aarya

aarya bhaarateeyon (visheshakar uttar bhaarateeyon) ke vaidik kaaleen poorvajon ko kaha jaata hai.

anukram

aarya dharm aur sanskruti

aarya shabd ka arth hai pragatisheel. aarya dharm praacheen aaryon ka dharm aur shreshth dharm donon samajhe jaate hain. praacheen aaryon ke dharm mein prathamat: praakrutik devamandal ki kalpana hai jo Bhaarat, mein pai jaati rahi hai..iske baad pehle ke yug mein Bhaarat se kuchh aaryans Bhaarat se baahar chale gaye the..jaise Iran, yoonaan, rom, Germany aadi mein aaj bhi aaryans ke vansaj paae jaate hain. ismein dyaus (aakaash) aur pruthvi ke beech mein anek devataaon ki srushti hui hai. bhaarateeya aaryon ka mool dharm rigved mein abhivyakt hai, Iran mein base aarya avesta mein, yoonaaniyon ka uliseej aur iliyd mein. devamandal ke saath aarya karmakaand ka vikaas hua jismein mantra, yagya, shraaddh (pitron ki pooja), atithi satkaar aadi mukhyat: sammilit the. aarya aadhyaatmik darshan (braahru, aatma, vishv, moksh aadi) aur aarya neeti (saamaanya, vishesh aadi) ka vikaas bhi samaanaantar hua. shuddh naitik aadhaar par avalanbit parampara virodhi avaidik sanpradaayon-bauddh, jain aadi-ne bhi apne dharm ko aarya dharm athva saddharm kaha.

saamaajik arth mein "aarya' ka prayog pehle sampoorn maanav ke arth mein hota tha. kabhi-kabhi iska prayog saamaanya janta vish ke liye ("arya' shabd se) hota tha. fir abhijaat aur shramik varg mein antar dikhaane ke liye aarya varn aur shoodr varn ka prayog hone laga. fir aaryon ne apni saamaajik vyavastha ka aadhaar varn ko banaaya aur samaaj chaar varnon mein vrutti aur shram ke aadhaar par vibhkt hua. riksanhita mein chaaron varnon ki utpatti aur kaarya ka ullekh is prakaar hai:-

braahrunoऽsya mukhamaaseed baahoo raajanya: krut:.
ooroo tadasya yadvaishya: padabhyaan shoodroऽjaayat.10. 90. 22.

(is viraat purush ke munh se braahman, baahu se raajasv (kshatriya), ooru (jangha) se vaishya aur pad (charan) se shoodr utpann hua.)

yeh ek alankaarik vaakya he | brahm to anant he | us brahm ke sad vichaar, sad pravruttiyaan aastikta jis janasamudaaya se abhivyakt hoti he use braahaman kaha gaya he | shorya aur tej jis jan samudaaya se abhivyakt hota he vah kshatriya varg aur inke atirikt sansaar ko chalne ke liye aavashyak kriyaae jese krushi vaanijya brahm vaishya bhaag se abhivyakt hoti hai. iske atirikt bhi anek ise kaarya bach jaate he jinki maanav jeevan mein mahatta bahut adhik hoti he jese dastakaari, shilp, vastr nirmaan, seva kshetr brahm apne shudr varg dvaara abhivyakt karta he |[1]

aajkal ki bhaasha mein ye varg bauddhik, prashaasakeeya, vyaavasaayik tatha shramik the. mool mein inmein taralata thi. ek hi parivaar mein kai varn ke log rahate aur paraspar vivaahaadi sambandh aur bhojan, paan aadi hote the. kramash: ye varg paraspar varjanasheel hote gaye. ye saamaajik vibhaajan aaryaparivaar ki praaya: sabhi shaakhaaon mein paae jaate hain, yadyapi inke naamon aur saamaajik sthiti mein deshagat bhed milte hain.

praarambhik aarya parivaar pitrusattaatmak tha, yadyapi aaditya (aditi se utpann), daitya (diti se utpann) aadi shabdon mein maatrusatta ki dhvani vartamaan hai. danpati ki kalpana mein pati patni ka gruhasthi ke oopar samaan adhikaar paaya jaata hai. parivaar mein putrajanm ki kaamna ki jaati thi. daayitv ke kaaran kanya ka janm parivaar ko gambhir bana deta tha, kintu usaki upeksha naheen ki jaati thi. ghosha, lopaamudra, apaala, vishvavaara aadi striyaan mantradrashta rishipd ko praapt hui theen. vivaah praaya: yuvaavastha mein hota tha. pati patni ko paraspar nirvaachan ka adhikaar tha. vivaah dhaarmik krutyon ke saath sampann hota tha, jo paravarti braahru vivaah se milta julata tha.

praarambhik aarya sanskruti mein vidya, saahitya aur kala ka ooaincha sthaan hai. bhaaropeeya bhaasha gyaan ke sashakt maadhyam ke roop mein viksit hui. ismein kaavya, dharm, darshan aadi vibhinn shaastron ka udaya hua. aaryon ka praacheenatam saahitya ved bhaasha, kaavya aur chintan, sabhi drushtiyon se mahatvapoorn hai. rigved mein braahrucharya aur shikshanapaddhati ke ullekh paae jaate hain, jinse pata lagta hai ki shikshanavyavastha ka sangathan aarambh ho gaya tha aur maanav abhivyaktiyon ne shaastreeya roop dhaaran karna shuroo kar diya tha. rigved mein kavi ko rishi (mantradrashta) maana gaya hai. vah apni antadrushti se sampoorn vishv ka darshan karta tha. usha, savitru, aranyaani aadi ke sookton mein prakrutinireekshan aur maanav ki saundaryapriyta tatha rasaanubhooti ka sundar chitran hai. rigvedasanhita mein pur aur gram aadi ke ullekh bhi paae jaate hain. lohe ke nagar, patthar ki saikadon puriyaan, saharudvaar tatha saharustanbh attaalikaaen nirmit hoti theen. saath hi saamaanya gruh aur kuteer bhi bante the. bhavananirmaan mein ishtaka (int) ka upayog hota tha. yaataayaat ke liye pathon ka nirmaan aur yaan ke roop mein kai prakaar ke rathon ka upayog kiya jaata tha. geet, nrutya aur vaaditr ka sangeet ke roop mein prayog hota tha. vaan, kshoni, karkari prabhruti vaadyon ke naam paae jaate hain. putrika (puttalika, putali) ke nrutya ka bhi ullekh milta hai. alankaran ki pratha viksit thi. striyaan nishk, ajji, baasi, vak, rukm aadi gahane pahanati theen. vividh prakaar ke manovinod mein kaavya, sangeet, dyoot, ghuddaud, rathadaud aadi sammilit the.

dharm

shreshth, shisht athva sanjjan

naitik arth mein "aarya" ka prayog mahaakul, kuleen, sabhya, sajjan, saadhu aadi ke liye paaya jaata hai. (mahaakulakuleenaaryasabhyasajjanasaadhav:. -amarakosh 7. 3). saayanaachaarya ne apne rigbhaashya mein "aarya' ka arth vijnya, yagya ka anushthaata, vijnya stota, vidvaan aadaraneeya athva sarvatr gantavya, uttamavarn, manu, karmayukt aur karmaanushthaan se shreshth aadi kiya hai. aadaraneeya ke arth mein to sanskrut saahitya mein aarya ka bahut prayog hua hai. patni pati ko aaryaputr kehti thi. pitaamah ko aarya (hindi - aaja) aur pitaamahi ko aarya (hindi - aaji, aiya, aiya) kehne ki pratha rahi hai. naitik roop se prakrut aacharan karanevaale ko aarya kaha gaya hai :

kartavyamaachanaran kaaryamakartavyamanaacharan.
tishthati prakrutaachaare s aarya iti uchyate.

praarambh mein "aarya' ka prayog prajaati athva varn ke arth mein bhale hi hota raha ho, aage chalakar bhaarateeya itihaas mein iska naitik arth hi adhik prachalit hua jiske anusaar kisi bhi varn athva jaati ka vyakti apni shreshthata athva sajjanata ke kaaran aarya kaha jaane laga.

aarya prajaati ki aadibhoomi

aarya prajaati ki aadibhoomi ke sambandh mein abhi tak vidvaanon mein bahut matabhed hain. bhaashaavaijnyaaanik adhyayan ke praarambh mein praaya: bhaasha aur prajaati ko abhinn maankar ekodbhav (monojenik) siddhaant ka pratipaadan hua aur maana gaya ki bhaaropeeya bhaashaaon ke bolanevaale ke poorvaj kaheen ek hi sthaan mein rahate the aur vaheen se vibhinn deshon mein gaye. bhaashaavaijnyaaanik saakshyon ki apoornata aur anishchitta ke kaaran yeh aadibhoomi kabhi madhya Asia, kabhi paameer-Kashmir, rahi hai. jabki Bhaarat se baahar gaye aaryan ke nishaan kabhi aastriya-Hungary, kabhi Germany, kabhi sveedan-naarve aur aaj dakshin roos ke ghaas ke maidaanon mein dhooaindhi jaati hai. bhaasha aur prajaati anivaarya roop se abhinn naheen. aaj aaryon ki vividh shaakhaaon ke bahoodbhav (paulijenik) hone ka siddhaant bhi prachalit hota ja raha hai jiske anusaar yeh aavashyak naheen ki aarya-bhaasha-parivaar ki sabhi jaatiyaaain ek hi maanavavansh ki rahi hon. bhaasha ka grahan to sampark aur prabhaav se bhi hota aaya hai, kai jaatiyon ne to apni mool bhaasha chhodkar vijaateeya bhaasha ko poornat: apna liya hai. jahaan tak bhaarateeya aaryon ke udgam ka prashn hai, bhaarateeya saahitya mein unke baahar se aane ke sambandh mein ek bhi ullekh naheen hai. kuchh logon ne parampara aur anushruti ke anusaar madhyadesh (sthoon) (sthaanveeshvar) tatha kajangal (raajamahal ki pahaadiyaan) aur himaalaya tatha vindhya ke beech ka pradesh athva aaryaavart (uttar Bhaarat) hi aaryon ki aadibhoomi maana hai. pauraanik parampara se vichhinn keval rigved ke aadhaar par kuchh vidvaanon ne saptasindhu (seemaant, uttar Bhaarat evam Punjab) ko aaryon ki aadibhoomi maana hai. lokamaanya baal gangaadhar tilk ne rigved mein varnit deergh ahoraatr, pralanbit usha aadi ke aadhaar par aaryon ki moolabhoomi ko dhruvapradesh mein maana tha. bahut se Europeeya vidvaan aur unke anuyaayi bhaarateeya vidvaan ab bhi bhaarateeya aaryon ko baahar se aaya hua maanate hain.

ab aaryon ke Bhaarat ke baahar se aane ka siddhaant (AIT) galat siddh kar diya gaya hai. aisa maana jaata hai ki is siddhaant ka pratipaadan karke angrej aur Europeeya log bhaarateeyon mein yeh bhaavana bharna chaahate the ki bhaarateeya log pehle se hi gulaam hain. iske atirikt angrej iske dvaara uttar bhaarateeyon (aaryon) tatha dakshin bhaarateeyon (dravidon) mein foot daalna chaahate the. isi shrankhala mein angrejon ne shoodron ko dakshin Africa se apni niji seva v chaatukaarita ke liye evam Bhaarat mein aaryon se yuddh karne ke liye apni sainik tukadiyaan banaane hetu laaya gaya bataaya hai ! jabki vaastav mein shudr vo log the jo ardhanagn avastha mein jangalon mein ashikshit v pashuon jaisa jeevan vyateet karte the !

maharshi aravind ke vichaar

aarya log jagat ke sanaatan sthaapana ke jaanakar the unke anusaar prem shakti sat ke vikaas ke liye sarvyaapi Narayan ya ishvar sthaavar-jangam manushya-pashu kit-patang saadhoo-paapi shatru-mitr tatha devata aur asur mein prakat hokar leela kar rahe hai. aravind ghosh ke anusaar aryaalog mitr ki raksha karte aur shatru ka naash karte kintu usame unki aasakti naheen thi. ve sarvatr sab praaniyon mein sab vastuon mein karmo mein fal mein ishvar ko dekha kar isht anisht shatru mitr sukh du:kh siddhi asiddhi mein samabaabhaav rakhate the. is samabhaav ka parinaam yeh naheen tha ki sab kuchh inke liye sukhadaayi aur sab karm unke karne yogya the

bina sampoorn yog ke dvandv mitta naheen he aur yeh avastha bahut kam logo ko praapt hoti hai, kintu aarya shiksha saadhaaran aaryon ki sampati he | aarya isht saadhan aur anisht ko hataane mein sachet rahate the, kintu isht saadhan se vijay ke mad mein choor naheen hote the aur anisht samapaadan mein darate bhi na the. mitr ki sahaayata aur shatru ki paraajaya unki cheshta hoti thi lekin shatru se dvesh aur mitr ka anyaaya bhi sahan naheen karte the. aarya log to karttavya ke anurodh se svajano ka sanhaar bhi karte the aur vipkshiyon ki praan raksha ke liye yuddh bhi karte the. ve paap ko hathaane vaale aur punya ko sanchaya karne vaale the lekin punya karm mein garvit aur paap mein patit hone par rote naheen the varan shaareer shuddhi karke aatm unnati mein sachesht hojaate the. aarya log karm ki siddhi ke liye vipul prayaas karte the, hajaaron baar vifal hone par bhi veerat naheen hote the kintu asiddhi mein dukhit hona unke liye adharm tha. [2][3]

aarya-aakraman ke siddhaant mein samay ke saath parivartan

aarya aakraman ka siddhaant apne aaraambhik dinon se hi lagaataar parivrtit hote raha hai. aarya-aakraman ke siddhaant ki adhuniktam pariklpan ke anusaar yeh koi jaati vishesh nahi thi apitu yeh keval ek sammaanajanak shabd tha jo ki aanglbhaasha ke SIR ke samanarthaak tha. aaryo ke aakraman ki kalpaan ke samarthan ke sabhi tathya bhramak siddh ho chuke hai.

sandarbh - aarya kaun the - lekhak - shri Ram saathe anuvaadak - kishori laal vyaas prakaashak - itihaas sankalan yojana

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain