayukt huin hain. aur unamein se sabhi ek se ek badhkar hain.

yeh theek hai upama ke chunaav mein kaalidaas ko vishesh kushalata praapt thi aur yeh bhi theek hai ki unki-si sundar upamaaeain anya kaviyon ki rachanaaon mein durlabh hain, fir bhi kaalidaas ki sabse badi visheshata upama-kaushal naheen hai. upama-kaushal to unke kaavya-kaushal ka ek saamaanya-sa ang hai. apne manobhaav ko vyakt karne athva kisi ras ka paripaak karne athva kisi bhaav ki teevr anubhooti ko jagaane ki kaalidaas anek vidhiyaan jaante hain. shabdon ka prasangochit chayan, abheesht bhaav ke upayukt chhand ka chunaav aur vyanjana-shakti ka prayog karke kaalidaas ne apni shaili ko vishesh roop se ramaneeya bana diya hai.

jahaan kaalidaas shakuntala ke saundarya-varnan par utare hain, vahaan unhonne keval upamaaon aur utprekshaaon dvaara shakuntala ka roop chitran karke hi santosh naheen kar liya hai. pehle-pehle to unhonne keval itna kahalavaaya ki 'yadi tapovan ke nivaasiyon mein itna roop hai, to samajho ki van-lataaon ne udyaan ki lataaon ko maat kar diya.' fir dushyant ke mukh se unhonne kahalavaaya ki 'itni sundar kanya ko aashram ke niyam-paalan mein lagaana aisa hi hai jaise neel kamal ki pankhuri se babool ka ped kaatna.' uske baad kaalidaas kehte hain ki 'shakuntala ka roop aisa manohar hai ki bhale hi usane mota valkal vastr pahana hua hai, fir usase bhi usaka saundarya kuchh ghata naheen, balki badha hi hai. kyonki sundar vyakti ko jo bhi kuchh pahana diya jaae vahi usaka aabhooshan ho jaata hai.' uske baad raaja shakuntala ki sukumaar deh ki tulana hari-bhari foolon se ladi lata ke saath karte hain, jisse us vilkshan saudarya ka svaroop paathak ki aankhon ke saamane chitrit-sa ho uthata hai. iske baad us saundarya ki anubhooti ko charam seema par pahunchaane ke liye kaalidaas ek bhramar ko le aae hain; jo shakuntala ke mukh ko ek sundar khila hua fool samajhakar usaka rasapaan karne ke liye uske oopar mandaraane lagta hai. is prakaar kaalidaas ne shakuntala ke saundarya ko chitrit karne ke liye anlakaaron ka sahaara utana naheen liya, jitna ki vyanjanaashakti ka; aur yeh vyajana-shakti hi kaavya ki jaan maani jaati hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain