aavart saarani

aavart saarani (athva, tatvon ki aavart saarani) raasaayanik tatvon ko unki sangat visheshataaon ke saath ek saarani ke roop mein darshaane ki ek vyavastha hai. aavart saarani mein raasaayanik tattv parmaanu kramaank ke badhte kram mein sajaaye gaye hain tatha aavart (piriyd), praathamik samooh, dviteeyak samooh mein vargeekrut kiya gaya hai. vartamaan aavart saarani mai 118 gyaat tatv sammilit hain. sabse pehle roosi rasaayan-shaastri meindaleef (sahi uchchaaran- mendeleyev) ne san 1869 mein aavart niyam prastut kiya aur tatvon ko ek saarani ke roop mein prastut kiya. iske kuchh maheenon baad jarman vaigyaanik lothar mayor (1830-1895) ne bhi svatantr roop se aavart saarani ka nirmaan kiya. mendeleyev ki saarani se alfred varnar (Alfred Werner) ne aavart saarani ka vartamaan svaroop nirmit kiya. san 1952 mein kosta rika ke vaigyaanik gil chaaveri (scientist Gil Chaverri ) ne aavart saarani ka ek naya roop prastut kiya jo tatvon ke ilektraanik sanrachana par aadhaarit tha.

rasaayan shaastriyon ke liye aavart saarani atyant mahatvapoorn evam upayogi hai. iske kaaran kam tatvon ke gunadharmon ko hi yaad rakhane se kaam chal jaata hai kyonki aavart saarani mein kisi samooh (urdhvaadhar pankti) ya kisi aavart (kshaitij pankti) mein gunadharm ek nishchit kram se evam tarkasammat tareeke se badalate hain. neeche aavart saarani ka aadhunik roop dikhaaya gaya hai jismein 18 varg tatha 7 aavart hain-

samooh 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
aavart
1 1
H

2
He
2 3
Li
4
Be

5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3 11
Na
12
Mg

13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4 19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5 37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6 55
Cs
56
Ba
*
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7 87
Fr
88
Ra
**
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Uut
114
Uuq
115
Uup
116
Uuh
117
Uus
118
Uuo

* lainthanaaid 57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
** aiktinaaid 89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr

aavart saarani ke is prachalit prabandh mein lainthanaaid aur aiktinaaid ko anya dhaatuon se alag rakha gaya hai. vistrut aur ati-vistrut aavart saaraneeon mein f-block aur g-block dhaatuon ko bhi ek saath prabandhit kiya jaata hai.

parmaanu kramaank ka rang 0 °aC tatha 1 atm daab par tattv ki avastha ko darshaate hain.
kaala = thos hara = drav laal = gas
kinaare (border) praakrutik upasthiti darshaate hain
aadi tatv radio-kshaya se praapt krutrim anaanveshit

samooh evam aavart

tatvon ke parmaanu bhaar ke vruddhi kram mein kramabaddh karne par kshaitij kataarein praapt hoti hain jinhein 'aavart' kehte hain. aavart niyam ke anusaar tatvon ko parmaanu bhaar ke vruddhi kram mein kshaitij kataaron mein sajaane par saaman gun vaale tatv ek hi urdhvaadhar kaalam mein upasthit rahate hain, inhein 'varg' (group) kehte hain.

aavart saarani ke urdhv kataaron ko 'samooh' ya 'varg' kaha jaata hai. tatvon ke vargeekaran ki drushti se samoohon ko sabse mahatvapoorn maana jaata hai. kuchh samoohon mein, tatv samaan gun darshaate hain. in samoohon ke naam kshaareeya tatv, kshaareeya paarthiv dhaatu, hailojen, niktojen, chaalkojen aur akriya gas. aavart saarani ke kshaitij kataaron ko aavart kehte hain. haalaanki tatvon ke vargeekaran mein samooh adhik mahatvapoorn maane jaate hain, fir aavart saarani mein kai sthal aise hote hain jahaan aavart ka mahatva adhik ho jaata hai. udaaharan ke roop mein di-block ya sankraman dhaatuon aur ef-block ko liya ja sakta hai.

anukram

aadhunik aavart saarani ki pramukh visheshataaeain

aadhunik aavart saarani ko aavart saarani ka deergh roop bhi kehte hain. ismein 18 varg (group) tatha 7 aavart (piriyd) hain.

varg

tatvon ke gunon ka aavarti parivartan

kisi ek varg ke sabhi tattvon ke paramaanuon ke sabse baahari kaksha mein ilektraanon ki sankhya (arthaat 'sanyojak ilektraanon' ki sankhya) samaan hoti hai. is kaaran kisi ek varg ke sabhi tatvon ke mukhya gun samaan hote hain.

  • halki dhaatueain - varg 1 aur 2 .
alkali dhaatuen - varg 1.
alkalaain mruda dhaatuen - varg 2.
  • bhaari dhaatueain ya sankraman dhaatueain' - varg 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 aur 12 .
  • adhaatueain - varg 13, 14, 15, 16 aur 17.
  • akriya gaisein - varg 18 .
Periodic Table 2.svg
khand ya block

sanyojak ilektraanon ke aadhaar par tatvon ko 4 khandon mein baaainta gaya hai- s, p, d, f .

s-block – varg 1 tatha 2 .
p-block – varg 13 se 18 .
d-block – varg 3 se 12 .
f-block – lainthenaaid aur aiktinaaid (Lanthanide and Actinide series).
pratinidhi tatv (Representative Elements ya Normal elements ya Typical elements) – s-block aur p-block ke tatvon ko sammilit roop se
sankraman tatv (Transition Elements) – d-block ke tatv
antarik sankraman tatv (Inner Transition Elements) – f-block ke tatv -- inhein virl mruda tatv (Rare Earth Elements) bhi kehte hain.

aavart

  • pratham aavart mein keval 2 tatv hain, yeh sabse chhota aavart hai.
  • doosare aur teesare aavart mein aath-aath tatv hain. inhein 'laghu aavart' (short period) kehte hain.
  • chauthe aur paaainchavein aavart mein 18-18 tatv hain. inhein 'deergh aavart' kehte hain.
  • chhathe aavart mein 32 tattv hain. yeh sabse bada aavart hai.
  • saatavaaain aavart apoorn hai.
  • chhathe aavart ke teesare varg mein parmaanu kramaank 57 se 71 tak ke tatv hain. inhein 'lainthenaaid' kehte hain.
  • saatavein aavart ke teesare varg mein parmaanu kramaank 89 se103 vaale tattv hain. inhein aiktinaaid (actinides) kehte hain.

itihaas

aavart saarani ke janak meindaleev
meindaleev ki aavart saarani (san 1869)

sabse pehle roosi rasaayan-shaastri meindaleef ne san 1869 mein aavart niyam prastut kiya aur tatvon ko ek saarani ke roop mein prastut kiya. iske anusaar,

tatvon ke bhautik aur raasaayanik gun unke paramaanubhaaron ke aavartafalan hote hain

arthaat yadi tatvon ko parmaanu bhaar ke vruddhikram mein rakha jaaya to vo tatv jinke gun samaan hote hain ek nishchit avadhi ke baad aate hain. meindaleev ne is saarani ke sahaare tatvon ke bhautik evam raasaayanik gunon ke aavarti hone ke pahaloo ko pradarshit karne ka prayatn kiya.

maindaleef ki aavart saarani mein kul 8 varg the kyonki us samay nishkriya gaison ki khoj naheen hui thi. baad mein nishkriya gaison ki khoj ke pashchaat aadhunik aavart saarani mein 9vein varg ko sammilit kiya gaya. is 9vein varg ko 0 (shoonya varg) kehte hain. varg ek se aathavein varg ko roman akshar I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII tatha VIII dvaara pradarshit kiya jaata hai. navein varg ko 0 dvaara pradarshit kiya jaata hai.[1] iske vikaas ke antim charan mein raag, varnar, bohar aur bari aadi vaigyaaniko ne aavart saarani ka aadhuniktam roop banaaya jo vartamaan tak chalan mein hai. inhonne meindeliv ki aavart saarani mein upasthit shreniyon ko khatm kiya tatha vargo ki sankhya ko 9 se badhaakar 18 kiya. iske baad bhi haaidrojan ka do sthaanon par hona aur leinthenaaid aur ekteenaaid tatvon ko saarani mein sthaan na hona do mukhya dosh ab tak hain.

medaleef dvaara aavart saarani prastut karne ke kuchh maheenon baad jarman vaigyaanik lothar mayor (1830-1895) ne bhi svatantr roop se aavart saarani ka nirmaan kiya. 1815 se 1913 tak ismein bahut se sudhaar hue taaki naye aavishkrut tatvon ko uchit sthaan diya ja sake aur saarani nayi jaankaariyon ke anuroop ho.

mendeleyev ki saarani se alfred varnar (Alfred Werner) ne aavart saarani ka vartamaan svaroop nirmit kiya. san 1952 mein kosta rika ke vaigyaanik gil chaaveri (scientist Gil Chaverri ) ne aavart saarani ka ek naya roop prastut kiya jo tatvon ke ilektraanik sanrachana par aadhaarit tha.

aavart saarani ke anya roop

32-column ke roop mein aavart saarani
thiyodor benfi (Theodor Benfey) ki spaairal aavart saarani

sandarbh

  1. prasaad, chandramohan (July 2004). bhautik evam rasaayan vigyaan. Kolkata: bhaarati sadan. pa॰ 211.

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