aatankvaad

aatankvaad ke shikaar[1]

aatankvaad ek prakaar ke maahaul ko kaha jaata hai. ise ek prakaar ke hinsaatmak gatividhi ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya jaata hai, jo ki apne aarthik, dhaarmik, raajaneetik evam vichaaraatmak lakshyon ki pratipoorti ke liye gair-sainik arthaat naagrikon ki suraksha ko bhi nishaana banaate hain. gair-raajya kaarakon dvaara kiye gaye raajaneetik, vaichaarik ya dhaarmik hinsa ko bhi aatankvaad ki shreni ka hi samjha jaata hai. ab iske tahat gair-kaanooni hinsa aur yuddh ko bhi shaamil kar liya gaya hai. agar isi tarah ki gatividhi aaparaadhik sangathan dvaara chalaane ya ko badhaava dene ke liye karta hai to saamaanyat: use aatankvaad nahi maana jaata hai, yadyapi in sabhi kaaryon ko aatankvaad ka naam diya ja sakta hai. gair-islaami sangathanon ya vyaktitvon ko najaraandaaj karte hue praay: islaami ya jihaadi ke saath aatankvaad ki anuchit tulana ke liye iski aalochna bhi ki jaati hai.

anukram

shabd ki utpatti

aatankvaad shabd ki utpatti aatank shabd se hui hai. aatankvaad aise kaaryon ko kehte hain, jise kisi prakaar ka aatank failaane ke liye kiya jaata hai. aise kaarya karne vaalon ko aatankvaadi kehte hain. aatankvaad ka bhi kai roop hai apaaranparik yuddh (unconventional warfare) aur manovaigyaanik yuddh shabd ka raajaneetik aur bhaavanaatmak roop se liya jaata hai[2] aur yeh bahut yaugikon ek sateek paribhaasha pradaan ki kathinaai.ek 1988 ke dvaara adhyayan ameriki sena (US Army) ki is shabd ke oopar 100 paribhaashaaeain "aatankvaad" ka istemaal kiya gaya hai paaya.[3].ek vyakti jo prathaaon aatankvaad se ek hai aatankvaadi.

aatankvaad apne uddeshyon furthering mein raajaneetik sangathanon ki ek vyaapak shreni ke dvaara prayog kiya gaya hai; donon dakshinpanthi aur baaeain ving raajaneetik dalon, raashtravaadi (nationalistic) aur dhaarmik samoohon, kraantikaariyon aur sattaaroodh sarkaaron.[4] gair ki upasthiti-vyaapak sashastr sangharsh mein raajya abhinetaaon vivaad ke ke aavedan ke sambandh mein banaaya gaya hai yuddh ke kaanoonon (laws of war).

ek antarraashtreeya golamej shaanti ke nirmaan par, aatank (2004) vinaashakaari dvaara host rananeetik dooradrushti samooh (Strategic Foresight Group) ki ek bhed aatankvaad aur aatankvaad ke krutyon ke beech kiya jaana chaahiye ki sifaarish ki.jab tak aatankvaad ke krutyon ke prati ke roop mein aaparaadhik krutya kar rahe hain sanyukt raashtra suraksha parishad sankalp 1373 (United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373) aur nyaayashaastr ghareloo (domestic jurisprudence) aatankvaad duniya mein lagbhag sabhi deshon, ki vaastavik kaarya karta hai, aatankvaad ke krutyon ke perpetrators swayam aur unke uddeshyon sahit ek ghatna ko sandarbhit karta hai. vahaaain aatankvaad ki paribhaasha par asahamati hai. haalaanki, vahaaain ek bauddhik hai aam sahamati (consensus) vishv star par, ki aatankvaad ke krutyon kisi bhi paristhiti mein sveekaar naheen kiya jaana chaahiye.is sanyukt raashtra sahit sabhi mahatvapoorn samjhauton mein parilkshit hota hai kaauntar aatankvaad (counter terrorism) rananeeti hai, Madrid aatankvaad par sammelan ke nirnayon, is saamarik dooradarshita samooh aur ALDE (ALDE) tebals ke daur mein Europeeya sansad (European Parliament).

mool avadhi ke

"aatankvaad" pehle ke sandarbh mein istemaal kiya gaya shabd raajya aatank ka (Reign of Terror) is ke dauraan fraanseesi kraanti.

yadi shaantikaal mein ek lokapriya sarkaar ke aadhaar gun hai ", kraanti ke ek baar mein apna aadhaar gun aur aatank hai - gun hai, jo bina aatank barbar ho jaaega; aur aatank hai, jo bina gun napunsak hoga."[robespiyerre, Fr mein bhaashan. raashtreeya sammelan, 1794].[5]

ke dvaara ek 1988 ka adhyayan sanyukt raajya America sena (United States Army) ki is shabd ke ek se adhik sau paribhaashaaeain aur astitv mein prayog kiya gaya ho paaya.[6]kai deshon mein aatankvaad ke krutyon ko kaanooni roop se aaparaadhik krutya anya prayojanon ke liye kiya se hai aur "aatankvaad" pratishthit hain kaanoon dvaara paribhaashit hai, dekhna aatankvaad ki paribhaasha (definition of terrorism) vishesh paribhaashaaeain ke liye.aatankvaad ke kaanooni paribhaasha ke beech saamaanya siddhaanton aur vibhinn deshon mein kaanoon pravartan karmiyon ke beech sahayog ko bhi protsaahan dena arth ke roop mein ek ubharati hui aam sahamati pradaan karte hain. in paribhaashaaon mein vahaaain yeh hai ki sambhaavana ki pehchaan naheen kar kai hain hinsa ke vaidh ka upayog karein (legitimate use of violence) naagrikon ek aakraman ke khilaaf ek mein dvaara kabja desh (occupied country), aur is prakaar sabhi lebal hoga pratirodh aandolan (resistance movement)s aatankvaadi samoohon ke roop mein.doosaron ki hinsa ke vaidh aur avaidh upayog ke beech bhed karna.antat:, ek antar hai raajaneetik nirnaya.[7] hai

November 2004 mein, ek sanyukt raashtra suraksha parishad report mein kisi bhi adhiniyam "maut ya naagrikon ya gair karne ke liye gambhir shaareerik nuksaan naheen pahuaincha karne ke liye ichhit-ladaakon karne ke liye ek aabaadi ya sammohak ek sarkaar ya ek antararaashtreeya sangathan ko daraana ya kisi bhi kaarya karne se bachana ke uddeshya ke saath aatankvaad ke roop mein varnit hai."(hai ki is report ka gathan naheen hai Note antarraashtreeya vidhi (international law).)[8] Amreeki raksha vibhaag ke (U.S. Department of Defense) (DoD) ke roop mein aatankvaad ko paribhaashit: "avaidh hinsa ya gairkaanooni hinsa ke khatre ke dar jagaane ke liye ki ganana ka upayog karein, ya majaboor karne ke liye lakshya ka peechha mein hai ki aam taur par raajaneetik rahe hain sarkaaron ya samaajon bhayabheet karna, , dhaarmik ya vaichaarik. "[9]

mukhya maapdand

aadhikaarik paribhaashaaeain kaauntar ka nirdhaaran aatankvaad ki neeti aur aksar viksit kar rahe hain use seva karne ke liye.sabse sarkaar paribhaashaaeain mein nimnalikhit pramukh maanadand rooparekha: lakshya, uddeshya, uddeshya, aparaadhi hai aur vaidhata ya is adhiniyam ki vaidhata.aatankvaad bhi aksar perpetrators se ek ke baad bayaan ke kaaran pahachaani hai.

hinsa - vaaltar Laqueur ne ke anusaar kendra saamarik aur antararaashtreeya adhyayan ke liye (Center for Strategic and International Studies), aatankvaad ka "keval saamaanya lakshan aam taur par sahamati hai ki aatankvaad hinsa aur hinsa ke khatre shaamil hai."ke roop mein ise bahut se kaarya karta hai aamtaur par aatankvaad naheen maana shaamil hain tathaapi, hinsa ki kasauti akele, ek upayogi paribhaasha ka nirmaan naheen karta hai: yuddh, danga (riot), sangathit aparaadh (organized crime), ya yahaaain tak ki ek saadhaaran hamla (assault).ki jeevan jokhim mein daalna naheen hai sampatti vinaash aamtaur par ek naheen samjha jaata hai hinsak aparaadh (violent crime) hai, lekin kuchh ne sampatti ke vinaash ka varnan kiya hai pruthvi liberation frant (Earth Liberation Front) aur pashu liberation frant (Animal Liberation Front) ke roop mein hinsa aur aatankvaad; dekhne paaristhitiki aatankvaad (eco-terrorism).

manovaigyaanik prabhaav hai aur bhaya ke roop mein gambheerta aur manovaigyaanik prabhaav ki lanbaai ko adhiktam karne ke liye - yeh hamla is tarah se kiya gaya. aatankvaad ke pratyek kaarya 1 "pradarshan," kai badi darshakon par achha asar padta hai karne ke liye taiyaar hai. aatankvaadiyon ne bhi unki shakti aur desh ya samaaj ke liye ve virodh kar rahe hain ki neenv hila ko dikhaane ke liye raashtreeya prateekon par hamla.samay ki vaidhata ko badhaane yeh nakaaraatmak, ek sarkaar ki vaidhata ko prabhaavit May ko diya aatankvaadi sangathan (terrorist organization) aur / ya vichaaradhaara (ideology) ek aatankvaadi kaarravaai ke peechhe.[10]

ek raajaneetik lakshya ke liye - kuchh sabhi aatankvaadi hamlon mein aam mein hai ek raajaneetik uddeshya ke liye apna jurm hai. aatankvaad ko patra likhne ya virodh, ki kaaryakartaaon dvaara jab ve koi anya saadhan parivartan ke ve chaahati hai ki is tarah ke prabhaav hoga vishvaas prayog kiya jaata hai naheen vipreet ek raajaneetik rananeeti hai. is badlaav ko itni buri tarah se asafalata hai ki naagrikon ki maut se bhi badatar ek parinaam ke roop mein dekha jaata hai vaanchhit hai. yeh aksar hota hai, jahaan aapasi ke beech aatankvaad aur dharm (terrorism and religion) hota hai. jab ek raajaneetik sangharsh ek ya "dhaarmik brahmaandeeya ke dhaanche mein" ekeekrut hai[11] is tarah ke ek pushtaini maatrubhoomi ya ijaraail aur yarooshalem jaise pavitra sthal ke niyantran se adhik ke roop mein sangharsh, raajaneetik lakshya (raashtravaad) mein asafal aadhyaatmik vifalta, ke saath baraabar ho jaata hai jo, ke liye atyant pratibaddh, apni khud ki mrutyu ya mrutyu se bhi badatar hai nirdosh naagrikon ki.

jaanboojhkar gair ka lakshyeekaran-ladaakon - yeh saamaanya hai ki aatankvaad ke vishisht prakruti apne jaanboojhkar aur vishisht chayan ka mein nihit hai aayojit kiya jaata hai naagrik (civilian)s seedhe lakshya ke roop mein.vishesh roop se, aaparaadhik iraade jab shishuon, bachchon, maataaon aur bujurgon, katl kar rahe hain ya ghaayal ho gaye aur buraai ke raaste mein daal dikhaaya gaya hai. bahut samay ki, aatankvaad ke shikaar logon kyonki ve dhamakiyon rahe hain, par naheen lakshit kar rahe hain kyonki ve vishisht "prateekon, upakaran, jaanvaron ya bhrasht praani" duniya ke ek vishesh drushya mein taai hai ki aatankvaadi ne kaha ki adhikaari ho rahe hain. unke peedit dar instilling ke aatankvaadiyon 'lakshya, ek darshak, ya anyatha unke aksar kattarpanthi dhaarmik aur raajaneetik samaapt hota hai accomplishing karne ke liye ek sandesh baahar nikal raha accomplishes.[12]

bhes - aatankvaadi lagbhag sada gair hone ka naatak-ladaakon, gair ke beech mein chhipa-ladaakon, ladna gair ke beech mein se-ladaakon aur jab ve kar sakte hain, gumaraah karne aur galat logon par hamle mein sarkaari sainikon bhadkaane, prayaas yeh hai ki sarkaar iske liye doshi thaharaaya ja sakta hai. jab ek dushman ek yoddha, shabd aatankvaad shaayad hi kabhi istemaal kiya jaata hai ke roop mein pahachaana jaata hai. is mein naaji sainik balon ne bandhakon ke janasanchaar sajaaeain, ke roop mein dviteeya vishv yuddh, lekin nishchit roop se maanavata ke viruddh aparaadhon ka gathan saamaanyat: aatankvaad ko bulaaya naheen kar rahe hain.

avaid ya anuchit - kuchh adhikaari (visheshakar sarkaar) aatankvaad ki paribhaasha haraameepan ya avaid ki ek kasauti jodein[13] kaarravaai ke beech ek "vaidh" sarkaar dvaara adhikrut bhed karne ke liye (aur is prakaar "") vaidh hai aur un vyaktiyon aur chhote samoohon sahit anya abhinetaaon, ke.is kasauti, ki anyatha aatankvaad ke taur par uchit naheen hoga kaaryon ka upayog aatankvaad par vichaar naheen kiya jaaega agar ve the sarkaar ko manjoori de di.agar yeh ek "" vaidh sarkaar dvaara adhikrut kiye gaye udaaharan ke liye, jo ek kaaran ke liye naagrik samarthan ko prabhaavit karne ke liye dijaain kiya gaya hai ek shahar hai, firebombing aatankvaad par vichaar naheen kiya jaaega.is kasauti svaabhaavik aur samasyaagrast hai saarvabhaumik sveekaar kiye jaate hain naheen hai, kyonki: yeh raajya aatankvaad (state terrorism) ke astitv se inkaar karte hain, ek hi kaarya kar sakte hain ya aatankvaad ke roop mein hai ki kya iske praayojan ek "vaidh" sarkaar ko pata hai ke aadhaar par vargeekrut kiya ja naheen sakte hain; "vaidhata" aur avaid ", ek sarkaar ya kisi anya; aur yeh aitihaasik sveekaar kiye jaate hain arth aur is shabd ka udgam se diverges ke pariprekshya ke aadhaar[14][15][16][17]par vyaktiprak rahe hain. is kasauti saarvabhaumik sveekaar kiye jaate hain naheen hai in kaaranon ke liye.shabd ka adhikaansh shabdakosh paribhaasha is kasauti shaamil naheen hain.

apamaanajanak ka upayog karein

is drushti se "aatankvaad" aur "" aatankvaadi (jo aatankvaad mein engages kisi ko) ek majaboot nakaaraatmak arth le jaana.in sharton aksar raajaneetik ke roop mein lebal ke roop mein kuchh abhinetaaon dvaara hinsa ya hinsa ki dhamaki ki ninda karne ke liye upayog kiya jaata hai, andhaadhundh, anaitik ya anuchit.un "aatankvaadiyon" lebal kabhi kabhi hi aisa hai aur aam taur par jaise anya vyanjanaapoorn shabd ya shabdon unki sthiti ke liye vishisht, ka upayog karein: alagaavavaadi, (separatist) svatantrata senaani, muktidaata, kraantikaari, (revolutionary) vigilante, (vigilante) ugravaadi, (militant)arddhasainik balon (paramilitary), gurilla, (guerrilla), vidrohi, (rebel), jehaadi ya mujaheddeen (mujaheddin), ke roop mein, khud ki pehchaan ya fedaayeen, (fedayeen) ya kisi bhi isi tarah ki anya bhaashaaon mein shabd ka arth.

yeh aage ki naitik aspashtata ke dvaara kaha gaya hai ki chaaron or aatankvaad jatil hai. savaal yeh hai ki kuchh aatank vaadiyon ki harkat, jaise ki katl jo ki kam mana jaata hai kuchh jagah par, lekin tattvajnya ne apni alag pratikraya jataae hai. David rodin ke anusaar utilitaariyn (utilitarian) tattvajnya ne yeh kha hai ki kuchh haadason main antaanvaad ki ghatna kam mani jaate hai achhe karmon ke saamane, yeh socha jaata hai ki utilitaarins jo ki aatakavaad ko duniya bhar main bhaadava nahi deta kiyon ki antak vaad chhote dar main ach naam kama lete hain lekin vah glat asar daldete hain jo ki kuchh aantakavaadiyon[18]main aa jaate hain gair-upayogi mein daarshanikon, Michael vaaljer (Michael Walzer) ki aatankvaad ka tark hamesha naitik drushti se galat hai lekin ek hi samay jo log aatankvaad mein naitik drushti se ek vishisht maamale mein uchit ho sakta hai lagi hui: jab "ek jaati ya samudaaya ko poora vinaash ke charam khatra hai aur vah swayam ki raksha kar sakte hain ek hi raasta chehare par hai jaanaboojh kar raha hai gair lakshyeekaran-ladaakon, to yeh naitik drushti se aisa karne ke liye hakdaar hai. "[18]

apni pustak "meinandar aatankvaad"Bruce hoffman mein likha tha adhyaaya ek: paribhaashit aatankvaad vah

shabd ka apamaanajanak konnotaashans is meinsab jud gaya kiya ja sakta hai sootr (aphorism), "ek aadmi hai aatankvaadi ek aur aadmi ki svatantrata senaani hai."is udaaharan hai jab ek samooh hai ki upayog karta hai sainya aniyamit (irregular military) tareekon ek ke ek sahayogi hai raajya (State) ek saajha dushman hai, lekin khilaaf baad mein raajya ke saath baahar aata hai aur iski poorv sahayogi ke khilaaf ek hi tareeke ka upayog karne ke liye shuroo hota hai. dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan [[malaayi people's anti Japani sena

malaayi people's anti Japani sena|malaayi logon ki virodhi Japani sena]] (Malayan People's Anti-Japanese Army) ke saath sambaddh tha, lekin british ke dauraan malaayi aapaatakaal (Malayan Emergency), apne uttaraadhikaari ke sadasyon ko malaayi daud liberation army (Malayan Races Liberation Army), braanded aatankvaadiyon ne british dvaara kiya gaya.[19][20]abhi haal hi mein ronaald Reagan aur anya ameriki prashaasan aksar soviyt sangh (Soviet Union),[21] ke khilaaf apni jang ke dauraan, ab tak bees saal baad jab Afghan purushon ki ek nai peedhi ke ve ek shaasan dvaara sthaapit hone ka kya anubhav ke khilaaf lad rahe hain Afghan mujaahideen (Afghan Mujahideen) svatantrata senaaniyon bulaaya mein videshi shaktiyon, unke hamlon George va. bush (George W. Bush).[22][23]dvaara aatankvaad ka lebal rahe hain. samooh aatankvaad ka aamtaur par ki vaidh sainya ya vaichaarik kaarravaai ko pratibinbit shabdon pasand aarop lagaaya.[24][25][26]aatankvaad ke shodhakarta professor Martin Rudner, otaava hai par Canada ke center khufiya aur suraksha stadeej ke nideshak agrani Carleton vishvavidyaalaya (Carleton University), "" raajaneetik ya anya vaichaarik lakshyon ke liye naagrikon ke khilaaf hamlon ke roop mein, aatankvaadi vaaradaaton ko paribhaashit aur chala jaata hai kehne ke liye par:

kuchh samooh, jab ek "mukti mein" sangharsh, shaamil pashchimi sarkaaron ya media dvaara aatankvaadiyon ko bulaaya gaya hai. baad mein, ye vahi vyakti, ke roop mein mukt raashtron ke netaaon, isi tarah ke sangathanon dvaara raajaneta kaha jaata hai. is ghatna ke do udaaharan ke hain Nobel shaanti puraskaar (Nobel Peace Prize) laureates Menachem shuroo (Menachem Begin) aur nelsan mandela.[27][28][29][30][31][32][33]

ki nikat sahayogi rahe hain kabhi kabhi raajyon, itihaas, sanskruti aur raajaneeti ke kaaranon ke liye, chaahe ek nishchit sangathan ke sadasyon ke aatankvaadiyon par asahamat ho sakte hain. kai varshon sanyukt raajya sarkaar ki kuchh shaakhaaon ke liye udaaharan ke liye is ke sadasyon ke lebal karne se inkaar kar diya aayarish Republican army (Irish Republican Army) (IRA) aatankvaadiyon ke roop mein, jabki yeh ek sanyukt raajya America 'kareebi sahayogiyon (Britain) ke khilaaf vidhiyon ka upayog kar raha tha ki Britain aatankvaadi hamlon ke roop mein braanded.is ke dvaara daala gaya tha Quinn vi. Robinson (Quinn v. Robinson) maamala.[34][35]

kai baar is shabd "aatankvaad" aur "ativaad (extremism)"Interchangeably upayog kiya jaata hai. haalaaainki, in donon ke beech ek mahatvapoorn antar hai. aatankvaad ko aavashyak roop se khatra hai ya adhiniyam ke shaareerik hinsa (violence).ativaad gair ka upayog shaamil hai-bhautik upakaranon raajaneetik ya vaichaarik samaapt hota hai ko praapt karne ke liye man ko gatisheel karne ke liye.udaaharan ke liye, al kaayada aatankvaad mein shaamil hai. is Irani kraanti 1979 ke ativaad ka ek maamala hai. ek vaishvik anusandhaan report ek samaaveshi world (2007) ki ugravaad ke dashakon mein aatankvaad ke mukaabale ek adhik gambhir khatra aane ke liye poses ho paata hai.

in aur anya kaaranon ke liye, media aautalets nishpakshata ke liye ek pratishtha ki raksha karne ke ichhuk atyant shabd ke apne upayog mein saavadhaani baratate hain.[36][37]

antararaashtreeya kaanoon mein paribhaasha

vahaaain rahe hain kai aatankvaad par antarraashtreeya sammelanon (International conventions on terrorism) kuchh alag paribhaasha ke saath.[38] united neshans samjhaute ke is abhaav ko gambhir samasya ke roop mein dekhta hai.[38]

aatankvaad ke prakaar

sanyukt raajya America mein 1975 ke basant, kaanoon pravartan sahaayak prashaasan (Law Enforcement Assistant Administration) mein raashtreeya salaahakaar samiti aaparaadhik nyaaya maanak aur lakshya par banaai. ek paaainch khandon ki samiti, is taask fors vikaar aur aatankvaad par dvaara is disha HHA koopar, nideshak ne taask fors staaf ke antargat utpaadit vikaar aur aatankvaad ke hakdaar tha.[39] chhah shreniyon mein is taask fors mein vargeekrut aatankvaad. hai

  • naagrik vikaar (Civil Disorders) - saamoohik hinsa ke ek firm ke saath dakhal shaanti (peace), suraksha (security) is samudaaya ka hai aur saamaanya kaamkaaj.
  • raajaneetik aatankvaad -- hinsak (Violent) aaparaadhik vyavahaar ko mukhya roop se utpann karne ke liye dijaain bhaya (fear) raajaneetik uddeshyon ke samudaaya, ya ise ka paryaapt khand mein, ke liye.
  • gair raajaneetik aatankvaad - ki aatankvaad ke uddeshya se naheen hai raajaneetik prayojanon par jo "sachet design banaane aur banaaye rakhane ke dar ke uchch star ke liye pradarshan balapoorvak (coercive) prayojanon, lekin ant vyaktigat ho ya saamoohik ek raajaneetik uddeshya ki praapti ke bajaae laabh. "
  • ardh aatankvaad - gatividhiyon aayog ke liye praasangik aparaadh (crime)s ka hinsa (violence) ki firm aur asli aatankvaad karne ke liye vidhi mein isi tarah ke hain, lekin jo fir bhi apne aavashyak ang ki kami hai. yeh ardh ka mukhya uddeshya naheen hai aatankvaadiyon mein aatank utpann karne ke liye tatkaal shikaar (victim) ke roop mein vaastavik aatankvaad ke maamale mein hai, lekin ardh aatankvaadi ko modalities aur asli aatankvaadi ki takaneekon ka upayog karta hai aur isi tarah ke nateeje aur pratikriya paida karti hai. udaaharan ke liye, bhaag aparaadhi (felon) jo leta hai bandhak (hostage)s ek ardh aatankvaadi, jinki un tareekon ke liye isi tarah ki hai ki aatankvaadi parantu jiska uddeshya kaafi alag hain asli.
  • seemit raajaneetik aatankvaad - praamaanik raajaneetik aatankvaad ek kraantikaari (revolutionary) drushtikon se hoti hai; seemit raajaneetik aatankvaad aatankvaad ki jo vaichaarik (ideological) ya raajaneetik uddeshyon ke liye pratibaddh hain, lekin jo ek saghan abhiyaan (campaign) ke raajya (State) ke niyantran par kabja karne ka hissa naheen hain kaarya karta hai "ke liye sandarbhit karta hai.
  • sarkaari ya raajya aatankvaad (State Terrorism) - "jaatiyon ko jinke niyam par aadhaarit hai sandarbh bhaya (fear) aur utpeedn (oppression) ki aatankvaad ya is tarah ke anupaat ke samaan tak pahuainchane. "yeh bhi karne ke liye ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya ja sakta hai sanrachanaatmak aatankvaad ke roop mein aatankvaadi vaaradaaton raajaneetik uddeshyon ki khoj mein sarkaaron dvaara kiye mote taur par, aksar apni videsh neeti ke bhaag ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya.

ek vishleshan ameriki khufiya ke liye taiyaar mein[40] chaar typologiyes ka ullekh kar rahe hain.

  • raashtravaadi-alagaavavaadi
  • dhaarmik kattarpanthi
  • nai dhaarmik
  • saamaajik kraantikaari

raajaneeti aur aatankvaad

aatankvaad hai vartamaan mein aur aitihaasik drushti se kiya gaya hai, duniya bhar ki raajaneeti mein ek mahatvapoorn mudda.aatankvaad donon ek faayda aur nuksaan, raajaneetik maahaul aur raajaneetik dal mein prashn ke aadhaar par kiya ja sakta hai. raajaneeti haal ke itihaas mein vibhinn chunaavon mein sabse mahatvapoorn mudda kar diya gaya hai. is mein 2008 sanyukt raajya America raashtrapati chunaav (2008 United States presidential election), Charlie black (Charlie Black), America ke raashtrapati ki ummeed karne ke liye ek varishth salaahakaar John mkkaan (John McCain) ek ne kaha Amreeki dharati par aatankvaadi hamle apne abhiyaan ke liye ek "bada faayda" kiya jaaega.[41]

lokatantr aur ghareloo aatankvaad

ghareloo aatankvaad aur lokatantr ke beech ka rishta jatil hai. anusandhaan ki is tarah ke aatankvaad ko sabse jaatiyon mein madhyavarti raajaneetik svatantrata ke saath saamaanya hai aur pata chalta hai ki kam se kam aatankvaad ke saath is desh desh ke sabse lokataantrik desh desh ke hain.[42][43][44][45] haalaanki, ek adhyayan se pata chala ki aatmaghaati aatankvaad ke is saamaanya niyam ko ek apavaad ho sakti hai. saboot aatankvaad ke is vishesh vidhi ke sambandh mein hai ki har aadhunik aatmahatya abhiyaan ek lokatantr-raajaneetik svatantrata ka ek kaafi degree ke saath ek raajya lakshit kiya hai pata chalta hai. is adhyayan se pata chala ki riyaayatein aatankvaadiyon ke liye 80 aur 90s aatmaghaati hamlon ke liye ke dauraan unki baaranbaarata mein vruddhi se sammaanit kiya gaya hai.[46]

gair mein "aatankvaad"-lokatantr ke kuchh udaaharan Francisco freinko (Francisco Franco) ke antargat hai, shining path (Shining Path) peroo mein alberato fujeemori (Alberto Fujimori) ke antargat hai, kurdistaan workers (Kurdistan Workers Party) party, jab Turkey dakshin Africa mein sainya netaaon aur ANC (ANC) ne is par raaj kiya ETA (ETA) Spain mein shaamil hain. is jaise lokatantr sanyukt raajya America, ijraail aur fileepins bhi ghareloo aatankvaad anubhavi hai.

jabki ek lokataantrik raashtra anya shaasanon, is tarah ke ek raajya ke bheetar aatankvaad ke ek adhiniyam ki tulana mein uchch naitik jameen ki bhaavana ka daava May naagrik svatantrataaon espousing ek kathit duvidha kaaran ho sakta hai: ki kya aur iske naagrik svatantrata banaae rakhane ke liye is prakaar se nipatne mein nishprabhaavi maana ja raha jokhim samasya; ya vaikalpik roop se aur iske naagrik svatantrataaon ko pratibandhit karne ke liye is prakaar naagrik svatantrataaon ka samarthan karne ke apne daave jokhim.uthaaya is duvidha, kuchh saamaajik siddhaanton, bahut achha abhinay aatankvaadi (s ki praarambhik yojanaaon mein) khel sakte hain; arthaat, raajya delegitimije ko samaapt hogi.[47]

perpetrators

aatankvaad ke adhiniymon ke vyaktiyon, samoohon, ya raajyon dvaara chalaaya ja sakta hai. kuchh paribhaashaaeain, gupt ya arddh gupt raajya abhinetaaon ke liye bhi yuddh ke ek raajya ke dhaanche ke baahar aatankvaadi vaaradaaton se baahar le jaana May anusaar.haalaanki, aatankvaad ka sabse saamaanya chhavi hai ki yeh chhote aur gupt koshikaaon (cells) dvaara, uchch ek vishesh kaaran seva karne ke liye aur sabse ghaatak aapareshanon ke ke roop mein haal ke dinon, aise mein kai prerit 9/ 11, (9/11) London bhoomigat bam visfot, (London underground bombing) aur kiya jaata hai 2002 ke baali bam visfot ki yojana banaai rahe the aur kareeb ek gut, kareebi doston, parivaar ke sadasyon aur anya majaboot saamaajik network se bana dvaara chalaaya. in samoohon ki jaankaari aur kushal ke mukt pravaah se laabhaanvit doorasanchaar safalta haasil karne ke liye jahaaain doosaron ko asafal raha tha.[48] pichhle kuchh varshon mein kai logon ko ek saath aane ki koshish ki hai aatankvaadi profaail (terrorist profile) unke manovijnyaaan aur saamaajik paristhitiyon ke maadhyam se in vyaktiyon 'kaarravaai ki vyaakhya karne ka prayaas karne ke liye.roderichk hinderi jaise doosare, is prachaar rananeeti aatankvaadiyon dvaara upayog mein profaail vichaar karne ke liye maangi hai.

aatankvaadi samoohon

raajya praayojak

ek raajya ke vitt poshan ya ek aatankvaadi sangathan madad dvaara aatankvaad ko praayojit kar sakte hain. jo karne ke liye hinsa ke raajyon dvaara krutya ke roop mein vichaar raajya se milkar ya aatankvaad praayojit naheen vyaapak roop se badalti hain. jab raajyon samoohon kuchh aatankvaadi hone dvaara vichaar ke liye dhan upalabdh karaate hain, ve kabhi kabhi hi jaise unhein sveekaar karte hain.

raajya aatankvaad

raajya aatankvaad ki avadhaarana vivaadaaspad hai[49].raajyon dvaara sainya kaarravaai ke dauraan yuddh aam taur par aatankvaad, tab bhi jab ve mahatvapoorn naagrik hataahat shaamil vichaar naheen kar rahe hain. adhyaksh ne sanyukt raashtra kaauntar ke aatankvaad samiti ka maanana hai ki is samiti is vishay par 12 antararaashtreeya samjhauton ke prati jaagruk kiya gaya hain aur unamein se koi bhi naheen hai jo ek antararaashtreeya kaanooni avadhaarana naheen thi raajya aatankvaad, ko bheja.yadi raajyon ko unki satta ka durupayog, ve antararaashtreeya sammelanon se nipatne ke khilaaf nyaaya kiya jaana chaahiye yuddh aparaadhon (war crimes), antararaashtreeya maanav adhikaar aur antarraashtreeya maanaveeya kaanoon (international humanitarian law).[4]poorv sanyukt raashtramahaasachiv (Secretary-General)kofi annaan ki yeh "kathit par bahas alag set karne ke liye samay hai ne kaha hai ki raajya ke aatankvaad '.is raajyon dvaara bal ka prayog (use of force by states) pehle se hi poori tarah antararaashtreeya kaanoon ke tahat "viniymit hai[50] haalaanki, unhonne yeh bhi kaha ki, "... chaahe aatankvaad ki paribhaasha ke prashn par sarkaaron ke beech ke antar ke, kya hai aur spasht hai ham sab par kya sahamat kar sakte hain spasht kar diya nirdosh naagrikon par kisi bhi vichaar par hamla, chaahe ek ke kaaran ki hai, hai asveekaarya hai aur aatankvaad ki paribhaasha mein ho gaya. "[51]

raajya aatankvaad sarkaari agenton ya balon dvaara aatankvaadi vaaradaaton ka ullekh karne ke liye prayog kiya gaya hai. is raajya ke sansaadhanon ka ek raajya ke videshi neetiyon, dvaara aise ne apni sainya ka upayog karke seedhe raajya aatankvaad maana ke adhiniymon ke pradarshan karne ke roop mein rojagaar ke istemaal ko shaamil.raajaneeti vigyaan ke professor, Michael Stohl hai ki London ki Germany ki bamabaari aur America parmaanu vinaash ke shaamil hain udaaharan cites hiroshima dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan. unhonne kaha ki aatank rananeeti ka istemaal antararaashtreeya sambandhon mein aur aam baat hai ki raajya ki gayi hai aur aatankvaad ki ek aur adhik sambhaavana bani hui hai niyokta vidrohiyon se antararaashtreeya vyavastha ke bheetar ka tark hai. "ve bhi adaalat mein talab pehli hadtaal (First strike) "sankat prabandhan mein parmaanu hathiyaaron ka prayog kar ke garbhit dhamaki ke saath is ka jo" bandhak duniya dhaaran ek roop hai, ke roop mein balapoorvak dipolomacy ke "aatank ka ek udaaharan ke roop mein vikalp", '. "ve kehte hain ki aatankvaad ke sansthaagat roop hai ki vishv yuddh daalooainga nimnalikhit jagah le li parivartan ka ek parinaam ke roop mein hui bahas hai. is vishleshan, raajya aatankvaad ko videsh neeti ke ek firm ke roop mein pradarshit mein upasthiti aur saamoohik vinaash ke astron ka istemaal karke aur aakaar ka tha ki is raajya ke vyavahaar ke teji se badhte sveekaar kiye jaate hain firm ka netrutv karne ke liye is tarah ki hinsak vyavahaar ki legitimizing.(Michael stohl, "is maha shakti aur antarraashtreeya aatank" kaagaj par prastut ki international stadeej association, Atlanta, 27 March ki baithak vaarshik-1 April 1984; "bhayaanak dheeraj se pare?videsh neeti raajya aatankvaad ki. "1988; raajya aatankvaadi ke roop mein: gatisheelata sarkaari hinsa aur daman, 1984 P49).

raajya aatankvaad ko bhi sarkaari agenton ya balon, ne shaanti samay kriyaaon ka varnan karne ke liye is bam visfot ke is tarah ke roop mein prayog kiya gaya hai hai pain hooain udaan 103 ki udaan (Pan Am Flight 103 flight).is avadhaarana ko bhi varnan karne ke liye prayog kiya jaata hai raajaneetik daman (political repression)s sarkaaron dvaara apne swayam ke naagrik aabaadi ke khilaaf is uddeshya ke saath dar uttejit karne ke liye.udaaharan ke liye, le ja rahi hai aur naagrik kriyaanvit bandhak (hostage)s ya ekshtrjudukial unmoolan (extrjuducial elimination) abhiyaan saamaanyat: "aatank" maana jaata hai ya aatankvaad, udaaharan ke liye ke dauraan laal aatank (Red Terror) ya mahaan aatank (Great Terror)[41].is tarah ke kaaryon aksar bhi roop mein varnit hain demoside (democide) jo raajya aatankvaad ke baraabar hone ka tark diya gaya hai[52] is hai ki lokatantr chhoti demoside hai paaya hai par anubhavajanya adhyayan karta hai.[53][54]

rananeeti

aatankvaad ka ek roop hai asamamit yuddh (asymmetric warfare) aur adhik jab seedhe aam hai paaramparik yuddh pranaali (conventional warfare) ya to (bhinnata ke liye upalabdh balon mein) ya kaaran naheen kiya ja sakta hai ki neeche ke sangharsh ko hal karne ke liye istemaal naheen kiya ja raha hai.

jismein aatankvaadi rananeeti ka upayog kiya jaata hai ki sandarbh se hai aksar ek bade paimaane par, anasulajhe raajanaitik sangharsh (conflict).sangharsh ke is prakaar vyaapak roop se badalti hai; aitihaasik udaaharanon mein shaamil hain:

  • alagaav (Secession) ek kshetr ki ek nai samprabhu raajya banaane ke liye
  • prabhutv kshetr ya sansaadhanon ke dvaara vibhinn jaateeya samoohon (ethnic groups)
  • sarkaar ka ek vishesh roop hai, ka aaropan jaise lokatantr, dharmatantr, ya araajakata
  • ek janasankhya ka aarthik haani
  • ek ghareloo sarkaar ya kabje mein karne ke liye vipaksh sena

aatankvaadi hamlon mein aksar dar aur prachaar ko adhiktam karne ke liye lakshit kar rahe hain. ve aamtaur par upayog visfotak (explosives) ya jhar (poison) hai, lekin vahaan bhi aatankvaadi hamlon ka upayog karne ke baare mein chinta ka vishay hai saamoohik vinaash ke astron (weapons of mass destruction).aatankvaadi sangathanon ko agrim mein aamtaur par vidhipoorvak yojana hamlon aur pratibhaagiyon train May, sanyantr "mukhaute" agenton aur samarthakon ke maadhyam se ya fir se paise jutaane sangathit aparaadh (organized crime).aadhunik sanchaar ke maadhyam se ho sakta hai doorasanchaarapuraane faishan vidhiyon, ya ke maadhyam se jaise kooriyr (courier) S

kaaran

kai rai aatankvaad ke kaaranon ke vishay mein maujood hain.[55][56]ve se range janaankikeeya (demographic) ko saamaajik (socioeconomic) raajaneetik kaaranon ke liye.janaankikeeya kaarakon aur bheed uchch vikaas dar shaamil ho sakte hain. saamaajik kaarakon gareebi, berojgaari aur bhoomi kaaryakaal samasyaaon shaamil ho sakte hain. raajanaitik kaarak shaamil ho sakte hain diseinfranchisemeint (disenfranchisement), jaateeya sangharsh (ethnic conflict), dhaarmik sangharsh (religious conflict), praadeshik sangharsh (territorial conflict), sansaadhan, ya bhi badla lene ka upayog karne ke liye.

kaarak hai ki May ko yogadaan aatankvaad karne ke liyejisne diya

kuchh maamalon mein, ek aatankvaadi hamle ke liye tark anishchit ho sakti hai (jiske liye koi samooh ya vyaktigat jimmedaari ka daava hai) ya kisi bhi bade paimaane par saamaajik sangharsh karne ke liye asanbandhit (jaise kai hamlon mein ke roop mein is tokyo metro par sareen gas hamle (Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway) ke dvaara Om shinrikyo (Aum Shinrikyo)).

ek vaishvik anusandhaan report ek samaaveshi duniya sabhi mahaadveepon se shodhakartaaon ki ek antararaashtreeya team ne taiyaar ki vartamaan din aatankvaad ke kaaranon ka vishleshan kiya hai. yeh nishkarsh tak pahuainch gaya hai ki jaise duniya bhar mein aatankvaad ke kaarya 1 aarthik baajaar.vahaaain maang ke liye hai aatankvaadiyon (terrorists) dvaara rakha laalach (greed) ya shikaayaton.poorti (Supply) rishtedaar vanchit tripl ghaate mein jiske parinaamasvaroop dvaara chaalit hai - vikaas ghaata (deficit), lokataantrik ghaate aur garima ghaata.aatankvaad ke adhiniymon ki aapoorti aur maang ke beech pratichhedan ke bindu par jagah le lo.un logon ne maang ka upayog daal dharm aur anya denominators ke roop mein un vaahanon ki aapoorti ki or se sambandh sthaapit karne ke liye.is paitarn sabhi paristhitiyon se lekar mein manaaya ja sakta hai kolambiya (Colombia) ko Colombo aur fileepins is karne ke liye fileesteen.

aatankvaad ko javaab

chitr:Armykashmir.jpg
bhaarateeya sena (Indian Army) karmiyon ke dauraan ek khade guard ud jaana islaami aatankvaadiyon ke saath shreenagar, Bhaarat.

pratikriyaaon ko aatankvaad ke daayare mein vyaapak rahe hain. ve is ke fir se alignments shaamil kar sakte hain raajaneetik spectrum (political spectrum) aur reassessments ki maulik moolyon (fundamental values).shabd aatankvaad, ki yeh aatankvaadi abhinetaaon mein nirdeshit hai implying ek sankara abhidhaan diya hai.

pratikriyaaon ke vishisht prakaar mein shaamil hain:

  • lakshit kaanoon, aaparaadhik prakriya, bheja gaya, aur badhaaya police shaktiyaaain
  • is tarah ke darvaaje par taala laga ya yaataayaat baadhaaon ke roop mein jodne ka lakshya sakht ho,
  • agrakaya ya pratikriyaasheel sainya kaarravaai
  • agrakaya ya pratikriyaasheel sainya kaarravaai
  • agrakaya maanaveeya gatividhiyon
  • aur adhik dayaalu poochh-taachh aur nirodh neetiyon
  • ek vaidh upakaran ke roop mein yaatana ke aadhikaarik sveekruti

maas media

media jokhim un aatankvaad se baahar le jaane ka praathamik lakshya hai, muddon ki anyatha media ne najaraandaaj kar diya jaaega benakaab karne ke liye kiya ja sakta hai. kuchh herafer aur shoshan ko media ke liye is par vichaar karein.[57]doosaron, ek ko dekhne ke dvaara vyakt ki hi hai jo anyatha vaikalpik drushtikon karne ke liye aavaaj dena naheen hai ek uchch niyantrit maas media, ka ek lakshan ho karne ke liye aatankvaad par vichaar paul Watson (Paul Watson) jo kyonki "kya aap kisi anya tareeke se bhar mein aapki jaankaari naheen mil sakta hai ki niyantrit media aatankvaad ke liye," jimmedaar hai kaha gaya hai. paul Watson ka sangathan samudra Shepherd (Sea Shepherd) swayam kiya gaya "braanded haipaaristhitiki aatankvaadi (eco-terrorist)", haalaanki yeh daava hai ki koi bhi hataahat kaaran naheen hai.

is maas media aksar aage aur aatankvaad ko hatotsaahit karne ke liye sangathanon ko aatankvaad mein sv (ke maadhyam se-sanyam ya viniyman) shaamil censor kareinge.baharahaal, is sangathanon aatankvaad ke janasanchaar maadhyamon mein dikhaaye jaane ke liye aur adhik ativaadi krutyon ka paalan karne ke liye protsaahit kar sakte hain.


is mausam andaragraaund (Weather Underground) jo hai, jabki koi hataahat kaaran, vibhinn duniya raajaneetik muddon ke liye media ka dhyaan laane ke liye aatankvaadi vaaradaaton ka pradarshan ek ugravaadi sangathan America gaya tha. is mudde se kai sankshipt diye gaye samaachaar sevaaon dvaara aatankvaadi vaaradaaton ke sambandh mein hi ullekh hai.

itihaas

aadhunik angreji shabd "aatankvaad" vaapas 1795 ko jab yeh logon ke kaaryon ka varnan karne ke liye istemaal kiya gaya tha tithiyaaain jekobeen club (Jacobin Club) baad ke unke shaasan mein kraantikaari France, tathaakathit "raajya aatank ka (Reign of Terror)".

inhein bhi dekhein

aage padhne

  • Köachler, hans (Köachler, Hans) (ed.), aatankvaad aur national liberation.kaaryavaahi ke antarraashtreeya sammelan ke aatankvaad ke savaal par.frainkafart a.M. / barn / New York: Peter laing, 1988, ISBN 3-8204-1217-4
  • Köachler, hans. Manila vyaakhyaanon 2002.aatankvaad aur kvest ek bas vishv vyavastha ke liye.kuejon sher (Manila): FSJ book vishv, 2002, ISBN 0-9710791-2-9
  • laakuyoor, vaaltar. jang ka koi ant naheen - aatankvaad 21 veen sadi mein, New York, 2003, ISBN 0-8264-1435-4
  • lernar, beranda vilmoth & ke.H. li Lerner, eds. aatankvaad: anivaarya praathamik sootron ka kehna hai.thaumasan hava ka jhonka, 2006.ISBN 978-1-4144-0621-3 pustakaalaya Congress ki.Jefferson ya edams Bldg general ya kshetr ke adhyayan reeding Rms LC niyantran sankhya: 2005024002.
  • liyeberman, David M. aatankvaadi se kraantikaari saurt: America ke pratyarpan maamale mein "raajaneetik apamaan" apavaad ke naajuk anuprayog, stainaford law ki sameeksha, khand 59, ank 1, 2006, peepi.181-211
  • sung, layal S (Sunga, Lyal S.), America ke aatankvaad virodhi neeti aur Asia ke vikalp, johannein, smith aur gomej mein, (eds.)11 September aur raajaneetik svatantrata: Asiaee pariprekshya (chunein) (2002) 242-264.
  • Charles tilli (Charles Tilly), aatank, aatankvaad, aatankvaadi samaajashaastreeya siddhaant (2004) 22, 5-13 mein online
  • isaai badar, "aatank todesstrafe, tabboo und maro", VDM-verlag, Saarbrüasakein, 2008, ISBN 978-3-8364-5163-5

sanyukt raashtra ke sammelanon

  • sanyukt raashtra: aatankvaad par sammelanon
  • sanyukt raashtra kaaryaalaya davaaon aur aparaadh par (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime): "yahaaain 12 pramukh bahupaksheeya samjhauton aur protokaul raajyon 'jimmedaariyon se sambandhit aatankvaad ka mukaabala karne ke liye kar rahe hain. lekin kai raajyon ko abhi tak in kaanooni upakaranon ke liye party, ya kar rahe hain abhi tak unhein laagoo karne naheen naheen hain. "

samaachaar nigraani aatankvaad par lekh par visheshajnyaata websiton

kaagaj aur lekh vaishvik aatankvaad

khufiya aur aatankvaad soochana kendra-www.terrorism-info.org.il

kaagaj aur aatankvaad aur sanyukt raajya America par lekh

kaagaj aur aatankvaad aur ijaraail par lekh

anya

  • ke baare mein kssaam -saderot media center
  • svarg jahar: larning sangharsh, vikaas aur aatankvaad ke baare mein Sri Lanka ke naagar yuddhon se ke dvaara John Richardson (John Richardson)
  • hathiyaar saamoohik vinaash keke ontologiyes auraatankvaad
  • is bhaarateeya Supreme court apnaaya Alex se pi schmid 's (Alex P. Schmid's) aatankvaad ke ek 2003 sattaaroodh (madan Singh banaam Bihar raajya) mein aatankvaad ki paribhaasha, "defin [ing] krutyon yuddh aparaadhon ke veritaabli ke roop mein 'shaanti ke samakaksh.'"[61]
  • Jack achha (Jack Goody)kya ek aatankvaadi hai?mein prakaashit: patrika itihaas aur maanav shaastr, khand 13, ank 2 2002, prushth 139 - 142 DOI: 10.1080/0275720022000001219
  • schmid (Schmid) aur jongman (1988): "aatankvaad ek chinta-doharaaya hinsak kaarravaai ke preranaadaayak vidhi, (ardh, aaparaadhik vishesh svabhaav ka, ya fir raajaneetik kaaranon se, ke liye) gupt vyakti, samooh, ya raajya abhinetaaon, dvaara niyojit hai jisse hatya ke vipreet - mein - hinsa ka seedha nishaana mukhya lakshya naheen hain. tatkaal peediton ko maanaveeya hinsa aam taur par bina kisi kram ke avsar (lakshya) ya chun liya ek lakshya janasankhya se (pratinidhi ya prateekaatmak lakshyon), chune jaate hain kar rahe hain aur sandesh generator ke roop mein seva karte hain. khatra aur hinsa-aatankvaadi (sangathan ke beech aadhaarit sanchaar prakriyaaon), () aur peediton imperiled mukhya lakshya (darshakon (on) ka mukhya lakshya mein herafer karne ke liye upayog kar rahe hain, aatank ka ek lakshya, maangon ka ek lakshya, ya mein badal ek par ki kya dhamaki, balaatkaar, ya prachaar mukhyat: "maangi hai nirbhar dhyaan ke lakshya,.[62]
  • karmachaariAmerica aatankvaad America mein ek hinsa ko badhaava diya, samarthit vishvakosh "par aur donon ameriki sarkaar aur laitin America mein apne karmachaariyon dvaara kiye

sandarbh

  1. "antararaashtreeya aatankvaadi ghatnaaon, America 2001" dvaara vibhaag raajya Department of State)
  2. Hoffman, brus "andar aatankvaad"Columbia vishvavidyaalaya press 1998 ISBN 0-231-11468-0.prushth 32.is sameeksha mein dekhein New York timesandar aatankvaad
  3. dau॰ Jeffrey rikaard, aatankvaad ke khilaaf vaishvik yuddh Bounding(PDF)
  4. "Terrorism". Encyclopæadia Britannica. pp. 3. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9071797. abhigman tithi: 2006-08-11.
  5. efaem 100-20, sainya sanchaalan kam teevrata sangharsh mein 5 December 1990; aur sanyukt pub 1-02, raksha vibhaag shabdakosh sainya aur associated shartein, 12 April 2001 ke ki, ke roop mein sanshodhan ke maadhyam se 9 June 2004.
  6. Cambridge international dikshanari angreji
  7. shabdakosh .com
  8. online vyutpatti ki dikshanari
  9. a aa rodin, David (2006).aatankvaad E. kreg (Ed.) mein, rautledgevishvakosh darshanashaastr ki.London: rautledge
  10. malaayi logon ki virodhi Japani sena britaanika sankshipt
  11. dau॰ kris Clark ', 16 June, 2003
  12. ronaald Reagan, raashtreeya roodhivaadi raajaneetik kaarravaai karne ke liye bhaashan sammelan8 March, 1985.is par spartaachus shaikshik (Spartacus Educational) web site
  13. raashtrapati ko poora Afghan antarim praadhikran ke adhyaksh ke saath
  14. raashtrapati charcha pragati yuddh mein aatankvaad par raashtreeya guard ke liyewhite house (White House) web site February 9, 2006
  15. sudha Ramchandran Iraq mein pahiya peechhe mautAsiaee times (Asian Times), 12 November2004, "vidrohi guton ki upayog aatmaghaati hamle isliye unke hamlon pasand naheen hai aatmaghaati aatankvaad ke roop mein varnit kiya jaana hai. ve "shaheed ..." jaise shabdon ka upayog karna pasand karte hain
  16. Alex peri kitna tip karne ke liye aatankvaadi?time patrika (Time Magazine), sitmbar 26 (September 26), 2005."is tamil taaigars, zaroor hai ki taig vivaad hota.anya gurillaaon aur aatmaghaati hamlaavaron ki tarah, ve "svatantrata senaaniyon ki avadhi ko pasand karte hain."
  17. aatankvaad: avadhaaranaaon, kaaran hota hai aur sangharsh resolushan George mesan vishvavidyaalaya (George Mason University)sansthaan sangharsh vishleshan aur sankalp ke liye (Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution), mudrit ko suraksha khatra katauti agency, kile Belvoir, varjeeniya, January 2003 tak
  18. thiodor pi. seto aatankvaad ki naitikta is mein ek soochi bhi shaamil hain baar (Times) par prakaashit July 23 (July 23)1946 jo un iragun dvaara shuroo karo ek pramukh sadasya hai jo shuroo kiya gaya tha sahit yahoodi aatankvaadi kaarravaaiyon, ke roop mein varnit kiya gaya
  19. BBC khabar : profaail: menaachem shuroo shuroo ke aadesh ke tahat BBC website ", bhoomigat aatankvaadi samooh iragun hinsa ke anek kaarya karta kiya."
  20. Iqbal Ahmad "aatankvaad par seedhe baat"maasik sameeksha (Monthly Review), January, 2002. "menaachem shuroo sahit, poster kah" talaash hai "mein dikhne," aatankvaadiyon, yeh bahut kuchh inaam. "mainne dekha ki peshakash ki menaachem shuroo ke sir ke liye 100000 british pound "kiya gaya hai yeh uchchatam puraskaar
  21. samaachaar: duniya madhyapoorv: sheron ki viraasat shaanti shaamil naheen haiBBC ki website "eriyl sheraun menaachem shuroo karo, ek aur yoddha ki tulana mein kiya jaaega, jo seenai chhod diya aur misr ke saath shaanti banaae raajaneta bane."
  22. yahova Desai hansard, sabha yahova ki 3 September 1998: column 72, "haalaanki, jomo Kenyatta, nelsan mandela aur menaachem shuroo karo - bas teen udaaharan dene ke liye - sabhi aatankvaadiyon ke roop mein ki ninda ki gayi, lekin apne sabhi deshon aur United Kingdom ke achhe dost ke raajaneetik netaaon ke safal saabit hui."
  23. BBC samaachaar: World: America: sanyukt raashtra sudhaaron mishrit pratikriya praapt haal ke dinon mein sabhi samoohon ko sakriya roop se BBC ki website ", is ANC shaayad sabse achha sashastr sangharsh ki paaramparik dichotomous drushtikon ka pratinidhitv karta hai. ek baar ek aatankvaadi samooh ke roop mein pashchimi sarkaaron ne maana, yeh ab, nelsan mandela ek duniya ki sahi maayane mein iconic aankadon ke saath dakshin Africa ke vaidh, nirvaachit sarkaar banaata hai. "
  24. BBC samaachaar: vishv Africa: profaail: nelsan mandela BBC ki website "nelsan mandela" ek duniya ki sabse pratishthit raajaneta ki bani hui hai
  25. Quinn vi. Robinson (pdf), 783 F2d. 776 (9 Cir. 1986)(PDF), ne ki web site Syracuse university college kaanoon ka (Syracuse University College of Law)
  26. prushth 17, uttari Ireland: TP, ti, S 11 (PDF) raani ke vishvavidyaalaya belafaast (Queen's University Belfast) law school
  27. a aa
  28. vikaaron aur aatankvaad, raashtreeya salaahakaar samiti aaparaadhik nyaaya maanak aur lakshya (Washington deesi: 1976) par
  29. hadasan, reks A kaun ek aatankvaadi aur kyon:ki 1999 ke sarkaar ki report ki rooparekha aatankvaadiyon par, Federal anusandhaan prabhaag, is lyons press, 2002
  30. a aa sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Black" defined multiple times with different content
  31. paape, Robert A "rananeetik tark aatmaghaati hamlon ki, "America ke raajaneetik vigyaan ki sameeksha, 2003. 97 (3): peepi.1-19.
  32. , shabd goldi aur Francisco jos llera raamo ."raajaneetik hinsa ek lokataantrik raajya mein," aatankvaad ke sandarbh mein.Ed. maratha kreinshaav .vishvavidyaalaya park: pensilveniya raajya vishvavidyaalaya, 1995. pp467.
  33. sageman, mark.2004 "saamaajik network aur jihaad".filaadelfiya: vishvavidyaalaya penasilveniya ke press.CH. 5 peepi.166-167
  34. saarvajanik vitran pranaali ke Sso
  35. http://newamerica.net/publications/articles/2005/the_legal_debate_is_over_terrorism_is_a_war_crime
  36. kofi annaan aur efaem kamal kharraaji ke saath patrakaar sammelan
  37. maut se sarkaar RJ rummel nai brunsvikk, NJ: gatividhi prakaashak, 1994 tak.online link: [1][2][3]
  38. koi sabak ko sarvanaash se seekha?, baarbara harff, 2003.
  39. media aur aatankvaad: ek pun: paul vilkinsan (Paul Wilkinson).aatankvaad aur raajaneetik hinsa, Vol.9, No.2 (greeshmakaaleen 1997), pp.51-64 Frank Cass, London ne prakaashit kiya hai.
  40. seemaavarti: al kaayada ke nae morche | PBS
  41. seemaavarti: al kaayada ke nae morche: al kaayada aaj | PBS
  42. seemaavarti: ke bheetar dushman: nai vaastavikta: us aadmi ko door kar diya | PBS
  43. http://www.sacw.net/hrights/judgementjehanabad.doc
  44. . adhik vistrut jaankaari ke liye, dekhein: schmid, jongman eight al. raajaneetik aatankvaad: kalaakaaron, lekhakon, avadhaaranaaon, data base, siddhaanton ke liye ek nai guide hai aur saahitya.emstardam: North haulaind, traanjekshan pustakein, 1988.

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aatankvaad ko vikshanari,
ek mukt shabdakosh mein dekhein.