aayarish bhaasha

aayarish (Irish) bhaaropeeya parivaar ki ek goidelik bhaasha hai, jiska udbhav Ireland mein hua aur aayarish logon dvaara boli jaati hai. aaj aayarish bhale hi keval aayarish janasankhya ke ek chhote samudaaya dvaara boli jaati ho, lekin yeh aayarish raajya ke nivaasiyon ke jeevan mein ek mahatvapoorn prateekaatmak bhoomika ada karta hai, jiska istemaal desh bhar mein media, niji sandarbhon aur saamaajik sthitiyon mein kiya jaata hai. ise Ireland ganatantr ki raashtreeya aur pehli aadhikaarik bhaasha ke roop mein samvaidhaanik darja praapt hai, iske alaava ise Europeeya sangh ke ek aadhikaarik bhaasha ke roop mein darja praapt hai. aayarish ko uttari Ireland mein bhi aadhikaarik taur par alpasankhyak bhaasha ka darja praapt hai.

anukram

aayarish saahitya

aayarish Ireland ki bhaasha tatha saahitya ko 'aayarish' naam se jaana jaata hai. Ireland mein angrejon ke prabhutvakaal mein to angreji ki hi pradhaanata rahi, par desh ki svaadheenata ke baad vahaaain ki apni bhaasha aayarish (gaili) ko fir se mahatva diya gaya. gaili ka saahitya paaainchavi shataabdi E. tak ka milta hai. aayarish Bhaarat Europeeya kul ki keltik shaakha ke goideli varg se sambaddh naheen maani jaati hai.

vikaas ki drushti se aayarish bhaasha ke itihaas ko teen kaalon mein vibhkt kiya jaata hai-

(1) praacheen aayarish (saataveen sadi naveen sadi ke madhya tak)
(2) madhyakaaleen aayarish (naveen se 12veen sadi tak tatha)
(3) aadhunik (13veen sadi ke uparaant)
(k) 17veen sadi se poorv, tatha
(kh) 17veen sadi ke baad.

raashtreeya punarjaagaran ke falasvaroop aayarish ko desh mein fir se sthaapit to kiya gaya, parantu aadhunik aayarish ka koi ek sthireekrut roop naheen ban saka hai. aayarish ki kai boliyaaain ab bhi mahatva ki sthiti liye hue hain.

praarambhik aayarish saahitya mein shauryagaathaaon ki pradhaanata rahi hai jo gadya tatha padya ke mile jule roop mein likhi gayi theen. aise gaathaachakron mein 'alastar' ka naam vishesh mahatvapoorn hai. iske atirikt aadikaaleen aayarish kavita mein geet tatv ki bhi pradhaanata thi. aisa kaavya pramukhat: dhaarmik tatha prakruti sambandhi preranaaon ki pruthabhoomi mein likha gaya tha. in dhaarmik geeton mein seint paitrik ka geet tatha ultaan ka seint brijit ke prati geet vishesh roop se ullekhaneeya hain. naveen tatha 10veen sadi ke aaspaas aitihaasik aabhaas denevaale saahitya ka surgeon hua. dhaarmik saahitya ke antargat upadesh, santon ke charitra tatha ilahaam aadi aate hain. is varg ke lekhakon mein maaikel O' klere (17veen sadi) ka naam mahatvapoorn hai. fir is yug mein aitihaasik rachanaaeain bhi likhi gain.

praarambhik aadhunik aayarish saahitya ko klaisikl yug kehkar bhi abhihit kiya jaata hai. 13veen se 17veen shataabdi ke beech pramukhat: darabaaron mein likha gaya kaavya aise kaviyon dvaara prastut kiya gaya jinhein peshevar kaha ja sakta hai. in kaviyon ne apni kuchh rachanaaeain gadya mein bhi likheen. 17veen sadi ke ant tak yeh chaaranakaavya samaapt ho jaata hai. nae kaavyasanpradaaya mein svaraaghaat par aadhaarit chhandayojana prachalit hui. is yug ke pramukh kavi the igan O' raahili (18veen sadi ka poorv) tatha dhaarmik kavi taag gaile O' suilayaaain. rivaaivalist aandolan ke pramukh lekhakon mein hain-Thomas O' kriomathaaain (mrutyu-1937), Thomas O' suilayaaain, paiplet O' konar tatha maahare.

aayarish punarjaagaran ka ek sashakt roop angreji saahitya mein bhi vyakti hua hai jahaaain Ireland ke angreji lekhakon ne apni rachanaaon mein aayarish lokatatv, shabdavidhaan tatha prateekayojana ke atyant safal prayog kiye hain. is aandolan ko aayarish ya keltik punarjaagaran ke naam se jaana jaata hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain