aatmahatya

Suicide
vargeekaran evam baahya saadhan
Edouard Manet - Le Suicidé.jpg
The Suicide by Éaadouard Manet 1877–1881
aaiseedi-10 X60.–X84.
aaiseedi-9 E950
medalaain plas 001554
imedisin article/288598
M.iesaech F01.145.126.980.875

aatmahatya (laitin suicidium, sui caedere se, jiska arth hai "khud ko maarana") jaanaboojh kar apni mrutyu ka kaaran banane ke liye kaarya karna hai. aatmahatya aksar niraasha ke chalte ki jaati hai, jiske liye avasaad, dvidhruveeya vikaar, manobhaajan, sharaab ki lat ya maadak davaaon ka sevanajaise maanasik vikaaron ko jimmedaar thaharaaya jaata hai.[1] tanaav ke kaarak jaise vitteeya kathinaaiyaan ya paarasparik sambandhon mein pareshaaniyon ki bhi aksar ek bhoomika hoti hai. aatmahatya ko rokane ke prayaason mein aagneyaastron tak pahunch ko seemit karna, maanasik beemaari ka upachaar karna tatha nasheeli davaaon ke upayog ko rokana tatha aarthik vikaas ko behtar karna shaamil hain.

aatmahatya karne ke liye upayog ki jaane waali sabse aam vidhi, deshon ke anusaar bhinn-bhinn hoti hai aur aanshik roop se upalabdhata se sambandhit hai. aam vidhiyon mein nimnalikhit shaamil hain: latakana, keetanaashak jhar peena aur bandookein. lagbhag 8,00,000 se 10,00,000 log har varsh aatmahatya karte hain, jis kaaran se yeh duniya ka dasave number ka maanav mrutyu ka kaaran hai.[1][2] purushon se mahilaaon mein iski dar adhik hai, purushon mein mahilaaon ki tulana mein iske hone ka samabhaavana teen se chaar guna tak adhik hai.[3] anumaanat: pratyek varsh 10 se 20 million gair-ghaatak aatmahatya prayaas hote hain.[4] yuvaaon tatha mahilaaon mein prayaas adhik aam hain.

itihaas sammaan aur jeevan ka arth jaise vyaapak astitv vishyon dvaara aatmahatya ke vichaaron par prabhaav padta hai. abraahamik dharm paaramparik roop se aatmahatya ko ishvar ke samaksh kiya jaane wala paap maanate hain kyonki ve jeevan ki pavitrataamein vishvaas karte hain. Japan mein saamuraai yug mein, seppukoo ko vifalta ka praayashchit ya virodh ka ek roop maana jaata tha. sati, jo ab kaanoonan nishiddh hai hindu daah sanskaar hai, jo pati ki chita par vidhva dvaara khud ko balidaan karne se sambandhit hai, yeh apni ichha ya parivaar va samaaj ke dabaav mein kiya jaata tha.[5]

aatmahatya aur aatmahatya ka prayaas, poorv mein aaparaadhik roop se dandaneeya tha lekin pashchimi deshon mein ab aisa naheen hai. bahut se muslim deshon mein yeh aaj bhi dandaneeya aparaadh hai. 20veen aur 21 veen shataabdi mein aatmadaah ke roop mein aatmahatya virodh ka ek tareeka hai aur kaameekej aur aatmaghaati vam visfot ko fauji ya aatankvaadi yukti ke roop mein upayog kiya jaata hai.[6]

anukram

paribhaasha

aatmahatya jise poorn aatmahatya bhi kaha jaata hai, “aapana jeevan swayam samaapta” karne ki kriya hai.[7] aatmahatya ka prayaas ya gair-ghaatak aatmahatya vyavahaar swayam ko ghaayal karna hai, jiske saath apne jeevan ko samaapt karne ki ichha shaamil hoti hai aur ismein mrutyu naheen hoti hai.[8] sahaayyit aatmahatya vah hai jab ek vyakti kisi doosare ko usaki aatmahatya ke liye prerit karta hai ya sahaayata karta hai.[9] yeh ichhaamrutyu ke vipreet hai jahaan par vyakti kisi vyakti ki mrutyu ki ichha ko poora karne ke liye adhik sakriya bhoomika nibhaata hai.[9] aatmahatya ka vichaar apne jeevan ko samaapt karne ke baare mein vichaar karna hai.[8]

jokhim kaarak

2008 mein amareeka ke 16 raajyon mein aatmahatya ko prerit karne waali paristhitiyaan.[10]

aatmahatya ke jokhim ko prabhaavit karne vaale kaarakon mein maanasik vikaar, aushadhi durupayog, maanasik avasthaaen, sanskruti, parivaar aur saamaajik paristhitiyaan tatha aanuvaanshiki shaamil hai.[11] maanasik rog aur nasheele padaarth ke durupayog aam taur par aapas mein sambandhit dikhte hain.[12] anya jokhim kaarakon mein poorv mein aatmahatya ke kiye gaye prayaas,[13] aisa karne ke liye saadhanon ki aasaan upalabdhata, aatmahatya ka paarivaarik itihaas ya ghaatak mastishk chot bhi shaamil hain.[14] udaaharan ke liye, un parivaaron mein aatmahatya ki dar adhik hai jinke paas bandook jaise hathiyaar hai.[15] saamaajik aarthik kaarak jaise berojgaari, gareebi, beghar hona aur bhedabhaav kiya jaana, aatmahatya ke vichaaron ko paida kar sakte hain. ko paida kar sakte hain.[16] lagbhag 15–40% log suicide not chhodte hain.[17] aatmahatya ke vyavahaaron ke liye aanuvaanshiki 38% se 55% tak jimmedaar dikhti hai.[18] bujurg yoddhaaon ke saath aatmahatya ka jokhim adhik hai kyonki unamein yuddh se sambandhit maanasik beemaari aur shaareerik svaasthya sambandhi samasyaaon ki dar adhik hoti hai.[19]

maanasik vikaar

maanasik vikaar aam taur par aatmahatya ke samay upasthit rahate hain jinka anumaan 27 se lekar[20] 90 pratishat se adhik tak hota hai.[13] ve jinko kisi manovaigyaanik ikaaiyon mein bharti kiya gaya ho unke dvaara jeevan mein aatmahatya ko poora karne ki sambhaavana 8.6 pratishat hoti hai.[13] aatmahatya karke marne vaale samast laagon mein se aadhe ko pramukh avasaadagrastata vikaar hota hai; iske ya dvidhruvi vikaar jaise doosare manodasha vikaaron ke kaaran aatmahatya ka jokhim 20 guna tak badh jaata hai.[21] anya paristhityon mein vikhanditmanaskataagrast(14%), vyaktitv vikaar (14%),[22] dvidhruvi vikaar[21] aur abhighaataj tanaav pashchaat vikaar shaamil hai.[13] vikhanditmanaskataagrast se peedit lagbhag 5% log aatmahatya ke kaaran mrutyu ko praapt hote hain.[23] bhojan vikaar ek aur uchch jokhim paristhiti hai.[24]pehle ke aatmahatya ke prayaason ka itihaas aatmahatya ke antat: poorn hone ka sabse bada bhavishyavakta hota hai.[13] aatmahatya ke lagbhag 20% maamalon mein pehle bhi prayaas hote hain aur jo pehle aatmahatya ka prayaas kar chuke hote hain unamein se 1% log, ek saal ke bheetar hi aatmahatya poorn kar lete hain[13] aur 5% se adhik 10 saalon ke baad aatmahatya karte hain.[24] jabki khud ko chot pahunchaane ki kriya ko aatmahatya ke prayaas ke roop mein naheen dekha jaata hai, fir bhi khud ko chot pahunchaane se sambandhit vyavahaar ko aatmahatya ke badhe jokhim se jod kar dekha jaata hai.[25] poorn hue aatmahatya ke lagbhag 80% maamalon mein log apni mrutyu ke pehle ek saal ke bheetar chikitsak se mil hote hain,[26] inmein se 45% pichhle maah hi mile hote hain.[27] aatmahatya poora karne vaalon mein se 25–40% logon ne pichhle saal maanasik svaasthya sevaaon se sampark kiya tha.[20][26]

maadak padaarth upayog

"di drankayaard progres", 1846 iska pradarshan ki kis prakaar se alkohal ki aadat aatmahatya ko prerit kar sakta hai

bade avasaad aur dvidhruvi vikaar ke baad maadak padaarth upayog aatmahatya ka doosra sabse aam jokhim kaarak hai.[28] kaafi lambe samay tak maadak padaarth upayog tatha teevr nasha dono hi sambandhit hain.[12][29] jab inko ekaakeepan jaise niji vishaad ke saath joda jaata hai to jokhim aur badh jaata hai.[29] iske atirikt maadak padaarth durupayog maanasik svaathya vikaaron se sambandhit hai.[12] aatmahatya karne vaale adhiktar log, aatmahatya karte samay shaamak krutrim nidraavastha davaaen (jaise ki alkohal ya beinjodaaijepaains) ke prabhaav mein hote hain[30]jinmein alkohal ke nashe ki upasthiti ki maatra 15% se 61% maamalon mein ho sakti hai.[12] ve desh jahaaain par alkohal upayog ki dar uchch hai tatha madiraalayon ka ghanatv adhik hai unke yahaan par aatmahatya ki dar uchch hai[31] yeh sanyog praathamik roop se aasavit sura ke upayog se sambandhit hai na ki alkohal ke kul upayog se.[12] alkohal se upachaar kiye gaye logon mein se lagbhag 2.2–3.4% ve log hain jinhone apne jeevan mein aatmahatya se mrutyu praapt karne ka prayaas kiya hai.[31]alkohal ke nashedi jinhone aatmahatya ka prayaas kiya ve aam taur par purush, bujurg aur pehle aatmahatya ka prayaas kar chuke log hain.[12]heroin ka upayog karne vaalon mein hone waali mtyu ka 3 se lekar 35% tak aatmahatya ke kaaran mare the (yeh unki sankhya ka 14 guna hai jo inka upayog naheen karte hain).[32]

The misuse of kokeen aur methaamfetaameen tatha aatmahatya ke beech uchch ant:sanbandh hai.[12][33]ve jo kokeen ka upayog karte hain unamein is avastha ki vaapasi ke jokhim kaafi adhik hain.[34] Those who used shvasan dvaara grahan kiye jaane vaale nasheele padaarth ka upayog karne vaale bhi bade jokhim mein hai jismein se lagbhag 20% kabhi na kabhi aatmahatya ka prayaas karte hain aur 65% iske baare mein sochate hain.[12] cigarette peena bhi aatmahatya ke jokhim se juda hai.[35] is baat ke saakshya kaafi kam hain ki yeh sambandh kyon abhi bhi maujood hai; halaanki yeh siddhaant pratipaadit kiya gaya hai ki jo dhoomrapaan ke prati samvedansheel hote hain ve aatmahatya ke prati bhi samvedansheel hote hain aur dhoomrapaan svaasthya samasyaaen paida karta hai jiske chalte log apna jeevan samaapt karna chaahate hain aur dhoomrapaan mastishk ki raasaayanik sanrachana ko prabhaavit karti hai.[35] bhaang ke kaaran svatantr roop se yeh jokhim badhta naheen dikhta hai.[12]

juen ki lat

juen ki lat ka sambandh saamaanya janasankhya ki apeksha badhe hue aatmahatya ke vichaar tatha prayaason ke saath hai.[36] 12 se 24% lati juaari aatmahatya ka prayaas karte hain.[37]unki patniyon ke beech aatmahatya ki dar saamaanya janasainkhya ki apeksha teen guna adhik hoti hai.[37] lati juaariyon mein jokhim ko badhaane vaale anya kaarakon mein maanasik vyaadhiyaan, alkohal tatha nasheeli davaaon ka sevan aadi hain.[38]

chikitsa sthitiyaan

aatmahatya ki pravatti tatha shaareerik svaasthya samasyaaon ke beech sambandh hai jaise:[24]puraane dard,[39] abhighaatajanya mastishk ki chot,[40] Cancer,[41]aise vyakti jo heemodaayalisis par hon, echaaaivi, sistamik lyupas ereethemaatotas tatha kuchh anya beemaariyaaain.[24] Cancer ki pehchaan ke pashchaat aatmahatya ke baad khatra lagbhag doguna ho jaata hai.[41] aatmahatya ki badhi hui pravrutti avasaadagrastata ki beemaari aur sharaab ke atyadhik sevan ke samaayojan ke baad bhi bani rahati hai. ek se adhik chikitsa sthiti vaale vyaktiyon mein, jokhim vishesh roop se ooncha tha. Japan mein svaasthya samasyaaon ko aatmahatya ke praathamik auchitya ke roop mein soocheebaddh kiya jaata hai.[42]neend ki samasyaaen jaise ki anidra[43] tatha sleep epniya avasaad aur aatmahatya ke liye jokhim kaarak hain. kuchh maamalon mein neend ki samasyaaen avasaad se alag ek jokhim kaarak ho sakti hain.[44] kai anya chikitsa sthitiyaan manodasha vikaaron ke lakshanon ke saath upasthit ho sakti hain, jaise: haaipothaayaraayadijm, aljaaimars, mastishk ka tyoomar, sistamik lyupas ereethemaatotas tatha kai davaaiyon ke pratikool prabhaav (jaise beeta blaukars tatha sterauyads).[13]

manosaamaajik avasthaaen

kai manovaigyaanik avasthaaen aatmahatya ke khataron ko badhaati hain, jinmein niraasha, jeevan mein aanand ki kami, avasaad tatha vyagrata shaamil hain.[21] samasyaaon ko hal karne ki kshamata ki kami, bhoot-kaal ki kshamataaon mein kami tatha aaveg par niyantran mein kami bhi ismein bhoomika nibhaate hain.[21][45]adhik umr ke vayaskon mein doosaron par bojh hone ki dhaarana bhi mahatvapoorn hai.[46][46] haal ke jeevan ke tanaav jaise parivaar ke kisi sadasya athva kisi mitr ko khona, naukri khona, athva saamaajik alagaav (jaise akele rahana) is khatre mein vruddhi karte hain.[21] kabhi vivaahit naheen rahane vaale log bhi uchch jokhim mein aate hain.[13] dhaarmik hone se kisi vyakti ke liye aatmahatya ka khatra kam ho jaata hai.[47] iska kaaran anek dharmon mein aatmahatya ke liye nakaaraatmak rukh tatha dharm se praapt hone waali sanyuktata hai.[47] dhaarmik vyaktiyon mein, muslim logon mein aatmahatya ki dar kam prateet hoti hai.[48] kuchh log dhamaki athva pakshapaat se bachane ke liye aatmahatya kar lete hain.[49] bachapan mein hua yaun shoshan[50] tatha paalak ghar mein vyateet samay bhi jokhim ke kaarak hain.[51] yaun shoshan ko kul jokhim ke 20% ko yogadaan ka kaarak maana jaata hai.[18]aatmahatya ki kramik vikaas vyaakhya yeh hai ki yeh samaaveshi fitness mein sudhaar la sakti hai. aisa tab ho sakta hai jab aatmahatya karne wala vyakti bachche paida naheen kar sakta tatha jeevit rah kar vah apne rishtedaaron se sansaadhanon ko leta rahata hai. iski ek aapatti yeh hai ki svasth kishoron ki mrutyu ki sambhaavana samaaveshi fitness mein vruddhi naheen karti hai. ek ninaant alag Patrick vaataavaran mein anukoolan vartamaan vaataavaran ki tulana mein doshapoorn anukoolan ho sakta hai.[45][52] gareebi aatmahatya ke jokhim se judi hui hai.[53]kisi vyakti ke aaspaas unki tulana mein badh rahi saapeksh gareebi aatmahatya ke khatre ko badhaati hai.[54] 1997 se Bhaarat mein lagbhag 2,00,000 se adhik kisaanon ne aatmahatya ki hai jo ki kuchh had tak rin sambandhi kaaranon se sambandhit hai.[55]cheen ke graameen kshetron mein aatmahatya ki aashanka shahari kshetron ke mukaabale teen guna hoti hai, jiska aanshik kaaran desh ke in kshetron mein hone waali vitteeya pareshaaniyon ko maana jaata hai.[56]

media

media, jismein Internet bhi shaamil hai, ek mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaata hai.[11] yeh aatmahatya ka chitran aise coverage ki adhik maatra, pramukhata tatha doharaav ke dvaara karti hai jismein aatmahatya ka mahima-mandan athva romaani-chitran kiya jaata hai.[57]jab kisi maadhyam se aatmahatya karne ka vistrut varnan ki vyaakhya ki jaati hai, aatmahatya ki is vidhi ki vruddhi poorn janasankhya mein ho sakti hai.[58]aatmahatya sansarg ka yeh trigr athva kaupi-kait aatmahatya ko vaarthar prabhaav ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, jiska naam gete ke pakshadhar par pada hai di sauroj of yang vaarthar jinhonne swayam aatmahatya ki thi.[59] yuvaaon mein yeh jokhim adhik hota hain kyonki ve mrutyu ko romaani samajhte hain.[60] aisa prateet hota hai ki media dvaara ek mahatvapoorn prabhaav padta hai, manoranjan media ka prabhaav bhi utana hi hota hai.[61] vaarthar prabhaav ke vipreet prastaavit paapaajeno prabhaav hai, jismein maana jaata hai ki prabhaavi bachaav tantr ki coverage ke falasvaroop ek surakshaatmak prabhaav ho sakta hai. yeh shabd mojaart ke opera ke ek charitra jaadui baansuri par aadhaarit hai jo apne priya vyakti ko khone ke dar se aatmahatya karne ja raha tha, jabki mitron ne sahaayata karke usako bacha liya.[59] media ke dvaara uchit reporting disha nirdeshon ke paalan se aatmahatya ke khatre ko kam kiya ja sakta hai.[57]haalaaainki udyog se ant:-kraya, vishesh roop se lambi avadhi ke mein, mushkil ho sakti hai.[57]

tarkasangat

tarkasangat aatmahatya taarkik roop se apne praan tyaagane ko kehte hain,[62] haalaaainki kuchh log aisa sochate hain ki aatmahatya kabhi tarkasangat naheen ho sakti hai.[62] doosaron ke hit mein apne jeevan ko samaapt karne ke kaarya ko paropakaari aatmahatyaakahate hain.[63] iska ek udaaharan samudaaya mein yuva logon ke liye bhojan ki adhikaadhik maatra chhodne ke liye kisi boodhe vyakti dvaara apne jeevan ko samaapt karna hai.[63] kinhi eskimo sanskrutiyon mein ise is sammaan, saahas athva buddhimtta ke ek kaarya ke roop mein dekha gaya hai.[64]aatmaghaati hamla ek raajanaitik kaaryavaai hai jismein hamlaavar doosaron ke viruddh hinsa yeh jaante hue bhi karta ki iska ant usaki swayam ki mrutyu ke roop mein hoga.[65] kuchh aatmaghaati hamlaavar ise shahaadat ka jariya maanate hain.[19] kaamikaaje abhiyaan ek bade maksad athva naitik daayitv ke roop mein kiye gaye the.[64] hatya-aatmahatya maanavavadh ki vah ghatna hai jismein ise karne vaale dvaara swayam hi ek saptaah ke andar aatmahatya kar li jaati hai.[66] saamoohik aatmahatya aksar saamajik dabaav mein ki jaateen hain jabki sadasya apne neta ko svaayattata de dete hain.[67] saamoohik aatmahatya mein kam se kam do log ho sakte hain, jisko aatmahatya samjhauta ke roop mein bhi jaana jaata hai.[68]

halka karne waali paristhiyon mein, jabki jeevit rahana asahaneeya prateet hota hai, kuchh log aatmahatya ko bachaav ke saadhan ke roop mein apnaate hain.[69] naaji yaatana shiviron mein kuchh bandiyon dvaara jaanaboojh kar vidyuteekrut baad ko chhoo kar swayam ko maar diye jaane ki jaankaari hai.[70]

tarike

sanyukt raajya amareeka mein aatmahatya vidhi aadhaar par maamalon mein mrutyu dar[15]

aatmahatya ke pramukh kaaran bhinn-bhinn deshon mein bhinn-bhinn hain. vibhinn kshetron ki pramukh vidhiyon mein faaainsi, keetanaashak vish peena aur aagyeyaastron ka upayog shaamil hai.[71] vibhinn bhaagon mein hone vaale ye antar sanbhavat: vibhinn vidhiyon ki upalabdhata par nirbhar karte hain.[58]56 deshon ki ek sameeksha se pata chalta hai ki adhiktar deshon mein aatmahatya sabse aam vidhi thi, [72] jo 53% purushon aur 39% mahilaaon ki aatmahatya ke liye jimmedaar thi.[73] poori duniya mein aatmahatyaaon ka 30% keetanaashakon se hota hai. is vidhi ka upayog halaanki Europe mein 4% se le kar prashaant kshetr mein 50% ke beech vistrut hai.[74]krushi janasankhyaaon mein is tak aasaan pahunch ke kaaran, yeh laitin amareeka mein bhi yeh kaafi aam hai.[58] bahut se deshon mein, davaaon ki atirikt khuraak ka upayog mahilaaon mein aatmahatya ke 60% maamalon mein tatha purushon mein 30% maamalon mein dekha gaya hai.[75] inmein bahut se gairaniyojit hote hain aur duvidha ki gambhir avastha ke dauraan hote hain.[58] mrutyudar vidhi ke anusaar bhinn-bhinn hoti hai: aagneyaastr 80-90%, doobkar 65-80%, faansi lagaakar 60-85%, car ekjaast 40-60%, koodana 35-60%, band kamre mein koyala jalaakar 40-50%, keetanaashak 6-75%, dava ki atirikt khuraak 1.5-4%.[58] aatmahatya ke prayaas ki sabse aam vidhiyaan, sabse safal vidhiyon se bhinn hoti hai jinmein se viksit deshon mein prayaason ka 85% tak davaaon ki atirikt khuraak ke maadhyam se hota hai.[24]sanyukt raajya amareeka mein aatmahatya ke 57% maamalon mein aagneyaastron ka upayog hota hai, yeh vidhi mahilaaon ki apeksha purushon mein adhik aam hai.[13] agala sabse aam kaaran purushon mein faansi aur mahilaaon mein khud ko vish dena hai.[13] ye vidhiyaan milkar yooes mein aatmahatya ke 40% maamalon ke liye jimmedaar hain.[76] svitjralaind, jahaan par lagbhag sabhi ke paas aagneyaastr hain, adhiktam aatmahatyaaen faansi laga kar ki jaati hain.[77] kood kar jaan dena Hongkong aur Singapore kramash: 50% aur 80% tak hai.[58] cheen mein keetanaashakon ko kha kar jaan dena sabse aam tareeka hai.[78] Japan mein apne pet ko chot pahuncha kar khatm karna, jise sepookoo ya haara-kiri kehte hain abhi bhi maujood hai,[78] halaanki faansi laga kar aatmahatya karna sabse aam tareeka hai.[79]

paithofijiyolauji (rog ke kaaran paida hue kriyaatmak parivartan)

aatmahatya ya avasaad ki koi ekeekrut antarnihit paithofijiyolauji naheen hai.[13] halaanki yeh maana jaata hai ki ye vyavahaarik, saamaajik-paryaavaraneeya aur manovaigyaanik kaarakon ke ant:sanbandhon se upajata hai.[58] mastishk vyutpann nyoorotraufik kaarak (beedeeenaef) ke nimn star pratyaksh roop se aatmahatya ke saath jude hain[80] aur apratyaksh roop se gambhir avasaad tatha abhighaatajanya tanaav pashchaat vikaar, skijofreniya aur junooni baadhyakaari vikaar se jude hain.[81] shav-pareeksha adhyayanon se pata chala hai ki manovaigyaanik paristhitiyon vaale tatha unke bina vaale, dono tarah ke logon mein beedeeenaef ke hippokainpas aur preefrantal kaurteks mein nimn star mile hain.[82] serotonin, jo ki mastishk ka nyoorotraansamitr hai, aatmahatya karne vaalon mein kam hota hai. aanshik roop se ise mrutyu ke pashchaat 5-HT2A graahiyon ke badhe star ke saakshyon ke aadhaar par kaha jaata hai.[83] anya saakshyon mein serebral spaainal taral mein 5-haaidraukseeindauliyesitik aml serotonin ke tootane se bane utpaad ke ghate star shaamil hain.[84] halaanki pratyaksh saakshya milna kathin hai.[83] epijenetiks jo ki aise vaataavaraneeya kaarakon ki pratikriya mein aanuvanshik abhivyakti mein parivrtanon ka adhyayan hai jo atarnihit DNA ko badalate naheen hai, ise bhi aatmahatya ke jokhim ko nirdhaarit karne mein bhoomika nibhaane ke liye uttaradaayi maana jaata hai.[85]

rokathaam

aatmahatya ki rokathaam ki pahal ke roop mein, yeh chinh golden gate pul par upalabdh vishesh phone ko badhaava deta hai jo sankatakaaleen hotline se judta hai.

aatmahatya ki rokathaam ek vaakyaansh hai jise, rokathaam upaayon ke maadhyam se aatmahatya ki ghatnaaon ko kam karne ke liye saamoohik prayaas ke liye upayog kiya jaata hai. kuchh vidhiyon tak pahunch ko kam karna jaise aagneyaastr ya vish, is jokhim ko kam karta hai.[58][86] anya upaayon mein koyale tatha pulon va sabave pletafaurmon par bairiyr tak pahunch kam karna shaamil hai.[58] nasheeli davaaon tatha madira ki lat, avasaad aur pehle aatmahatya ka prayaas kar chuke logon ka upachaar bhi prabhaavi ho sakta hai.[86] kuchh logon nein madira tak pahunch ki kami ko rokathaam rananeeti ke roop mein prastaavit kiya hai (jaise ki madiraalayon ki sankhya ko kam karna).[12] halaanki sankatakaaleen hautalaainein aam hain, lekin is baat ke saakshya kam hai ki is upaaya ko aur samarthan diya jaae.[87][88] yuva vayask jinhone haal hi mein aatmahatya ke baare mein socha hai, unamein sanjnyaaanaatmak vyavahaar upachaar parinaamon ko behtar karta dikhta hai.[89] aarthik vikaas ki apni gareebi kam karne ki kshamata ke kaaran aatmahatya ki dar mein kami laane mein saksham ho sakta hai.[53] saamaajik sambandhon ko badhaane ke prayaas, vishesh roop se bujurgon mein prabhaavi ho sakte hain.[90]

jaaainch

aatmahatya ki antim dar par saamaanya janasankhya ki jaaainch ke prabhaavon par kaafi kam aaainkade upalabdh hain. .[91] choonki aise logon ki dar uchch hain jo ki in upaayon ki jaaainch ke prati sakaaraatmak hone ke baavajood aatmahatya ke jokhim mein naheen hai, isliye chinta ki baat yeh hai ki jaaainch, maanasik svaasthya dekhbhaal sansaadhan ka upayog bahut adhik badh jaae.[92] halaanki uchch jokhim vaale logon ke liye aankalan anushansit hai.[13] aatmahatya ki sambhaavana ke baare mein poochhane se jokhim badhta naheen dikhta hai.[13]

maanasik beemaari

maanasik svaasthya samasyaaon vaale logon mein upachaar ke kai prakaar aatmahatya ke jokhim ko kam kar sakte hain. ve log jo sakriya roop se aatmahatya ke jokhim mein aate hain unako unki ichha se ya balapoorvak maanasik dekhbhaal mein bharti kiya ja sakta hai.[13]ve cheejein jo aise logon ko haani pahuncha sakti hain, aam taur par hata di jaati hain.[24] kuchh chikitsak rogiyon se aatmahatya rokathaam anubandh par hastaakshar karaate hain jiske maadhyam se ve chhode jaane par khud ko nuksaan na pahunchaane par sahamit pradaan karte hain.[13] halaanki, saakshya is abhyaas ke prabhaavi hone ka sanket naheen dete hain.[13] yadi koi vyakti nimn jokhim par hai to vaahya-rogi maanasik svaasthya upachaar ka prabandh kiya ja sakta hai[24] puraane aatmahatya karne ki manasthiti vaale ve log jo seemaant vyaktitv vikaar se peedit hain unamein laghu-avadhi ke liye aspataal mein bharti kiye jaane ko saamudaayik dekhbhaal se behtar naheen dekha gaya hai.[93][94] is baat ke antarim saakshya upalabdh hain ki maanasik upachaar, vishesh roop se daayaalektrik biheviyral upachaar, kishoron mein[95] tatha saath hi seemaant vyaktitv vikaar vaale logon mein aatmahatya ki pravruti ko kam karta hai.[96] halaanki is baat ke saakshya naheen mile hain ki antat: aatmahatya mein kami hui ho.[95]avasaad-rodhi davaaon ke laabh banaam haaniyon par vivaad hai.[11] yuva logon mein nai avasaad rodhi davaaon jaise SSRIs aatmahatya ki pravrutti ko 25 prati 1000 se 40 prati 1000 tak badhaati dikhti hai.[97] halaanki bujurgon mein jokhim kam ho sakta hai.[13] leethiym un logon mein jokhim kam karne mein prabhaavi dikhta hai jinmein dvidhruveeya vikaar aur ekadhruveeya avasaad samaanya janasankhya jitne star par dikhta hai.[98][99]

mahaamaari - vigyaan

2004 mein prati 100,000 nivaasiyon mein aatm-pravrut choton dvaara mrutyu ki sankhya[100]
█a█ unknown █a█ <3 █a█ 3–6 █a█ 6–9 █a█ 9–12 █a█ 12–15 █a█ 15–18
█a█ 18–21 █a█ 21–24 █a█ 24–27 █a█ 27–30 █a█ 30–33 █a█ >33

lagbhag 0.5% se 1.4% log apne jeevan ko aatmahatya dvaara samaapt kar dete hain.[2][13]vaishvik roop se 2008/2009 mein aatmahatya mrutyu ka dasavaan sabse bada kaaran hai[1] is tarah se lagbhag 8,00,000 se das lakh log vaarshik roop se marate hain, jiska vaarshik mrutyu dar mein 11.6 prati 100,000 vyakti ka yogadaan hai.[2] aatmahatya ki dar 1960 se 2012 tak lagbhag 60% tak badh gayi hai,[86] in vruddhiyon ko praathamik roop se vikaasasheel duniya mein dekha gaya hai.[1] pratyek safal aatmahatya ke prayaas ke peechhe 10 se 40 aatmahatya ke asafal prayaas hote hain.[13] aatmahatya ki daron mein deshon ke beech samayaanusaar mahatvapoorn antar hota hai.[2] 2008 mein mrutyu ka pratishat nimn tha: Africa 0.5%, dakshin-poorv Asia 1.9% Amreeki desh 1.2% aur Europe 1.4%,[2] prati 1,00,000 dar: Australia 8.6, Canada 11.1, cheen 12.7, Bhaarat 23.2, United Kingdom 7.6, sanyukt raajya amareeka 11.4[101] 2009 mein prativrsh 36,000 maamalon ke saath, sanyukt raajya amareeka mein ise 10 vaaain pramukh mrutyu ka kaaran paaya gaya tha.[102] aur lagbhag 6,50,000 logon ne aatmahatya ke prayaas ke kaaran vaarshik roop se aakasmik vibhaag ka daura kiya.[13] lithueniya, Japan aur Hungary mein yeh dar sarvaadhik hai.[2] cheen aur Bhaarat ve desh hain jinmein sabse adhik aatmahatya mautein hoti hain, in dono deshon mein vishv ki is vidhi se hone waali kul mauton ki aadhi hoti hain.[2] cheen mein aatmahatya mrutyu, maut ka paaainchava sabse bada kaaran hai.[103]

ling

Suicide rate per 100,000 males (left) and female (right) (data from 1978–2008).      ██ no data ██ < 1 ██ 1–5 ██ 5–5.8    ██ 5.8–8.5 ██ 8.5–12 ██ 12–19 ██ 19–22.5    ██ 22.5–26 ██ 26–29.5 ██ 29.5–33 ██ 33–36.5    ██ >36.5  Suicide rate per 100,000 males (left) and female (right) (data from 1978–2008).      ██ no data ██ < 1 ██ 1–5 ██ 5–5.8    ██ 5.8–8.5 ██ 8.5–12 ██ 12–19 ██ 19–22.5    ██ 22.5–26 ██ 26–29.5 ██ 29.5–33 ██ 33–36.5    ██ >36.5
Suicide rate per 100,000 males (left) and female (right) (data from 1978–2008).

█a█ no data █a█ < 1 █a█ 1–5 █a█ 5–5.8

█a█ 5.8–8.5 █a█ 8.5–12 █a█ 12–19 █a█ 19–22.5

█a█ 22.5–26 █a█ 26–29.5 █a█ 29.5–33 █a█ 33–36.5

█a█ >36.5

pashchimi duniya mein, aatmahatya ke saadhanon dvaara purush, mahilaaon ki tulana mein teen se chaar guna tak adhik marate hain, halaanki mahilaaen, purushon ki tulana mein chaar guna adhik aatmahatya prayaas karti hain.[2][13] iska kaaran purushon dvaara apna jeevan samaapt karne ke liye adhik khatarnaak hathiyaaron ka upayog hai.[104] yeh antar 65 se adhik ki umr vaalon mein adhik hota hai, is samay yeh antar 10 guna tak adhik hota hai.[104] cheen mein mahilaaon ki aatmahatya dar sarvaadhik hai tatha yeh akela desh hai jahaaain par yeh purushon se mahilaaon ki aatmahatya ki dar adhik hai (0.9 dar).[2][103] poorvi bhoomadhya mein aatmahatya ki dar purushon va mahilaaon mein lagbhag samaan hai.[2] mahilaaon ke liye aatmahatya ki dar sarvaadhik dakshin Korea mein prati 1,00,000 par 22 the, dakshin poorv Asia aur pashchimi bhoomadhya mein darein aamtaur par uchch hai.[2]

umr

bahut se deshon mein adhed logon mein ya bujurgon mein aatmahatya ki dar sabse[105] adhik hoti hai.[58] halaanki aatmahatya ki param sankhya 15 se 29 varshon ke logon mein sarvaadhik hai, kyonki is umr samooh ke logon ki sankhya bhi adhik hoti hai.[2] sanyukt raajya amareeka mein yeh 80 varsh se adhik umr ke kaukeshiyn purushon sarvaadhik hai, halaanki yuva log aatmahatya ka adhik prayaas karte hain.[13] kishoron mein yeh mrutyu ka sabse aam[11] aur yuva purushon mein yeh durghatana se mrutyu ke baad doosare number ka kaaran hai.[105] viksit deshon mein yuva purushon mein yeh mrutyu dar ka lagbhag 30% hai.[105] vikaasasheel duniya mein dar samaan hain lekin samagr mauton mein inki bhaageedaari dar kam hai kyonki doosare prakaar ke abhighaat ke kaaran hone waali mauton ki dar uchch hai.[105] duniya ke doosare kshetron ki tulana mein, dakshin poorv Asia mein bujurg mahilaaon tulana mein yuva mahilaaon ki aatmahatya ki dar adhik hai.[2]

itihaas

traajans column se desebaaul ki aatmaghaati maut

praacheen Athens mein jo vyakti raajya ki anumati ke bina aatmahatya karta tha use saamaanya roop se dafan hone ka adhikaar naheen milta tha. us vyakti ko shahar se baahar akele dafan kiya jaata tha, usaki kabr par kisi prakaar ka chinh naheen laga hota tha.[106] praacheen grees aur rom mein aatmahatya ko yuddh mein haar ke samay maut ka sveekaarya tareeka tha.[107] praacheen rom mein, aaranbhik roop se aatmahatya ko anumat maana jaata tha, lekin baad mein ise iski aarthik laagat ke kaaran raajya ke viruddh aparaadh maana jaane laga.[108] 1670 mein France ke lui XIV dvaara ek aaparaadhik raajaajnyaa jaari ki gayi thi, jismein adhik kathor dand ka praavadhaan thaa: mrut vyakti ke shareer ko chehara jameen ki or rakhate hue sadak par ghaseeta jaata tha aur fir use lataka diya jaata tha, jiske baad koode ke dher par daal diya jaata tha.

iske saath hi us vyakti ki saari sampatti jabt kar li jaati thi.[109][110] aitihaasik roop se isaai church ke ve log jo aatmahatya ka prayaas karte the samaaj se bahishkrut kar diye jaate the aur ve jo mar jaate the unako nirdhaarit kabristaan se baahar dafnaaya jaata tha.[111] 19 veen shataabdi ke ant mein great Britain mein aatmahatya ka prayaas ko hatya ke prayaas ke tulya maana jaata tha aur iski saja faaainsi tak thi.[111] 19 veen shataabdi mein Europe mein aatmahatya ke krutya ko paap se kiye jaane vaale kaam se hataakar paagalapanase prerit krutya kar diya gaya.[110]

saamaajik tatha saanskrutik

vidheyak

sepookooke liye taiyaar kiya gaya ektaanto chaakoo

adhiktar pashchimi deshon mein aatmahatya ab aparaadh naheen rah gaya hai,[112] halaanki yeh adhikaansh pashchimi Europeeya deshon mein madhya yug se, kam se kam 1800 tak ise aparaadh maana jaata tha.[113] kai islaamik deshon mein ise dandaneeya aparaadh ki shreni mein rakha jaata hai.[48] Australia mein aatmahatya ek aparaadh naheen hai.[114]halaanki iski salaah dena, ukasaana ya ismein sahaayata dena aur kisi ko aatmahatya karne ke liye sahaayata karna aparaadh ki shreni mein hai aur kaanoon vishisht roop se kisi vyakti ko “ayathochit roop se aavashyak dabaav banaane” ki anumati deta hai jo kisi doosare vyakti ko aatmahatya ke prayaas se rokane ke liye ho.[115] Australia ke uttari raajya mein 1996 se 1997 tak ek chhoti si avadhi mein chikitsak ki sahaayata dvaara mrutyu ko praapt karna kaanooni roop se vaidh tha.[116] vartamaan samay mein Europe ka koi bhi desh aatmahatya ya aatmahatya ke prayaas ko aparaadh naheen maanata hai.[111] ingalaind aur vels ne aatmahatya adhiniyam 1961 ke maadhyam se aur Ireland mein 1993 mein aatmahatya ko gair aaparaadhik kar diya tha.[111] shabd "karna (kamit)" ko iske sandarbh mein upayog kiya jaana gairkaanooni hai iske nakaaraatmak bhaav ke kaaran bahut saare sangathanon ne ise upayog karna band kar diya hai.[117][118] Bhaarat mein aatmahatya gairkaanooni hai aur shesh parivaar ko kaanooni pareshaaniya jhelni pad sakti hain.[119] Germany mein sakriya ichha mrutyu gairkaanooni hai aur aatmahatya ke dauraan upasthit kisi vyakti par is aapaatakaal mein sahaayata karne mein vifal rahane ka mukadama chalaaya ja sakta hai.[120] svitjralaind ne haal hi mein sahaayya aatmahatya ko puraane maanasik rogiyon ke liye kaanooni karne ke liye kadam uthaae hain. laausaane mein sthit uchch nyaayaalaya mein 2006 ke nirnaya mein ek agyaat vyakti ko lambe samay se chali aa rahi maanasik samasyaaon ke kaaran apna jeevan samaapt karne ka adhikaar pradaan kiya tha.[121]

sanyukt raajya amareeka mein, aatmahatya gairkaanooni naheen hai lekin jo iska prayaas karte hain unke liye yeh dandaneeya ho sakti hai.[111] chikitsak ki sahaayata se ki gayi aatmahatya oregaun tha vaarshingatan raajya[122] mein vaidh hai.[123]


dhaarmik vichaar

apne pati ki chita ke saath apne ko jalaati ek hindu vidhva, 1820 isvi

isaaiyat ke adhikaansh prakaaron mein, aatmahatya ko ek paap maana jaata hai jo ki mukhya roop se madhyakaal ke sant ogasteen aur sant Thomas ekyuinaus jaise prabhaavashaali isaai vichaarakon ke lekhon par aadhaarit hai, lekin udaaharan ke liye aatmahatya ko baaijentaain isaai jastiniyn ki dharm sanhita mein paap naheen maana jaata tha.[124][125] Catholic sinddhaant mein, tark aajnyaa "tum hatya naheen karoge" (methyoo 19:18 mein jeesas dvaara nae vachan ke antargat laagoo) tatha saath hi is vichaar ki jeevan ishvar ka diya hua upahaar hai aur ise asveekaar naheen kiya jaana chaahiye aur aatmahatya “apraakrutik aadesha” ke viruddh hai par aadhaarit hai, isliye yeh duniya ke liye ishvar ki maha-yojana ke saath hastakshep karta hai.[126] halaanki aisa maana jaata hai ki maanasik rog ya peeda ka gambhir dar, aatmahatya karne vaale ke bheetar jimmedaari ke bhaav ko kam kar deta hai.[127] javaabi tark mein nimnalikhit shaamil hain: ki chhathi aajnyaa ka yadi sateek roop se anuvaad kiya jaae to “atumako hatya naheen karni chaahiye” mein 'apni hatya' shaamil naheen hai; yeh ki ishvar ne maanav ko svatantr ichha pradaan ki hai; yeh ki rog ka upachaar na karna, apne jeevan ko samaapt karne se adhik ishvar ke kaamoon ka paalan na karna hai; yeh ki ishvar ke maananane vaalon dvaara ki gayi, kai aatmahatyaaon ki baaibil mein ninda naheen ki gayi hai.[128] yahoodi dharm jeevan ke moolya ke mahatva par dhyaan kendrit karta hai aur aatmahatya ko duniya mein ishvar ki achhaaiyon ko asveekaar karne ke tulya maanata hai. iske baavajood, charam paristhitiyon mein jabki dharm se dhokha karne ke liye dabaav aur mrutyu ke beech koi aur vikalp shesh na rah jaae to yahoodiyon ne aatmahatya ya saamoohik aatmahatya (udaaharan ke liye maasaada, yahoodiyon ka pehla fraanseesi utpeedn aur yaurk kaasel dekhein) ki hai aur ek gambhir anusmaarak ke roop mein maranoparaant yahoodi praarthanaaon mein “ajab gale par chaakoo ho to” ke liye ek praarthana hai jo ki “aishvar ke naam ki pavitrata banaae rakhane ke liye” marne vaalon ke liye hai (shahaadat dekhiye). in krutyon ko yahoodi vichaarakon ki mishrit pratikriya mili hai, kuchh log ise mahaan shahaadat ke udaaharanon ke roop mein dekhte hain jabki doosare ise shahaadat ki apeksha mein apne jeevan ko is tarah se dena galat maanate hain.[129]

islaam mein aatmahatya ki anumati naheen hai.[48] hindu dharm mein aatmahatya se ghruna ki jaati hai aur samakaaleen hindu samaaj mein ise kisi anya ki hatya ke tulya paap samjha jaata hai. hindu dharmagranth bataate hain ki vah jo aatmahatya karta hai, aatmaaon ki duniya mein chala jaata hai aur vahaaain vah tab tak rahata hai jab tak ki usaka dharati par jeevan tay tha, yadi vah aatmahatya na karta.[130] halaanki, hindu dharm mein insaan ke apne jeevan ko samaapt karne ke adhikaar ko maanyata mili hai, jaise ki ahinsa ke abhyaas dvaara mrutyu tak bhojan ka tyaag jise praayopaveshanbhi kaha gaya hai.[131] lekin praayopaveshan kadaai ke saath un logon ke liye anumat hai jinke jeevan mein ab koi ichha ya mahatvakaanksha naheen rah gayi hai.[131] jain dharm mein bhi samaan abhyaas kiya jaata hai jiska naam santhaara hai. sati ya aatmadaah, hinduon mein madhyakaal mein hindu samaaj ki vidhvaaon dvaara kiya jaata tha.

darshanashaastr

the ve out ya aatmahatya ke vichaar: George gri, 2007.

aatmahatya ke darshan ko lekar kai saar savaal uthaae jaate hain, jinmein aatmahatya vichaar ka gathan kaise hota hai, aatmahatya ka vichaar ek tarkasangat vikalp ho sakta hai ya naheen aur aatmahatya ki naitik anujnyaeyata shaamil hai.[132] aatmahatya naitik roop se sveekaarya ho sakti hai ya naheen, is par darshanashaastreeya tark mein ek or tagada virodh hai (aatmahatya anaitik maanate hue) to kuchh log ise un sabhi ka (yahaan tak ki yuva va svasth logon ka bhi) ek puneet adhikaar maanate hai jinka yeh vishvaas hai ki ve taarkik roop se soch samajh kar apne jeevan ko samaapt karne ka nirnaya le rahe hain.

aatmahatya ke virodhiyon mein isaai darshanashaastri jaise hippo ke ogasteen aur Thomas ekyuinaus,[132] immenuan can't[133] aur nishchit taur par John stuart mil shaamil hai – mil ka svatantrata aur svaayattata ke mahatva par focus ka taatparya yeh hai ki vah un chayanon ko nakaarate hain jo vyakti ko bhavishya ke svaayatt nirnaya lene se rokata hai.[134] anya log aatmahatya ko niji chunaav ka nyaayasangat maamala maanate hain. is sthiti ke samarthak is baat par kaayam rahate hain ki kisi ko bhi usaki ichha ke viruddh sahan karne ke liye baadhya naheen kiya jaana chaahiye, vishesh roop se laailaaj rogon, maanasik rogon aur adhik umr jaisi paristhitiyon mein, jinmein ki sudhaar ki koi sambhaavana naheen hai. ve is vishvaas ko asveekaar karte hain ki aatmahatya sadaiv vivekaheen hoti hai, iske liye ve ye tark dete hain ki yeh asahaneeya dard ya abhighaat se peedit logon ke liye antim vaidh upaaya ho sakti hai.[135] ek adhik majaboot paksh yeh tark de sakta hai ki logon ko svaayatt roop se is baat ki anumati honi chaahiye chaahe ve peedit ho ya naheen. is vichaaradhaara ke mahatvapoorn samarthakon mein skautish anubhavavaadi David hyoom[132] aur Amreeki baayoethist Jacob eppelashaamil hain.[121][136]

paksh-samarthan

Alex-graibiyel dekanpaas ki kalaakruti mein jameen par pade pailet, pistol aur not yeh sujhaav de rahe hain ki dukhad ghatna bas abhi ghati hai; ek kalaakaar ne apna jeevan abhi samaapt kiya hai.[137]

aatmahatya ka samarthan kai sanskrutiyon aur upasanskrutiyon mein kiya gaya hai. dviteeya vishv yuddh ke samay Japani fauj ne kaamikaaji aakramanon ko badhaava va unka mahima mandan kiya tha, jo ki dviteeya vishv yuddh ke prashaant abhiyaan ke antim charanon mein Japani saamraajya ke fauji udaakon dvaara mitr deshon ke nausena poton par aatmaghaati aakraman the. Japani samaaj ko samagr roop se aatmahatya “asahishnu” samjha jaata hai[138] (Japan mein aatmahatya dekhein). aatmahatya par jaankaari ke liye Internet khoj se mile vebapej yeh darshaate hain ki 10-30% baar ye aatmahatya ke prayaason ko badhaava dete ya suvidha pradaan karte hain. is baat ko lekar kuchh chinta hai ki aisi saaitein un logon ko badhaava de sakti hain jo samvedansheel hain. kuchh log online aatmahatya anubandh kar lete hai jo ki ya to pehle se maujood mitron ke saath ya fir ve log jinse haal hi mein chait room ya maisej board mein jaan pehchaan hui ho. Internet halaanki aatmahatya ko rokane mein sahaayak ho sakta hai kyonki vah alag-thalag pade logon ko saamaajik samooh pradaan kar sakta hai.[139]

sthaan (sthal)

kuchh sthaan aatmahatya ke prayaason ke uchch star ke liye jaane jaate hain.[140] inmein sain Francisco ka golden gate pul, Japan ka okigaahaara jungle,[141] inglaind ka beechi head,[140] aur Toronto ka bloor street vaayaadaktashaamil hai.[142] 1937 mein apne nirmaan se lekar 2010 tak golden gate pul par 1,300 log kood kar apni jaan de chuke hain.[143] jahaan par logon dvaara aatmahatya aam hai, unamein se bahut si jagahon par ise rokane ke liye baadhaaen banaayi gayi hain.[144] inmein Toronto mein lyoomins vel,[142] aur peris mein aaifil tauvar tatha New York mein empaayar state bilding shaamil hai.[144] 2011 mein golden gate pul par ek bairiyr ka nirmaan kiya ja raha tha.[145] ye aam taur par kaafi prabhaavi dikhte hain.[145]

anya prajaatiyaan

choonki aatmahatya ke liye marne ke ek jaanaboojh kar kiye jaane vaale prayaas ki jaroorat hoti hai isliye kuchh logon ko lagta hai ki yeh gair-maanaveeya jaanvaron mein naheen ho sakti hai.[107] aatmahatya sambandhi vyavahaar ko saalmonela mein dekha gaya hai jo ki pratispardhi baikteeriya se paar paane ke liye unke viruddh ek pratirodhi pranaali pratikriya hai.[146] aatmahatya sambandhi raksha ko Brazil mein paayi jaane waali “aforeliys poosilsa” cheetiyon ke karmachaariyon mein bhi dekha gaya hai jahaaain par cheetiyon ka ek chhota samooh ghosale ki suraksha ke liye har shaam baahar se use band karke nikal jaata hai.[147] pi efid ko jab ledeebag se khatra hota hai to ve apne mein visfot kar sakte hain jisse unke saathi bikhr kar surakshit rahate hain aur is tarah se kai baar ledi bag mar bhi jaati hai.[148] deemak ki kuchh prajaatiyon mein aise sainik hote hain jo fat jaate hain aur unke dushman unke chipchipe padaarth mein fans jaate hain.[149][150] aatmahatya se sambandhit kuchh kisse kutton, ghodon aur daulfinon ke bhi hain lekin iske nirnaayak saakshya naheen hai.[151] jaanvaron mein aatmahatya par bahut kam vaigyaanik adhyayan upalabdh hain.[152]

ullekhaneeya maamale

saamoohik aatmahatya ka ek udaaharan 1978 mein "jaunsataaun" panthik aatmahatya (kalt suicide) ka hai jismein jimjons ke netrutv vaale ek Amreeki panth people's tempal ke 918 sadasyon ne cynide se angoor ke ras se bane svaad vaale saadhan dvaara apna jeevan samaapt kiya tha.[153][154][155] 1944 mein saaipaan yuddh ke antim dinon mein 10,000 se adhik Japani naagrikon ne “aaatmahanta chotee” aur “abaanjaai chotee” se kood kar aatmahatya kar li thi.[156]

baubi saind ke netrutv mein 1981 bhookh hadtaal ke kaaran 10 logon ki maut hui thi. mrutyu sameekshak dvaara mrutyu ke kaaran ke roop mein “asvayan aaropit bhukhamaree” ko darj kiya gaya tha, na ki aatmahatya ko; hadtaal karne vaale logon ke parivaaron ke virodh ke baad ise sudhaar kar mrutyu pramaanapatr par ise bas “abhukhamaree” kaha gaya tha.[157] dviteeya vishvayuddh mein iravin romel ke paas hitlar ke jeevan par khatre se sambandhit July 20 plaut ke baare mein pehle se jaankaari thi aur aatmahatya na karne ki soorat mein use saarvajanik mukadamein, faansi tatha parivaar se badla liye jaane ka khatra tha.[158]

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March 2008.