aashram

praacheen kaal mein saamaajik vyavastha ke do stambh the - varn aur aashram. manushya ki prakruti-gun, karm aur svabhaav-ke aadhaar par maanavamaatr ka vargeekaran chaar varno mein hua tha. vyaktigat sanskaar ke liye uske jeevan ka vibhaajan chaar aashramon mein kiya gaya tha. ye chaar aashram the-

(1) brahmacharya, (2) gaarhasthya, (3) vaanaprasth aur (4) sannyaas.

amarakosh (7.4) par teeka karte hue bhaanu ji Dixit ne 'aashram' shabd ki vyaakhya is prakaar ki hai: aashraamyantyatr. anen va. shramu tapasi. ghanya‌aa. yadva aa samantaachhramoऽtr. svadharmasaadhanakleshaat‌. arthaat‌ jismein smyak‌ prakaar se shram kiya jaae vah aashram hai athva aashram jeevan ki vah sthiti hai jismein kartavyapaalan ke liye poorn parishram kiya jaae. aashram ka arth 'avasthaavishesh' 'vishraam ka sthaan', 'rishimuniyon ke rahane ka pavitra sthaan' aadi bhi kiya gaya hai.

aashramasanstha ka praadurbhaav vaidik yug mein ho chuka tha, kintu uske viksit aur drudh hone mein kaafi samay laga. vaidik saahitya mein brahmacharya aur gaarhasthya athva gaarhapatya ka svatantr vikaas ka ullekh naheen milta. in donon ka sanyukt astitv bahut dinon tak bana raha aur inko vaikhaanas, parvraaaait, yati, muni, shraman aadi se abhihit kiya jaata tha. vaidik kaal mein karm tatha karmakaand ki pradhaanata hone ke kaaran nivruttimaarg athva sannyaas ko vishesh protsaahan naheen tha. vaidik saahitya ke antim charan upanishdon mein nivrutti aur sannyaas par jor diya jaane laga aur yeh sveekaar kar liya gaya tha ki jis samay jeevan mein utkat vairaagya utpann ho us samay se vairaagya se prerit hokar sannyaas grahan kiya ja sakta hai. fir bhi sannyaas athva shraman dharm ke prati upeksha aur anaastha ka bhaav tha.

sutrayug mein chaar aashramon ki parignana hone lagi thi, yadyapi unke naamakram mein ab bhi matabhed tha. aapastanb dharmasootr (2.9.21.1) ke anusaar gaarhasthya, aachaaryakul (=brahmacharya), maun tatha vaanaprasth chaar aashram the. gautamadharmasootr (3.2) mein brahmachaari, gruhasth, bhikshu aur vaikhaanas chaar aashram batalaae gaye hain. vasishthadharmasootr (7.1.2) mein gruhasth, brahmachaari, vaanaprasth tatha parvraaaaijk, in chaar aashramon ka varnan kiya hai, kintu aashram ki uttpati ke sambandh mein batalaaya hai ki antim do aashramon ka bhed prahlaad ke putr Kapil naamak asur ne isliye kiya tha ki devataaon ko yajnyaon ka praapya ansh na mile aur ve durbal ho jaaeain (6.29.31). iska sambhavat: yeh arth ho sakta hai ki kaayakleshapradhaan nivruttimaarg pehle asuron mein prachalit tha aur aaryo ne unase is maarg ko anshat: grahan kiya, parantu fir bhi ye aashram unako poore pansad aur graahya na the.

bauddh tatha jain sudhaarana ne aashram ka virodh naheen kiya, kintu pratham do aashramon-brahmacharya aur gaarhasthya-ki anivaaryata naheen sveekaar ki. iske falasvaroop muni athva yativrutti ko bada protsaahan mila aur samaaj mein bhikshuon ki aganit vruddhi hui. isse samaaj to durbal hua hi, aparipkv sannyaas athva tyaag se bhrashtaachaar bhi badha. iski pratikriya aur pratisudhaaran E. poo. doosari sadi athva shungavansh ki sthaapana se hui. manu aadi smrutiyon mein aashramadharm ka poorn aagrah aur sanghatan dikhaai padta hai. poore aashramadharm ki pratishtha aur unke kram ki anivaaryata bhi sveekaar ki gayi. 'aashramaat‌ aashraman gachhet‌' arthaat‌ ek aashram se doosare aashram ko jaana chaahiye, is siddhaant ko manu ne drudh kar diya.

smrutiyon mein chaaron aashramon ke kartavyon ka vistrut varnan milta hai. manu ne maanav aayu saamaanyat: ek sau varsh ki maankar usako chaar baraabar bhaagon mein baanta hai. pratham chaturthaansh brahmacharya hai. is aashram mein gurukul mein rahakar brahmacharya ka paalan karna kartavya hai. iska mukhya uddeshya vidya ka upaarjan aur vraat ka anushthaan hai. manu ne brahmachaari ke jeevan aur uske kartavyon ka varnan vistaar ke saath kiya (adhyaaya 2, shlok 41-244). brahmacharya upanayan sanskaar ke saath praarambh aur samaavartan ke saath samaapt hota hai. iske pashchaat‌ vivaah karke munashya doosare aashram gaarhasthya mein pravesh karta hai. gaarhasthya samaaj ka aadhaar stambh hai. jis prakaar vaayu ke aashram se sabhi praani jeete hain usi prakaar gruhasth aashram ke sahaare anya sabhi aashram vartamaan rahate hain (manu. 377). is aashram mein manushya rishirin se ved se svaadhyaaya dvaara, devarin se yagya dvaara aur pitrurin se santaanotpatti dvaara mukt hota hai. isi prakaar nitya panchamahaayajnyaon-brahmayajnya, devayajnya, atithiyjnya tatha bhootayajnya-ke anushthaan dvaara vah samaaj evam sansaar ke prati apne kartavyon ka paalan karta hai. manusmrutti ke chaturth evam pancham adhyaaya mein gruhasth ke karttavyon ka vivechan paaya jaata hai. aayu ka doosra chaturthaash gaarhasthya mein bitaakar manushya jab dekhta hai ki uske sir ke baal safed ho rahe hain aur uske shareer par jhurriyaaain pad rahi hain tab vah jeevan ke teesare aashram-vaanaprasth-mein pravesh karta hai. (manu. 5, 169). nivrutti maarg ka yeh pratham charan hai. ismein tyaag ka aanshik paalan hota hai. manushya sakriya jeevan se door ho jaata hai, kintu uske gaarhasthya ka mool patni uske saath rahati hai aur vah yajnyaaadi gruhasthadharm ka anshat: paalan bhi karta hai. parantu sansaar ka kramash: tyaag aur yatidhrm ka praarambh ho jaata hai (manu.6). vaanaprasth ke anantar shaantachitt, paripakva vayavaale manushya ka paarvraaaaijya (sannyaas) praarambh hota hai. (manu.6,33). jaisa pehle likha gaya hai, pratham teen aashramon or unke karttavyon ke paalan ke pashchaat‌ hi manu sannyaas ki vyavastha karte hain: ek aashram se doosare aashram mein jaakar, jiteindriya ho, bhiksha (brahmacharya), balivaishvadev (gaarhasthya tatha vaanaprasth) aadi se vishraam paakar jo sannyaas grahan karta hai vah mrutyu ke uparaant moksh praapt kar apni (paaramaarthik) param unnati karta hai (manu.6,34). jo sab praaniyon ko abhaya dekar ghar se prvraajit hota hai us brahmavaadi ke tej se sab lok aalokit hote hain (manu. 6,39). ekaaki purush ko mukti milti hai, yeh samajhta hua sannyaasi siddhi ki praapti ke liye nitya bina kisi sahaayak ke akela hi bichre; is prakaar na vah kisi ko chhodta hai aur na kisi se chhoda jaata hai (manu. 6,42). kapaal (bhagn mitti ke bartan ke tukade) khaane ke liye, vrukshamool rahane ke liye tatha sabhi praaniyon mein samata vyavahaar ke liye mukt purush (sannyaasi) ke lakshan hain (manu. 6,44).

aashramavyavastha ka jahaaain shaareerik aur saamaajik aadhaar hai, vahaaain usaka aadhyaatmik athva daarshanik aadhaar bhi hai. bhaarateeya maneeshiyon ne maanav jeevan ko keval pravaah na maankar usako soddeshya maana tha aur usaka dhyeya tatha gantavya nishchit kiya tha. jeevan ko saarthak banaane ke liye unhonne chaar purushaarthon-dharm, arth, kaam tatha moksh-ki kalpana ki thi. pratham teen purushaarth saadhanaroop se tatha antim saadhyaroop se vyavasthit tha. moksh param purushaarth, arthaat‌ jeevan ka antim lakshya tha, kintu vah akasmaat‌ athva kalpanaamaatr se naheen praapt ho sakta hai. uske liye saadhana dvaara kramash: jeevan ka vikaas aur paripkvata aavashyak hai. isi uddeshya ki poorti ke liye bhaarateeya samaajashaastriyon ne aashram sanstha ki vyavastha ki. aashram vaastav mein jeev ka shikshanaalaya athva vidyaalaya hai. brahmacharya aashram mein dharm ka ekaant paalan hota hai. brahmachaari pushtashareer, balishthabuddhi, shaantaman, sheel, shraddha aur vinaya ke saath yugon se upaarjit gyaan, shaastr, vidya tatha anubhav ko praapt karta hai. suvineet aur pavitraatma hi mokshamaarg ka pathik‌ ho sakta hai. gaarhasthya mein dharm poorvak arth ka upaarjan tatha kaam ka sevan hota hai. sansaar mein arth tatha kaam ke arjan aur upabhog ke anubhav ke pashchaat‌ hi tyaag aur sannyaas ki bhoomika prastut hoti hai. sanyamapoorvak grahan ke bina tyaag ka prashn uthata hi naheen. vaanaprasth taiyaar hoti hai. sannyaas ke sabhi bandhanon ka tyaag kar poornat: mokshadharm ka paalan hota hai. is prakaar aashram sanstha mein jeevan ka poorn udaar, kintu sanyamit niyojan tha.

shaastron mein aashram ke sambandh mein kai drushtikon paae jaate hain jinko teen vargo mein vibhkt kiya ja sakta hai. (1) samuchchaya, (2) vikalp aur baadh. samuchchaya ka arth hai sabhi aashramon ka samuchit samaahaar, arthaat‌ chaaron aashramon ka kramash: aur samuchit paalan hona chaahiye. iske anusaar gruhasthaashram mein arth aur kaam sambandhi niyamon ka paalan utana hi aavashyak hai jitna brahmacharya, vaanaprasth evam sannyaas mein dharm aur mokshasanbandhi dharmo ka paalan. is siddhaant ke sabse bade pravartak aur samarthak manu (a.4 tathaa6) hain. doosare siddhaant vikalp ka arth yeh hai ki brahmacharya aashram ke pashchaat‌ vyakti ko yeh vikalp karne ki svatantrata hai ki vah gaarhasthya aashram mein pravesh kare athva seedhe sannyaas grahan kare. samaavartan se sandarbh mein brahmachaari do prakaar ke bataae gaye hain. (1) upakurvaan, jo brahmacharya samaapt kar gruhasthaashram mein pravesh karna chaahata tha aur (2) naishthik, jo aajeevan gurukul mein rahakar brahmacharya ka paalan karna chaahata tha. isi prakaar striyon mein brahmacharya ke pashchaat sadyodvaaha (turant vivaahayogya) aur brahmavaadini (aajeevan brahmopaasana mein leen) hoti theen. yeh siddhaant jaabaalopanishd tatha kai dharmasootron (vasishth tatha aapastanb) aur katipya smrutiyon (yaajnya., laghu, haareet) mein pratipaadit kiya gaya hai. baadh ka arth hai sabhi aashramon ke svatantr astitv athva kram ko na maanana athva aashram sanstha ko hi na sveekaar karna. Gautam tatha baudhaayanadharmasootron mein yeh kaha gaya hai ki vaastav mein ek hi aashram gaarhasthya hai. brahaacharya usaki bhoomika hai:shvaanaprasth aur sannyaas mahatva mein gaun (aur praaya: vaikalpik) hain. manu ne bhi sabse adhik mahatva gaarhasthya ka hi sveekaar kiya gaya hai, jo sabhi karmo aur aashramon ka udgam hai. is mat ke samarthak apne paksh mein shatapath braahman ka vaakya (etadvai jaraamarthasatran yadagnihotram = jeevanaparyat agnihotr aadi yagya karna chahiye. shat. 12, 4, 1, 1), ishopanishd ka vaakya (kurvatrevehi karmaani jijeevishechhant sama:.-ish-2) aadi udhrut karte hain. geeta ka karmayog bhi karm ka sannyaas naheen apitu karm mein sannyaas ko hi shreshth samajhta hai. aashram sanstha ko sabse badi baadha paranparaavirodhi bauddh evam jain maton se hui jo aashramavyavastha ke samuchchaya aur santulan ko hi naheen maanate aur jeevan ka anubhav praapt kiye bina aparipkv sannyaas ya yatidhrt ko atyadhik prashraya dete hain. manu. (6, 35) par bhaashya karte hue sarvajnyaanaaraayan ne uparyukt teenon maton mein samanvaya karne ki cheshta ki hai. saamaanyat: to unako samuchchaya ka siddhaant maanya hai. vikalp mein ve adhikaarabhed maanate hain. unke vichaar mein baadh ka siddhaant un vyaktiyon ke liye hi hai jo apne poorvasanskaaron ke kaaran saansaarik karmon mein aajeevan aasakt rahate hain aur jinmein vivek aur vairaagya ka yathaasamaya udaya naheen hota.

susanghatit aashram sanstha bhaaratavarsh ki apni visheshata hai. kintu iska ek bahut bada saarvabhaum aur shaastreeya mahatva hai. yadyapi aitihaasik kaaranon se iske aadarsh aur vyavahaar mein antar raha hai, jo maanav svabhaav ko dekhte hue svaabhaavik hai, tathaapi iski kalpana aur aanshik vyavahaar apne aap mein gurutv rakhate hain. is vishay par dauyasan (enasaaiklopeediya ov relijn aind ethiks-'aashram' shabd) ka nimnaankit mat ullekhaneeya hai: manu tatha anya dharmashaastron mein pratipaadit aashram ki prasthaapana se vyavahaar ka kitna mel tha, yeh kehna kathin hai; kintu yeh sveekaar karne mein ham svatantr hain ki hamaare vichaar mein sansaar ke maanav itihaas mein anyatr koi aisa (tatv ya sanstha) naheen hai jo is siddhaant ki garima ki tulana kar sake.

sandarbh granth

  • manusmruti (adhyaaya 3, 4, 5, tatha);
  • pi.vi.kaane: history ov dharmashaastr, bhaaga2, khand 1, pru. 416-26;
  • bhagavaanadaas: saayans ov social aargenaaijeshan, bhaaga1;
  • raajabali paandeya: hindu sanskaar, dhaarmik tatha saamaajik adhyayan, chaukhanbha bhaarati bhavan, Varanasi;
  • hestingj: enasaaiklopidiya ov relijn aind ethik‌aas, 'aashram' shabd.