aaryabhateeya

aaryabhateeya naamak granth ki rachana aaryabhat pratham (476-550) ne ki thi. yeh sanskrut bhaasha mein aarya chhand mein kaavyaroop mein rachit ganit tatha khagolashaastr ka granth hai. iski rachanaapaddhati bahut hi vaigyaanik aur bhaasha bahut hi sankshipt tatha manji hui hai. ismein chaar adhyaayon mein 123 shlok hain. aaryabhateeya, dasageetika paad se aarambh hoti hai.

iske chaar adhyaaya is prakaar hain :

1. dash-geetika-paad

2. ganit-paad - khagoleeya achar (astronomical constants) tatha jya-saarani (sine table) ; gananaaon ke liye aavashyak ganit

3. kaal-kriya-paad - samay-vibhaajan tatha grahon ki sthiti ki ganana ke liye niyam

4. gol-paad - trikonamiteeya samasyaaon ke hal ke liye niyam; grahan ki ganana

anukram

geetikaapaad

geetikaapaad sabse chhota, keval 13 shlokon ka hai, parantu ismein bahut si saamagri bhar di gayi hai. iske liye inhonne aksharo dvaara sankshep mein sankhya likhne ki svanirmit ek anokhi reeti ka vyavahaar kiya hai, jismein vyajanno se saral sankhyaaen aur svaron se shoonya ki ginti soochit ki jaati thi. udaaharanat:

khyughru = 43,20,000 mein kh 2 ke liye likha gaya hai aur y 30 ke liye. donon akshar milaakar likhe gaye hain aur unamein u ki maatra lagi hai, jo 10,000 ke samaan hai; isliye khyu ka arth hua 3,20,000; ghru ke gh ka arth hai 4 aur ri (maatra) ka 10,00,000, isliye ghru ka arth hua 40,00,000. is tarah khyughru ka uparyukt maan (43,20,000) hua. (dekhein, aaryabhatt ki sankhyaapaddhati)

sankhya likhne ki is reeti mein sabse bada dosh yeh hai ki yadi aksharon mein thoda sa bhi her fer ho jaaya to badi bhaari bhool ho sakti hai. doosra dosh yeh hai ki l mein ri ki maatra lagaai jaaya to iska roop vahi hota hai jo lru svar ka, parantu donon ke arthon mein bada antar padta hai. in doshon ke hote hue bhi is pranaali ke liye aaryabhat ki pratibha ki prashansa karni hi padti hai. ismein unhonne thode se shlokon mein bahut si baatein likh daali hain; sachmuch, gaagar mein saagar bhar diya hai.

aaryabhateeya ke pratham shlok mein brahm aur parabrahm ki vandana hai evam doosare mein sankhyaaon ko aksharon se soochit karne ka dhang. in do shlokon mein koi kramasankhya naheen hai, kyonki ye prastaavana ke roop mein hain. iske baad ke shlok ki kramasankhya 1 hai jismein soorya, chandrama, pruthvi, shani, guru, mangal, shukr aur budh ke mahaayugeeya bhaganon ki sankhyaaen bataai gayi hain. yahaan ek baat dhyaan dene yogya hai ki aaryabhat ne ek mahaayug mein pruthvi ke ghoornan ki sankhya bhi di hai, kyonki unhonne pruthvi ka dainik ghoornan maana hai. is baat ke liye paravarti aachaarya brahmagupt ne inki ninda ki hai. agale shlok mein grahon ke uchch aur paat ke mahaayugeeya bhaganon ki sankhya bataai gayi hai. teesare shlok mein bataaya gaya hai ki brahma ke ek din (arthaat ek kalp) mein kitne manvantar aur yug hote hain aur vartamaan kalp ke aarambh se lekar mahaabhaarat yuddh ki samaaptivaale din tak kitne yug aur yugapaad beet chuke the. aage ke saat shlokon mein raashi, ansh, kala aadi ka sambandh, aakaashakaksha ka vistaar, pruthvi ke vyaas tatha soorya, chandrama aur grahon ke binbon ke vyaas ke parimaan, grahon ki kraanti aur vikshep, unke paaton aur mandochchon ke sthaan, unki mandaparidhiyon aur sheeghraparidhiyon ke parimaan tatha 3 ansh 45 kalaaon ke antar par jyaakhandon ke maanon ki saarani (sine table) hai. antim shlok mein pehle kahi hui baaton ke jaanane ka fal bataaya gaya hai. is prakaar prakat hai ki aaryabhat ne apni naveen sankhya-lekhan-paddhati se jyotish aur trikonamiti ki kitni hi baatein 13 shlokon mein bhar di hain.

ganitpaad

ganitpaad mein 33 shlok hain, jinmein aaryabhat ne ankaganit, beejaganit aur rekhaaganit sambandhi kuchh sootron ka samaavesh kiya hai. pehle shlok mein apna naam bataaya hai aur likha hai ki jis granth par unka granth aadhaarit hai vah (guptasaamraajya ki rajdhani) kusumapur mein maanya tha. doosare shlok mein sankhya likhne ki dashamalavapaddhati ki ikaaiyon ke naam hain. iske aage ke shlokon mein vargakshetr, ghan, vargamool, ghanamool, tribhuj ka kshetrafal, tribhujaakaar shanku ka ghanafal, vrutt ka kshetrafal, gole ka ghanafal, samalanb chaturbhuj kshetr ke karnon ke sanpaat se samaantar bhujaaon ki doori aur kshetrafal tatha sab prakaar ke kshetron ki madhyam lanbaai aur chaudaai jaanakar kshetrafal bataane ke saadhaaran niyam diye gaye hain. ek jagah bataaya gaya hai ki paridhi ke chhathe bhaag ko jya usaki trijya ke samaan hoti hai. shlok mein bataaya gaya hai ki yadi vrutt ka vyaas 20,000 ho to usaki paridhi 62,832 hoti hai. isse paridhi aur vyaas ka sambandh chauthe dashamlav sthaan tak shuddh aa jaata hai. do shlokon mein jyaakhandon ke jaanane ki vidhi bataai gayi hai, jisse gyaat hota hai ki jyaakhandon ki saarani (tebul ov saainadifreinsej) aaryabhat ne kaise banaai thi. aage vrutt, tribhuj aur chaturbhuj kheenchne ki reeti, samatal dharaatal ke parakhane ki reeti, oordhvaadhar ke parakhane ki reet, shanku aur chhaaya se chhaayaakarn jaanane ki reeti, kisi ooainche sthaan par rakhe hue deepak ke prakaash ke kaaran bani hui shaku ki chhaaya ki lanbaai jaanane ki reeti, ek hi rekha par sthit deepak aur do shankuon ke sambandh ke prashn ki ganana karne ki reeti, samakon tribhuj ke karn aur anya do bhujaaon ke vargon ka sambandh (jise paaithaagoras ka niyam kehte hain, parantu jo shulvasootr mein paaithaagoras se bahut pehle likha gaya tha), vrutt ki jeeva aur sharon ka sambandh, do shlokon mein shreni ganit ke kai niyam, ek shlok mein ek-ek badhati hui sankhyaaon ke vargon aur ghanon ka yogafal jaanane ka niyam, (k + kh)2 - (k2 + kh2) = 2 k kh ; do raashiyon ka gunanafal aur antar jaanakar raashiyon ko alag-alag karne ki reeti, byaaj ki dar jaanane ka ek niyam jo vargasameekaran ka udaaharan hai, trairaashik ka niyam, bhinnon ko ekahar karne ki reeti, beejaganit ke saral sameekaran aur ek vishesh prakaar ke yugapat sameekaranon par aadhaarit prashnon ko hal karne ke niyam, do grahon ka yutikaal jaanane ka niyam aur kuttak niyam (solyooshan ov inaditrminet ikveshan ov the fst degree) bataae gaye hain.

jitni baatein taintees shlokon mein bataai gayi hain unakon yadi aajkal ki paripaati ke anusaar vistaarapoorvak likha jaae to ek badi bhaari pustak ban sakti hai.

kaalakriyaapaad

is adhyaaya mein 25 shlok hain aur yeh kaalavibhaag aur kaal ke aadhaar par ki gayi jyotish sambandhi ganana se sambandh rakhata hai. pehle do shlokon mein kaal aur kon ki ikaaiyon ka sambandh bataaya gaya hai. aage ke chhah shlokon mein yog, vyateepaat, keindrabhagan aur baarhaspatya varshon ki paribhaasha di gayi hai tatha anek prakaar ke maason, varshon aur yugon ka sambandh bataaya gaya hai. navein shlok mein bataaya gaya hai ki yug ka prathamaardh utsarpini aur uttaraardh avasarpini kaal hai aur inka vichaar chandrochch se kiya jaata hai. parantu iska arth samajh mein nahi aata. kisi teekaakaar ne iski santaashajanak vyaakhya naheen ki hai. 10vein shlok ki charcha pehle hi aa chuki hai, jismein aaryabhat ne apne janm ka samay bataaya hai. iske aage bataaya hai ki chaitr shukl pratipda se yug, varsh, maas aur diwas ki ganana aarambh hoti hai. aage ke 20 shlokon mein grahon ki madhyam aur spasht gati sambandhi niyam hain.

golapaad

yeh aaryabhateeya ka antim adhyaaya hai. ismein 50 shlok hain. pehle shlok se prakat hota hai ki kraantivrutt ke jis bindu ko aaryabhat ne meshaadi maana hai vah vasant-sanpaat-bindu tha, kyonki vah kehte hain, mesh ke aadi se kanya ke ant tak apamandal (kraantivrutt) uttar ki or hata rahata hai aur tula ke aadi se meen ke ant tak dakshin ki or. aage ke do shlokon mein bataaya gaya he ki grahon ke paat aur pruthvi ki chhaaya ka bhraman kraantivrutt par hota hai. chauthe shlok mein bataaya hai ki soorya se kitne antar par chandrama, mangal, budh aadi drushya hote hain. paaainchavaaain shlok bataata hai ki pruthvi, grahon aur nakshatron ka aadha gola apni hi chhaaya se prakaashit hai aur aadha soorya ke sanmukh hone se prakaashit hai. nakshatron ke sambandh mein yeh baat theek naheen hai. shlok chhah saat mein pruthvi ki sthiti, banaavat aur aakaar ka nirdesh kiya gaya hai. aathavein shlok mein yeh vichitr baat bataai gayi hai ki brahma ke din mein pruthvi ki trijya ek yojan badh jaati hai aur brahma ki raatri mein ek yojan ghat jaati hai. shlok nau mein bataaya gaya hai ki jaise chalti hui naav par baitha hua manushya kinaare ke sthir pedon ko vipreet disha mein chalta hua dekhta hai vaise hi lanka (pruthvi ki vishuvat dekha par ek kalpit sthaan) se sthir taare pashchim ki or ghoomate hue dikhaai padte hain. parantu 10vein shlok mein bataaya gaya hai ki aisa prateet hota hai, maano udaya aur ast karne ke bahaane grahayukt sampoorn nakshatrachakr, pravah vaayu se prerit hokar, pashchim ki or chal raha ho. shlok 11 mein sumeru parvat (uttari dhruv par sthit parvat) ka aakaar aur shlok 12 mein sumeru aur badvaamukh (dakshin dhruv) ki sthiti bataai gayi hai. shlok 13 mein vishuvat rekha par 90-90 ansh ki doori par sthit chaar nagariyon ka varnan hai. shlok 14 mein lanka se ujjain ka antar bataaya gaya hai. shlok 15 mein bataaya gaya hai ki bhoogol ki motaai ke kaaran khagol aadhe bhaag se kitna kam dikhaai padta hai. 16vein shlok mein bataaya gaya hai ki devataaon aur asuron ko khagol kaise ghoomta hua dikhaai padta hai. shlok 17 mein devataaon, asuron, pitron aur manushyon ke din raat ka parimaan hai. shlok 18 se 23 tak khagol ka varnan hai. shlok 24-33 mein triprashnaadhikaar ke pradhaan sootron ka kathan hai, jinse lagn, kaal aadi jaane jaate hain. shlok 34 mein lanban, 35 mein aakshanadrukkarm aur 36 mein aayanadrukkarm ka varnan hai. shlok 37 se 47 tak soorya aur chandrama ke grahanon ki ganana karne ki reeti hai. shlok 48 mein bataaya gaya hai ki pruthvi aur soorya ke yog se soorya ke, soorya aur chandrama ke yog se chandrama tatha grahon ke yog se sab grahon ke moolaank jaane gaye hain. shlok 49 aur 50 mein aaryabhateeya ki prashansa ki gayi hai.

aaryabhateeya ka prachaar

aaryabhateeya ka prachaar dakshin Bhaarat mein vishesh roop se hua. is granth ka pathan-paathan 16veen 17veen shataabdi tak hota raha, jo is par likhi gayi teekaaon se spasht hai. is granth ki rachana ke baad se lekar unneesaveen shataabdi ke ant tak iske lagbhag 12 bhaashya likhe gaye. bhaaskar aur brahmagupt sahit lagbhag sabhi pramukh ganitjnyaon ne is par bhaashya likhe. dakshin Bhaarat mein isi ke aadhaar par bane hue panchaang aaj bhi vaishnav dharmavaalon ko maanya hote hain. khed hai, ki hindi mein aaryabhateeya ki koi achhi teeka naheen hai. angreji mein iske do anuvaad hain, ek shri prabodhachandr senagupt ka aur doosra shri dablyoo.E. Clark ka. pehla 1927 E. mein kalakatte aur doosra 1930 E. mein shikaagon se prakaashit hua tha.

aaryabhat ke doosare granth ka prachaar uttar Bhaarat mein vishesh roop se hua, jo is baat se spasht hai ki aaryabhat ke teevr aalochak brahmagupt ko vruddhaavastha mein apne granth khandakhaadyak mein aaryabhat ke granth ka anukaran karna pada. parantu ab khandakhaadyak ke vyaapak prachaar ke saamane aaryabhat ke granth ka pathan-paathan kam ho gaya aur dheere-dheere lupt ho gaya.

yaakoob ibn taareek ki pustak tarakeeb al-aflaak mein dharati ka vyaas 2100 faarasakh diya gaya hai jo aaryabhat dvaara diye gaye maan (1050 yojan) se liya gaya lagta hai. al-khvaarijmi ne 820 E ke aaspaas aaryabhateeya ka arabi mein anuvaad kiya.

baahari kadiyaaain