abdul kalaam

e॰ pee॰ je॰ abdul kalaam
अब्दुल कलाम

e॰ pee॰ je॰ abdul kalaam


Bhaarat ke 11vein raashtrapati
kaaryakaal
25 July 2002 – 25 July 2007
pradhaan mantri atal bihaari Vajpayee
Manmohan Singh
uparaashtrapati Krishna kaant bhaironsinh shekhaavat
poorv adhikaari ke॰ aara॰ Narayanan
uttaraadhikaari pratibha deveesinh Patil

janm 15 October 1931
raameshvaram, ramaanaathapuram jila, british raaj (maujooda Tamil Nadu, Bhaarat)
mrutyu 27 July 2015( 2015-07-27) (umr 83)[1]
shilong, meghaalaya, Bhaarat
vidya arjan seint Joseph college, tiruchiraapalli
Madras Institute of technology
pesha professor, lekhak, vaigyaanik
eyarospes engineer
dharm islaam[2]
hastaakshar अब्दुल कलाम के हस्ताक्षर
website abdulkalam.com

abul paakir jainulaabadeen abdul kalaam athva Doctor e॰ pee॰ je॰ abdul kalaam (15 October 1931 - 27 July 2015) jinhein misaail main aur janta ke raashtrapati ke naam se jaana jaata hai, bhaarateeya ganatantr ke gyaarahavein nirvaachit raashtrapati the.[3] ve Bhaarat ke poorv raashtrapati, jaanemaane vaigyaanik aur abhiyanta ke roop mein vikhyaat the.

inhonne mukhya roop se ek vaigyaanik aur vigyaan ke vyavasthaapak ke roop mein chaar dashakon tak raksha anusandhaan evam vikaas sangathan (DRDO) aur bhaarateeya antariksh anusandhaan sangathan (isaro) sambhaala va Bhaarat ke naagrik antariksh kaaryakram aur sainya misaail ke vikaas ke prayaason mein bhi shaamil rahe. inhein bailestik misaail aur prakshepan yaan praudyogiki ke vikaas ke kaaryon ke liye Bhaarat mein misaail main ke roop mein jaana jaane laga.[4]

inhonne 1974 mein Bhaarat dvaara pehle mool parmaanu pareekshan ke baad se doosari baar 1998 mein Bhaarat ke pokharaan-dviteeya parmaanu pareekshan mein ek nirnaayak, sangathanaatmak, takaneeki aur raajanaitik bhoomika nibhaai.[5]

kalaam sattaaroodh bhaarateeya janta party va vipakshi bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress donon ke samarthan ke saath 2002 mein Bhaarat ke raashtrapati chune gaye. paanch varsh ki avadhi ki seva ke baad, vah shiksha, lekhan aur saarvajanik seva ke apne naagrik jeevan mein laut aae. inhonne Bhaarat ratn, Bhaarat ke sarvochch naagrik sammaan sahit kai pratishthit puraskaar praapt kiye.

anukram

praarambhik jeevan

15 October 1931 ko dhanushakodi gaaainv (raameshvaram, Tamil Nadu) mein ek madhyamavarg muslim parivaar mein inka janm hua.[6] inke pita jainulaabdeen na to zyaada padhe-likhe the, na hi paise vaale the.[7] inke pita machhuaaron ko naav kiraaye par diya karte the. abdul kalaam sanyukt parivaar mein rahate the. parivaar ki sadasya sankhya ka anumaan is baat se lagaaya ja sakta hai ki yeh swayam paaainch bhaai evam paaainch bahan the aur ghar mein teen parivaar raha karte the.[5] abdul kalaam ke jeevan par inke pita ka bahut prabhaav raha. ve bhale hi padhe-likhe naheen the, lekin unki lagan aur unke diye sanskaar abdul kalaam ke bahut kaam aae.[8][9] paaainch varsh ki avastha mein raameshvaram ke panchaayat praathamik vidyaalaya mein unka deeksha-sanskaar hua tha. unke shikshak iyaaduraai soloman ne unase kaha tha ki jeevan me safalta tatha anukool parinaam praapt karne ke liye teevr ichha, aastha, apeksha in teen shaktiyo ko bhaleebhaaainti samajh lena aur un par prabhutv sthaapit karna chaahiye.

abdul kalaam ne apni aaranbhik shiksha jaari rakhane ke liye akhbaar vitrit karne ka kaarya bhi kiya tha.[7] kalaam ne 1958 mein Madras Institute of teknolaji se antariksh vigyaan mein snaatak ki upaadhi praapt ki hai. snaatak hone ke baad unhonne haavarakraaft pariyojana par kaam karne ke liye bhaarateeya raksha anusandhaan evam vikaas sansthaan mein pravesh kiya. 1962 mein ve bhaarateeya antariksh anusandhaan sangathan mein aaye jahaaain unhonne safalataapoorvak kai upagrah prakshepan pariyojanaaon mein apni bhoomika nibhaai. pariyojana nideshak ke roop mein Bhaarat ke pehle svadeshi upagrah prakshepan yaan esaelavi 3 ke nirmaan mein mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai jisse July 1982 mein rohini upagrah safalataapoorvak antariksh mein prakshepit kiya gaya tha.[6][5]

vaigyaanik jeevan

yeh mera pehla charan tha; jismein mainne teen mahaan shikshakon-Dr vikram saaraabhaai, professor sateesh dhavan aur Dr brahm prakaash se netrutv seekha. mere liye yeh seekhane aur gyaan ke adhigrahan ke samay tha.

- abdul kalaam[10]
IIT, Guwahati mein abhiyaantriki ke chhaatron ko sambodhit karte abdul kalaam

1962 mein ve bhaarateeya antariksh anusandhaan sangathan se jude. Doctor abdul kalaam ko pariyojana mahaanideshak ke roop mein Bhaarat ka pehla svadeshi upagrah (S.L.vi. truteeya) prakshepaastr banaane ka shreya haasil hua. 1980 mein inhonne rohini upagrah ko pruthvi ki kaksha ke nikat sthaapit kiya tha. is prakaar Bhaarat bhi antarraashtreeya antariksh club ka sadasya ban gaya.[6] isaro launch vheekal program ko paravaan chadhaane ka shreya bhi inhein pradaan kiya jaata hai. Doctor kalaam ne svadeshi lakshya bhedi niyantrit prakshepaastr (gaaided misaails) ko design kiya. inhonne agni evam pruthvi jaise prakshepaastron ko svadeshi takaneek se banaaya tha. Doctor kalaam July 1992 se December 1999 tak raksha mantri ke vigyaan salaahakaar tatha suraksha shodh aur vikaas vibhaag ke sachiv the.[6] unhonne rananeetik prakshepaastr pranaali ka upayog aagneyaastron ke roop mein kiya. isi prakaar pokharan mein doosari baar parmaanu pareekshan bhi parmaanu oorja ke saath milaakar kiya. is tarah Bhaarat ne parmaanu hathiyaar ke nirmaan ki kshamata praapt karne mein safalta arjit ki. Doctor kalaam ne Bhaarat ke vikaasastar ko 2020 tak vigyaan ke kshetr mein atyaadhunik karne ke liye ek vishisht soch pradaan ki.[6] yeh Bhaarat sarkaar ke mukhya vaigyaanik salaahakaar bhi rahe. 1982 mein ve bhaarateeya raksha anusandhaan evam vikaas sansthaan mein vaapas nideshak ke taur par aaye aur unhonne apna saara dhyaan "gaaided misaail" ke vikaas par kendrit kiya. agni misaail aur pruthavi misaail ka safal pareekshan ka shreya kaafi kuchh unheen ko hai. July 1992 mein ve bhaarateeya raksha mantraalaya mein vaigyaanik salaahakaar niyukt huye. unki dekharekh mein Bhaarat ne 1998 mein pokharan mein apna doosra safal parmaanu pareekshan kiya aur parmaanu shakti se sampann raashtron ki soochi mein shaamil hua.[6]

raajanaitik jeevan

vlaadeemir putin va Manmohan Singh ke saath Doctor abdul kalaam- 26 January 2007

Doctor abdul kalaam Bhaarat ke gyaaravein raashtrapati nirvaachit hue the. inhein bhaarateeya janta party samarthit ena॰adee॰ae॰ ghatak dalon ne apna ummeedavaar banaaya tha jiska vaamadalon ke alaava samast dalon ne samarthan kiya. 18 July 2002 ko Doctor kalaam ko nabbe pratishat bahumat dvaara Bhaarat ka raashtrapati chuna gaya tha aur inhein 25 July 2002 ko sansad bhavan ke ashok kaksh mein raashtrapati pad ki shapath dilaai gayi.[11] is sankshipt samaaroh mein pradhaanamantri atal bihaari Vajpayee, unke mantrimandal ke sadasya tatha adhikaareegan upasthit the. inka kaaryaakaal 25 July 2007 ko samaapt hua.[6] Doctor abdul kalaam vyaktigat jindagi mein behad anushaasanapriya the. yeh shaakaahaari the.[5] inhonne apni jeevani vings of fire bhaarateeya yuvaaon ko maargadarshan pradaan karne vaale andaaj mein likhi hai. inki doosari pustak 'gaaiding sols- daayalaugs of the parpaj of life' aatmik vichaaron ko udghaatit karti hai inhonne tamil bhaasha mein kavitaaain bhi likhi hain.[6] yeh bhi gyaat hua hai ki dakshini Korea mein inki pustakon ki kaafi maaaing hai aur vahaaain inhein bahut adhik pasand kiya jaata hai.

2000 varshon ke itihaas mein Bhaarat par 600 varshon tak anya logon ne shaasan kiya hai. yadi aap vikaas chaahate hain to desh mein shaanti ki sthiti hona aavashyak hai aur shaanti ki sthaapana shakti se hoti hai. isi kaaran prakshepaastron ko viksit kiya gaya taaki desh shakti sampann ho.

abdul kalaam[11]
I N S sindhurakshak par tatkaaleen bhaarateeya raashtrapati kalaam

yoon to Doctor abdul kalaam raajaneetik kshetr ke vyakti naheen the lekin raashtravaadi soch aur raashtrapati banane ke baad Bhaarat ki kalyaan sambandhi neetiyon ke kaaran inhein kuchh had tak raajaneetik drushti se sampann maana ja sakta hai. inhonne apni pustak indiya 2020 mein apna drushtikon spasht kiya hai. yeh Bhaarat ko antariksh vigyaan ke kshetr mein duniya ka sirmaur raashtra bante dekhna chaahate the aur iske liye inke paas ek kaarya yojana bhi thi. parmaanu hathiyaaron ke kshetr mein yeh Bhaarat ko super power banaane ki baat sochate rahe the. vah vigyaan ke anya kshetron mein bhi takaneeki vikaas chaahate the. Doctor kalaam ka kehna tha ki 'sauftaveyar' ka kshetr sabhi varjanaaon se mukt hona chaahiye taaki adhikaadhik log iski upayogita se laabhaanvit ho sakein. aise mein soochana takaneek ka teevr gati se vikaas ho sakega. vaise inke vichaar shaanti aur hathiyaaron ko lekar vivaadaaspad hain.[11]

raashtrapati daayitv se mukti ke baad

bijnaur mein kalaam

kaaryaalaya chhodne ke baad, kalaam bhaarateeya prabandhan sansthaan shilong, bhaarateeya prabandhan sansthaan Ahmedabad, bhaarateeya prabandhan sansthaan Indore va bhaarateeya vigyaan sansthaan,Bangalore ke maanad failo, va ek vijiting professor ban gaye.[12]bhaarateeya antariksh vigyaan evam praudyogiki sansthaan, tiruvanantapuram ke kulaadhipti, anna vishvavidyaalaya mein eyarospes engineering ke professor aur Bhaarat bhar mein kai anya shaikshanik aur anusandhaan sansthaanon mein sahaayak ban gaye. unhonne banaaras hindu vishvavidyaalaya aur anna vishvavidyaalaya mein soochana praudyogiki, aur antararaashtreeya soochana praudyogiki sansthaan Hyderabad mein soochana praudyogiki ke kshetr mein padhaaya.[13]

May 2012 mein, kalaam ne Bhaarat ke yuvaaon ke liye ek kaaryakram ,bhrashtaachaar ko haraane ke ek keindreeya vishay ke saath, "main aandolan ko kya de sakta hooain" ka shubhaaranbh kiya.[14]unhonne yahaaain tamil kavita likhne aur vennai naamak dakshin bhaarateeya string vaadya yantr ko bajaane ka bhi aanand liya.[15][16]

kalaam Karnataka bhakti sangeet har din sunate the aur hindu sanskruti mein vishvaas karte the.[17] inhein 2003 va 2006 mein "emateevi yooth aaikan of the iyar" ke liye naamaankit kiya gaya tha.[18][19][20]

2011 mein I hindi film I M kalaam mein, ek gareeb lekin ujjval bachche par kalaam ke sakaaraatmak prabhaav ko chitrit kiya gaya. unke sammaan mein vah bachcha chhotoo jo ek raajasthaani ladka hai khud ka naam badal kalaam rakh leta hai.[21]2011 mein, kalaam ki kudanakulam parmaanu sanyantr par apne rukh se naagrik samoohon dvaara aalochna ki gayi. inhonne oorja sanyantr ki sthaapana ka samarthan kiya. in par sthaaneeya logon ke saath baat naheen karne ka aarop lagaaya gaya.

inhein ek samarth parmaanu vaigyaanik hone ke liye jaana jaata hai par sanyantr ki suraksha suvidhaaon ke baare mein inke dvaara upalabdh karaae gaye aashvaasanon se naakhush pradarshanakaari inke prati shatrutaapoorn the.[22]

nidhan

...main yeh bahut garvokti poorvak to naheen kah sakta ki mera jeevan kisi ke liye aadarsh ban sakta hai; lekin jis tarah meri niyti ne aakaar grahan kiya usase kisi aise gareeb bachche ko saantvana avashya milegi jo kisi chhoti si jagah par suvidhaaheen saamajik dashaaon mein rah raha ho. shaayad yeh aise bachchon ko unke pichhdepan aur niraasha ki bhaavanaaon se vimukt hone mein avashya sahaayata kare.

sooktiyaaain - abdul kalaam[23]

27 July 2015 ki shaam abdul kalaam bhaarateeya prabandhan sansthaan shilong mein 'rahane yogya grah' (en:Livable Planet) par ek vyaakhyaan de rahe the jab unhein jordaar kaardiyk arest (dil ka daura) hua aur ye behosh ho kar gir pade.[1][24] lagbhag 6:30 baje gambhir haalat mein inhein Bethany aspataal mein ICU mein le jaaya gaya aur do ghante ke baad inki mrutyu ki pushti kar di gayi.[25][26]aspataal ke CEO John saailo ne bataaya ki jab kalaam ko aspataal laaya gaya tab unki nabj aur blood preshar saath chhod chuke the. apne nidhan se lagbhag 9 ghante pehle hi unhonne tweet karke bataaya tha ki vah shilong IIM mein lekchar ke liye ja rahe hain.[27]

kalaam October 2015 mein 84 saal ke hone vaale the. meghaalaya ke raajyapaal vee॰ shadamukhanaathan; abdul kalaam ke hauspitl mein pravesh ki khabar sunate hi seedhe aspataal mein pahuainch gaye. baad mein shadamukhanaathan ne bataaya ki kalaam ko bachaane ki chikitsa dal ki koshishon ke baad bhi shaam 7:45 par unka nidhan ho gaya.[25][28]

antim sanskaar

mrutyu ke turant baad kalaam ke shareer ko bhaarateeya vaayu sena ke helicopter se shilong se Guwahati laaya gaya. jahaaain se agale din 28 July ko poorv raashtrapati epeeje abdul kalaam ka paarthi‍av shareer mangalvaar dopahar vaayusena ke vimaan si-130je harakyoolis se Delhi laaya gaya. lagbhag 12:15 par vimaan Palam havaaiadde par utara. suraksha balon ne poore raajakeeya sammaan ke saath kalaam ke paarthiv shareer ko vimaan se utaara.vahaan pradhaanamantri Narendra Modi, raashtrapati Pranab mukharji, Delhi ke mukhyamantri aravind Kejriwal va teenon senaaon ke pramukhon ne iski agavaani ki aur kalaam ke paarthiv shareer par pushpahaar arpit kiye. iske baad tirange mein lipte Dr. kalaam ke paarthi‍va shareer ko poore sammaan ke saath, ek gan kairij mein rakh unke aavaas 10 raajaaji maarg par le jaaya gaya. [29] yahaaain poorv pradhaanamantri Dr Manmohan Singh, Congress adhyaksh Sonia Gandhi, Rahul Gandhi aur uttar pradesh ke mukhyamantri Akhilesh Yadav sahit anek ganamaanya logon ne inhein shraddhaanjali di. Bhaarat sarkaar ne poorv raashtrapati ke nidhan ke mauke par unke sammaan ke roop mein saat divseeya raajakeeya shok ki ghoshana ki.[30]


29 July ki subah vaayusena ke vimaan si-130je se bhaarateeya dhvaj mein lipte kalaam ke shareer ko Palam air base par le jaaya gaya jahaan se ise madurai bheja gaya, vimaan dopahar tak madurai havaai adde par pahuncha. unke shareer ko teenon senaaon ke pramukhon aur raashtreeya va raajya ke ganamaanya vyaktiyon, cabinet mantri manohar parreekar, Venkaiya Naidu, paun Radhakrishnan; aur Tamil Nadu aur meghaalaya ke raajyapaal ke.rosaiya aur vi. shadamukhanaathan ne havaai adde par praapt kiya. ek sankshipt samaaroh ke baad kalaam ke shareer ko ek vaayu sena ke helikauptar mein mandapam bheja gaya. mandapam se kalaam ke shareer ko unke gruh nagar raameshvaram ek army truck mein bheja gaya. antim shraddhaanjali dene ke liye unke shareer ko sthaaneeya bas station ke saamane ek khule kshetr mein pradarshit kiya gaya taaki janta unhein aakhri shraddhaanjali de sake.[31][32]

30 July 2015 ko poorv raashtrapati ko poore sammaan ke saath raameshvaram ke pi karoombu ground mein dafna diya gaya. pradhaanamantri Modi, Tamil Nadu ke raajyapaal aur Karnataka, Kerala aur Andhra pradesh ke mukhyamantriyon sahit 3,50,000 se adhik logon ne antim sanskaar mein bhaag liya.[33][34]

pratikriya

abdul kalaam ke nidhan par kaala ribn dikhaata Google ka mukhyaprushth

kalaam ke nidhan se desh bhar mein aur social media mein poorv raashtrapati ko shraddhaanjali dene ke liye anek kaarya kiye gaye.[35] Bhaarat sarkaar ne kalaam ko sammaan dene ke liye saat divseeya raajakeeya shok ki ghoshana ki. [36]raashtrapati Pranab mukharji, uparaashtrapati haamid Ansari, gruh mantri Rajnath Singh aur anya netaaon ne poorv raashtrapati ke nidhan par shok vyakt kiya.[37] pradhaanamantri Narendra Modi ne kaha, "unka (kalaam ka) nidhan vaigyaanik samudaaya ke liye ek badi kshati hai. vah Bhaarat ko mahaan oonchaaiyon par le gaye. unhonne hamein maarg dikhaaya." poorv pradhaanamantri Manmohan Singh jinhonne kalaam ke saath pradhaanamantri ke roop mein seva ki thi[38], ne kaha, "unki mrutyu ke saath hamaare desh ne ek mahaan manushya ko khoya hai jisne, hamaare desh ki raksha praudyogiki mein aatmanirbharata ko badhaava dene ke liye abhootapoorv yogadaan diya hai. mainne pradhaanamantri ke roop mein Dr kalaam ke saath bahut niktata se kaam kiya hai. mujhe hamaare desh ke raashtrapati ke roop mein unki salaah se laabh hua. unka jeevan aur kaam aane waali peedhiyon tak yaad kiya jaaega. "[39]

dalaai laama ne apni samvedna aur praarthana vyakt ki aur kalaam ki maut ko "ek apooraneeya kshati" bula, apna dukh vyakt kiya. unhonne yeh bhi kaha, "anek varshon mein, mujhe kai avsaron par kalaam ke saath baatcheet karne ka mauka mila. vah ek mahaan vaigyaanik, shikshaavid aur raajaneta hi naheen, balki ve ek vaastavik sajjan the, aur hamesha mainne unki saadagi aur vinmrata ki prashansa ki hai. mainne saamaanya hiton ke vishyon ki ek vistrut shrrunkhala par hamaari charchaaon ka aanand liya, lekin vigyaan, adhyaatm aur shiksha ke saath mukhya roop se hamaare beech chintan kiya jaata tha." [40]

dakshin Asiaee netaaon ne apni samvedna vyakt ki aur divangat raajaneta ki saraahana ki. bhootaan sarkaar ne kalaam ki maut ke shok ke liye desh ke jhande ko aadhi oonchaai par faharaane ke liye aadesh diya, aur shraddhaanjali mein 1000 makkhan ke deepak ki bheint kiye. bhootaan ke pradhaanamantri shering tobage ne kalaam ke prati apna gahra dukh vyakt karte hue kaha, " ve ek mahaan neta the jinki sabhi ne prashansa ki visheshakar Bhaarat ke yuvaaon ke ve prashansaneeya neta the jinhein ve janta ka raashtrapati bulaate the."[41]

Bangladesh ki pradhaanamantri shekh haseena ne unki vyaakhya karte hue kaha, "ek mahaan raajaneta prashansit vaigyaanik aur dakshin Asia ke yuva peedhi ke liye prerana srot ke sanyog" unhonne kalaam ki mrutyu ko "Bhaarat ke liye apooraneeya kshati se bhi pare bataaya." unhonne yeh bhi kaha ki Bhaarat ke sabse prasiddh bete, poorv raashtrapati ke nidhan par hamein gahra jhatka laga hai. Dr A pi J abdul kalaam apne samay ke sabse mahaan jnyaaaniyon mein se ek the. vah Bangladesh mein bhi bahut sammaanit the. unki vigyaan aur praudyogiki ke kshetr mein Bhaarat ki vruddhi karne ke liye amoolya yogadaan ke liye ve sabhi ke dvaara hamesha yaad kiye jaayeinge. ve dakshin Asia ki yuva peedhi ke liye prerana ka srot the jo unke sapanon ko pankh dete the." Bangladesh neshanalist party ki pramukh khaalida jiya ne kaha,"ek parmaanu vaigyaanik ke roop mein, unhonne logon ke kalyaan mein swayam ko samarpit kiya." Afghanistan ke raashtrapati Ashraf gani, ne kalaam ko, "laakhon logon ke liye ek preranaadaayak shakhsiyt bataaya" ye not karte hue "hame apne jeevan se bahut kuchh seekhana hai." nepaali pradhaanamantri susheel Koirala ne Bhaarat ke liye kalaam ke vaigyaanik yogadaanon ko yaad kiya. "Nepal ne ek achha dost kho diya hai aur mainne ek sammaanit aur aadarsh vyaktitv ko kho diya hai." Pakistan ke raashtrapati , mamanoon husain aur Pakistan ke pradhaanamantri navaaj shareef ne poorv raashtrapati ke nidhan par unke prati du: kh, shok va samvedna vyakt ki. [42][43][44]

Sri Lanka ke raashtrapati maitripaala sirisena ne kaha, "Dr kalaam drudh vishvaas aur adamya bhaavana ke aadmi the. mainne unhein duniya ke ek utkrusht raajaneta ke roop mein dekha tha . unki maut Bhaarat ke liye, balki poori duniya ke liye apooraneeya kshati hai."[45]

indoneshiyaai raashtrapati suseelo bambanag yudhoyono, Malaysia ke pradhaanamantri najeeb rajaak, Singapore ke pradhaanamantri li siyn loong , sanyukt arab ameeraat ke raashtrapati shekh khaleefa bin jaayad al nahayaan sahit anya antararaashtreeya netaaon, , aur sanyukt arab ameeraat ke pradhaanamantri aur dubai ke shaasak ne bhi kalaam ko shraddhaanjali arpit ki.[46][47] roosi raashtrapati vlaadimeer putin ne Bhaarat sarkaar, Bhaarat ke sabhi logon ke liye aur mrutak neta le priyjanon ke liye apni gambhir samvedna vyakt ki aur apni sahaanubhooti aur samarthan se avagat karaate hue kaha, "Dr kalaam ko hamaare deshon ke beech lagaataar maitreepoorn sambandhon ke ek pratipaadak ke roop mein yaad kiya jaaega, unhonne Bhaarat ki raashtreeya suraksha ko sunishchit karne mein saamaajik, aarthik, vaigyaanik aur takaneeki pragati ke liye vyaktigat yogadaan diya. unhonne paarasparik roop se laabhaprad roosi-bhaarateeya sahayog jodne ke liye bahut kuchh kiya."[48]

sanyukt raajya America ke raashtrapati Barack Obama ne kaha,"ameriki logon ki or se, main poorv bhaarateeya raashtrapati Dr A pi J abdul kalaam ke nidhan par Bhaarat ke logon ke liye apni gahari samvedna ka vistaar karna chaahata hooain. ek vaigyaanik aur raajaneta, Dr kalaam ne apni vinmrata se ghar mein aur videshon mein sammaan kamaaya aur Bhaarat ke sabse mahaan netaaon mein se ek bane. Bhaarat-America ke majaboot sambandhon ke liye, da kalaam ne sada vakaalat ki. 1962 mein sanyukt raajya America ki yaatra ke dauraan naasa ke saath antariksh sahayog ko gahra karne ke liye kaam kiya. Bhaarat ke 11 vein raashtrapati ke roop mein inke kaaryakaal ke dauraan America-Bhaarat sambandhon mein abhootapoorv vruddhi dekhi gayi. upayukt roop se naamit "people's presideint" (janta ke raashtrapati) ne saarvajanik seva, vinmrata aur samarpan se duniya bhar ke laakhon bhaarateeyon aur prashansakon ko ek prerana pradaan ki." [49]

vyaktigat jeevan

Doctor kalaam apne vyaktigat jeevan mein poori tarah anushaasan ka paalan karne vaalon mein se the. aisa kaha jaata hai ki ve kuraan aur Bhagwad geeta donon ka adhyayan karte the.[5] kalaam ne kai sthaanon par ullekh kiya hai ki ve tirukkural ka bhi anusaran karte hain, unke bhaashanon mein kam se kam ek kural ka ullekh avashya rahata tha.[5] raajaneetik star par kalaam ki chaahat thi ki antarraashtreeya star par Bhaarat ki bhoomika vistaar ho aur Bhaarat jyaada se jyaad mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaaye. Bhaarat ko mahaashakti banane ki disha mein kadam badhaate dekhna unki dili chaahat thi. unhonne kai preranaaspad pustakon ki bhi rachana ki thi aur ve takaneek ko Bhaarat ke janasaadhaaran tak pahuainchaane ki hamesha vakaalat karte rahe thi. bachchon aur yuvaaon ke beech daaktar klaam atyadhik lokapriya the. vah bhaarateeya antariksh vigyaan evam praudyogiki sansthaan ke kulapati bhi the.

kitaabein

Doctor kalaam ne saahityik roop se bhi apne vichaaron ko chaar pustakon mein samaahit kiya hai, jo is prakaar hain: 'indiya 2020 A vijn faur the new mileniym', 'maai jarni' tatha 'ignaatid maainds- analeeshing the power vidin India'.[5] in pustakon ka kai bhaarateeya tatha videshi bhaashaaon mein anuvaad ho chuka hai. is prakaar yeh Bhaarat ke ek vishisht vaigyaanik the, jinhein 40 se adhik vishvavidyaalayon aur sansthaanon se dauktaret ki maanad upaadhi praapt ho chuki hai.

"sabse uttam kaarya kya hota hai? kisi insaan ke dil ko khush karna, kisi bhookhe ko khaana dena, jarooratamand ki madad karna, kisi dukhiyaare ka dukh halka karna aur kisi ghaayal ki seva karna..."
-abdul kalaam[50]

kalaam saahab ki pramukh pustakein nimnavat hain:[51]

chintanaparak rachanaayein

aatmakathaatmak rachanaayein

jeevani

anya lekhakon dvaara Doctor kalaam ki jeevani athva jeevan ke vividh pahaluon par pustake likhi gayeen hain jinmein kuchh pramukh nimnavat hain:

  • itaranal kvest: life aind times of daaktar avul pakir jainulaaaabadeen abdul kalaam S chandra krut - (Pentagon pablishrs, 2002) ISBN 81-86830-55-3
  • presideint epeeje abdul kalaam aara॰ ke॰ poorti - (anmol pablikeshans, 2002) ISBN 81-261-1344-8
  • e॰ pee॰ je॰ abdul kalaam: the vijnari of India' ke॰ bhooshan evam jee॰ kaatyaal - (epeeech pablishing corporation, 2002) ISBN 81-7648-380-X

puraskaar evam sammaan

Doctor kalaam ke 79 vein janmadin ko sanyukt raashtra dvaara vishv vidyaarthi diwas ke roop mein manaaya gaya tha.[52] iske aalaava unhein lagbhag chaalees vishvavidyaalayon dvaara maanad dauktaret ki upaadhiyaaain pradaan ki gayi theen[53][54] Bhaarat sarkaar dvaara unhein 1981 mein padm bhooshan aur 1990 mein padm vibhooshan ka sammaan pradaan kiya gaya jo unke dvaara isaro aur di aar di O mein kaaryon ke dauraan vaigyaanik upalabdhiyon ke liye tatha Bhaarat sarkaar ke vaigyaanik salaahakaar ke roop mein kaarya hetu pradaan kiya gaya tha[55]

1997 mein kalaam saahab ko Bhaarat ka sarvochch naagrik sammaan Bhaarat ratn pradaan kiya gaya jo unke vaigyaanik anusandhaanon aur Bhaarat mein takaneeki ke vikaas mein abhootapoorv yogadaan hetu diya gaya tha[56]

varsh 2005 mein svitjralaind ki sarkaar ne Doctor kalaam ke svitjralaind aagaman ke upalakshya mein 26 May ko vigyaan diwas ghoshit kiya.[57] national space soshaayati ne varsh 2013 mein unhein antariksh vigyaan sambandhit pariyojanaaon ke kushal sanchalan aur prabandhan ke liye vaun brown award se puraskrut kiya.[58]

sammaan ka varsh sammaan/puraskaar ka naam pradaata sanstha
2014 Doctor of saains edinbarg vishvavidyaalaya, United kingadam[59]
2012 Doctor of lauj (maanad upaadhi) Simon frejr vishvavidyaalaya[60]
2011 aai॰ai॰ai॰ai॰ maanad sadasyata aai॰ai॰ai॰ai॰[61]
2010 Doctor of injeeniyring university of vaataraloo[62]
2009 maanad dauktaret okalaind vishvavidyaalaya[63]
2009 hoovar medal e॰aesa॰aema॰ai॰ faaundeshan, (san॰araa॰aame॰)[64]
2009 vaun kaarman vings antarraashtreeya award California Institute of technology, (san॰araa॰aame॰)[65]
2008 Doctor of injeeniyring (maanad upaadhi) naanayaang teknolaujikl vishvavidyaalaya, Singapore[66]
2008 Doctor of saains (maanad upaadhi) Aligadh muslim vishvavidyaalaya, Aligadh[67]
2007 Doctor of saains end technology ki maanad upaadhi kaarnegi melan vishvavidyaalaya[68]
2007 King Charles II medal royal society, United kingadam[69][70]
2007 Doctor of saains ki maanad upaadhi voolvarahainptan vishvavidyaalaya, yoonaaited kingadam[71]
2000 raamaanujan puraskaar alvaars shodh sansthaan, chennai[72]
1998 veer saavarakar puraskaar Bhaarat sarkaar[73]
1997 indira gaaaindhi raashtreeya ekta puraskaar bhaarateeya raashtreeya kaaaingres[73][72]
1997 Bhaarat ratn Bhaarat sarkaar[6][72][74]
1994 vishisht shodhaarthi Institute of daayarektars (indiya)[75]
1990 padm vibhooshan Bhaarat sarkaar[72][6][76]
1981 padm bhooshan Bhaarat sarkaar[72][6][76]

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

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  23. ...I will not be presumptuous enough to say that my life can be a role model for anybody; but some poor child living in an obscure place in an underprivileged social setting may find a little solace in the way my destiny has been shaped. It could perhaps help such children liberate themselves from the bondage of their illusory backwardness and hopelessness! "- abdul kalaam" (angreji mein). http://www.abdulkalam.nic.in/quotes.html. abhigman tithi: 29 July 2015.
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