aarthar kaunan dauyal

sar aarthar kaunan dauyal

sar aarthar kaunan dauyal
janm 22 May 1859
edinbara, Scotland
mrutyu 7 July 1930(1930-07-07) (umr 71)
kroboraug, East saseks, ingalaind
vyavasaaya lekhak, kavi, upanyaasakaar, chikitsak
raashtreeyata skautish
naagarikta United kingdam
shaili jaasoosi upanyaas, vaigyaanik saahitya, etihaasik upanyaas, kathetar saahitya
ullekhaneeya kaarya sharalauk holams ki kahaaniyaun
the laust vald
hastaakshar Arthur Conan Doyle Signature.svg

sar aarthar ignaashiys kaunan dauyal, deeel (22 May 1859 - July 7, 1930[1]) ek skautish[2] chikitsak aur lekhak the jinhein adhiktar jaasoos sharalauk homs ki unki kahaaniyon (in kahaaniyon ko aam taur par kaalpanik aparaadh katha ke kshetr mein ek pramukh navapravartan ke taur par dekha jaata hai) aur profesar chaileinjar ke saahasik kaaranaamon ke liye jaana jaata hai. vah vigyaan kalpana kathaaeain, aitihaasik upanyaason, naatakon aur romance, kavita aur vibhinn kalpana saahitya ke ek vipul lekhak the. ve ek safal lekhak the jinki anya rachanaaon mein kaalpanik vigyaan kathaaen, aitihaasik upanyaas, naatak evam romance, kavita aur gair-kaalpanik kahaaniyaan shaamil hain.

anukram

jeevan

praarambhik jeevan

aarthar kaunan dauyal ka janm 22 May 1859 ko Scotland ke edinbarg mein hua tha; apne das bhaaiyon-bahanon mein ve teesare number par the.[3] unke pita Charles altaamont dauyal ka janm England mein aayarish vansh mein hua tha aur unki maaain, janm naam meri foli, bhi aayarish theen. dauyal ke pita ki mrutyu kai varshon tak manorog se peedit rahane ke baad 1893 mein kriktan royal, damfraaij mein hui thi. unke maata-pita ki shaadi 1855 mein hui thi.[4]

haalaanki ab unhein "kaunan dauyal" ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai lekin is sanyukt upanaam (agar isi roop mein ve ise samajhaana chaahate the) ka mool anishchit hai. vah pravishti jismein unka naamakaran edinbarg mein saint mairi kaithedral ki panji mein darj hai, unke isaai naam ke roop mein "aarthar ignaashiys kaunan" aur unke upanaam ke roop mein sirf "dauyal" hi likha gaya hai. yahaan unke dharmapita ke roop mein Michael kaunan ka naam bhi darj hai.[5]

kaunan dauyal ko nau varsh ki umr mein roman Catholic jesuit praarambhik school hodar place, stoneeharst mein bheja gaya tha. uske baad ve 1875 tak stoneeharst college mein gaye.

1876 se 1881 tak unhonne edinbarg vishvavidyaalaya mein chikitsa vigyaan ka adhyayan kiya, jahaan unhonne estan shahar (jo ab Birmingham ka ek jila hai) aur Sheffield mein kaarya bhi kiya tha.[6] adhyayan ke dauraan kaunan dauyal ne laghu kathaaon ka lekhan bhi shuroo kar diya tha; unki pehli prakaashit kahaani chaimbars edinbarg journal mein us samay chhapi jab unki umr 20 varsh thi.[7] vishvavidyaalaya mein apne adhyayan kaal ke baad unhein pashchim afreeki tat ke liye ek samudri yaatra ke dauraan esaes maayumba par ek ship ke Doctor ke roop mein niyukt kiya gaya tha. unhonne apni Doctor ki upaadhi taibeej dorasailis ke vishay par 1885 mein poori ki. [8]

sharalauk homs ki utpatti

sharalauk homs (daaen) aur dau॰ Watson, Sydney pejet se.
groomabrij sthaan par dauyal ka adhyayan

1882 mein ve apne poorv sahapaathi George bad ke sahayogi ke roop mein plaayamaauth[9] mein ek medical practice mein shaamil ho gaye, lekin unka sambandh mushkil saabit hua aur kaunan dauyal ne jaldi hi unka saath chhodkar svatantr practice shuroo kar diya. [10] usi varsh June mein apne naam par 10 pound se bhi kam rakam ke saath portsamaauth mein aakar unhonne saauthasi ke elm grov mein 1 bush vila mein ek medical practice ki vyavastha ki. [11] practice shuruaat mein bahut safal naheen rahi, mareejon ki prateeksha karte hue kaunan dauyal ne fir se kahaaniyaan likhna shuroo kar diya. unki pehli mahatvapoorn rachana A stadi in skaaralet 1887 ke beetans christmas enual mein dikhaai di. ismein sharalauk homs ki pehli upasthiti dikhaai gayi thi jinhein unke poorv vishvavidyaalaya shikshak Joseph bail ke naam par aanshik roop se roopaantarit kiya gaya tha. kaunan dauyal ne unhein likha, "sharalauk homs ke liye main mukhya roop se aapka hi aabhaari hooain... mainne aapke dvaara sikhaae gaye anumaan, nishkarsh aur avlokan ke paath ke aadhaar par hi ek vyakti ka nirmaan karne ki koshish ki hai."[12] sharalauk homs ko darshaane waali agali laghu kathaaen angareji straind maigajeen mein prakaashit hui theen. Robert luis steeveinsan kaafi door samoaa mein hone ke baavajood bhi Joseph bail aur sharalauk homs ke beech majaboot samaanata ki pehchaan karne mein saksham the: "sharalauk homs ke baare mein aapke atyant saral aur atyant rochak saahasik kaaryon par meri shikaayatein... kya yeh mera puraana mitr jo bail ho sakta hai?"[13] anya lekhak kabhi-kabhi atirikt prabhaavon ke baare mein bataate hain--udaaharan ke liye prasiddh edagar elan po ke paatr si. ogaste dupin.[14]

harbart roj beraud dvaara dauyal ki tasveer, 1893

saauthasi mein rahane ke kram mein unhonne chhadm naam A.si. smith ke tahat ek shaukiya dal portsamaauth association football club ke liye ek goalkeeper ke roop mein football khela tha.[15] (1894 mein bhang hue is club ka vartamaan-samay ke portsamaauth efasi ke saath koi sambandh naheen tha jise 1898 mein sthaapit kiya gaya tha). kaunan dauyal ek tej cricketer bhi the, 1899 aur 1907 ke beech unhonne maireelibon cricket club (emaseesi) ke liye 10 pratham shreni match bhi khele the. unka uchchatam score 1902 mein London County ke khilaaf 43 tha. ve ek saamayik geindabaaj the jinhonne sirf ek pratham-shreni ka wicket liya tha (haalaanki yeh ek uchch shreni ka tha -- yeh dablyoo. ji. gres the). [16] iske alaava ek shaanadaar golfer, kaunan dauyal ko 1910 ke liye kroboro beekan golf club, East saseks ka kaptaan chuna gaya tha. ve apni doosari patni jeen leki aur unke parivaar ke saath 1907 se July 1930 mein apni mrutyu tak kroboro mein little vindalesham house chale gaye the.

vivaah aur parivaar

New York 1922 mein kaunan dauyal ka parivaar

1885 mein kaunan dauyal ne luisa (ya luisi) haukins se shaadi ki jinhein "toi" ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. ve tapedik se peedit theen aur 4 July 1906 ko unki mrutyu ho gayi.[17] agale saal unhonne jeen Elizabeth leki se shaadi ki jinse unki pehli mulaakaat 1897 mein hui thi aur tabhi unase pyaar ho gaya tha. unhonne apni luisa ke prati nishtha banaae rakhate hue unke jeevit rahate jeen ke saath ek aadhyaatmik sambandh banaae rakha tha. jeen ka nidhan 27 June 1940 ko London mein ho gaya.

kaunan dauyal paanch bachchon ke pita bane. pehli patni se unke do bachche the - mairi luis (28 January 1889 - 12 June 1976) aur aarthar eleene kingsale, jinhein kingsale (15 November 1982 - 28 October 1918) ke naam se jaana jaata hai -- aur doosari patni se unke teen bachche the - denis parsi steevart (17 March 1909 - 9 March 1955) jo jaurjiyaai Rajkumari neena midivaani (1910 ke aas-paas - 19 fravari 1987; baarabara hatan ki poorv saali) ke 1936 mein doosare pati; edriyn mailkam (19 November 1910 - 3 June 1970) aur jeen lena enet (21 December 1912-18 November 1997).

sharalauk homs ki "maut"

1890 mein kaunan dauyal ne viyna mein netr vigyaan ka adhyayan kiya aur 1891 mein ek netr rog visheshagya ke roop mein practice karne ke liye London chale gaye. apni aatmakatha mein unhonne likha hai ki ek bhi mareej unke darvaaje ke paar naheen aaya. is sthiti ne unhein likhne ke liye aur adhik samay diya aur November 1891 mein unhonne apni maaain ko likha tha: "main sadaiv ke liye homs ki jeevanaleela ke samaapan ke baare mein soch raha hooain. vah behtar cheejon se mere man ko alag karta hai." usaki maaain ne kaha, "jo tumhein theek lagta hai tum vaisa kar sakte ho lekin log ise halke mein naheen leinge."

reechenabaak fauls par homs aur moriyaarti ladte hue.Sydney pejet ki kala.

December 1893 mein adhik "mahatvapoorn" kaaryon mein apna samay dene ke liye (arthaat unke aitihaasik upanyaas) kaunan dauyal ne the final praublam ki kahaani mein spasht roop se homs aur professor moriyaarti ko reechenabaak fauls mein ek saath chhalaang lagaakar marate hue darshaaya hai. haalaanki saarvajanik virodh ke kaaran unhein 1901 mein is paatr ko the haaund of the baaskaraviles mein vaapas laana pada. "edaveinchar of the empti house" mein yeh spasht kiya gaya tha ki keval moriyaarti hi usamein giri thi; lekin chooainki homs ke anya khatarnaak dushman bhi the -- vishesh roop se Colonel sebastiyn moran - unhonne asthaayi roop se "mrut" dikhne ki vyavastha ki thi. homs ko antat: kul milaakar 56 laghu kathaaon aur kaunan dauyal ke chaar upanyaason mein dikhaaya gaya tha aur tab se use anya lekhakon ke kai upanyaason aur kahaaniyon mein dekha gaya hai.

raajaneetik prachaar

dakshini naurvud, London mein aarthar kaunan dauyal ka ghar

20veen sadi ke aagaman par dakshin Africa mein boar vaar aur United Kingdom ki kaaryavaahi par duniya bhar mein ninda ke baad kaunan dauyal ne the vaar in south Africa: its kauj end kandakt sheershak se ek laghu pustika (pampalet) likhi jismein boar vaar mein UK ki bhoomika ko sahi thaharaaya gaya tha aur iska vyaapak roop se anuvaad kiya gaya tha. dauyal ne March aur June 1900 ke beech blaumafonten mein laingamain field hauspitl mein ek swayamsevi chikitsak ki bhoomika nibhaai thi.[18]

kaunan dauyal ka maanana tha ki yahi vah pustika thi jiske parinaam svaroop 1902 mein unhein naait ki upaadhi pradaan ki gayi thi aur sare ka diputi-lieutenant niyukt kiya gaya tha. iske alaava 1900 mein unhonne ek lambi pustak the great boar vaar ki rachana ki. 20veen sadi ke praarambhik varshon ke dauraan sar aarthar ne libral yooniynist ke roop mein do baar sansad mein pravesh ke liye prayaas kiya -- ek baar edinbarg se aur ek baar haivik bargs mein -- lekin haalaanki unhein ek sammaanajanak mat praapt hua tha lekin ve nirvaachit naheen ho sake the.

kaunan dauyal patrakaar E.di. morel aur raajanayik Roger kesameint ke netrutv mein kaango free state ke sudhaar ke liye prachaar abhiyaan mein shaamil the. 1909 ke dauraan unhonne the crime of the kaango ki rachana ki jo ek lambi pustika thi jismein unhonne us desh mein bhayaavahata ki bhartsana ki thi. ve morel aur kesameint se parichit hue aur yeh sambhav hai ki beratram Fletcher raubinsan[19] ke saath unhonne 1912 ke upanyaas the laust world mein kai paatron ko prerit kiya tha.

donon ke saath unka sambandh toot gaya jab pratham vishv yuddh ke dauraan morel shaantivaadi aandolan ke netaaon mein se ek bane aur jab kesameint ko istar vidroh ke dauraan Britain ke khilaaf raajadroh ka doshi paaya gaya. kaunan dauyal ne is tark ke saath kesameint ko mrutyu dand se bachaane ki asafal koshish ki ki ve paagal ho gaye the aur apne krutyon ke liye jimmedaar naheen the.

anyaaya ka virodh

kaunan dauyal nyaaya ke ek utkat adhivakta bhi the aur unhonne do band maamalon ki vyaktigat roop se jaanch ki thi, jiske kaaran do vyaktiyon ko un aparaadhon se bari kar diya gaya tha jiske liye unhein doshi thaharaaya gaya tha. pehla maamala 1906 mein George edalji naamak ek sharmeele aadhe-british, aadhe-bhaarateeya vakeel se sambandhit tha jisne kathit roop se dhamaki bhare patra likhne aur jaanvaron ko vikrut karne ka kaam kiya tha. aparaadhi thaharaae jaane ke baad edalji par police ka pahara laga diya gaya, sandigdh vyakti ko jail bhej diye jaane ke baavajood bhi vikrut karne ka silsila jaari raha.

aanshik roop se is maamale ke parinaam svaroop 1907 mein kriminl appeal ki adaalat ka gathan kiya gaya, is prakaar kaunan dauyal ne na keval George edalji ki madad ki balki unki rachanaaon ne anya nyaaya ki nishfalataaon ko theek karne ke liye ek raasta banaane mein sahaayata ki. kaunan dauyal aur edalji ki kahaani ka jooliyn baarns ke 2005 ke upanyaas George end aarthar mein kaalpanik chitran kiya gaya tha. nikolas mayor ki mishr rachana the vest end haurar (1976) mein homs sharmeele paarasi bhaarateeya paatr ke naam ko spasht karne mein madad karne mein saksham hote hain jise angreji nyaaya pranaali dvaara galat tareeke se prayog kiya gaya tha. edalji swayam ek paarasi the.

doosra maamala ek jarman yahoodi aur juaa-ghar ke sanchaalak oscar sletar ka tha jo 1908 mein glaasago mein ek 82-varsheeya-mahila ki pitaai karne ke maamale mein sajaayaafta the, is maamale ne abhiyojan ke maamale mein visangatiyon aur sletar ke doshi naheen hone ki ek aam samajh ke kaaran kaunan dauyal ki jijnyaaasa ko badha diya. unhonne 1928 mein sletar ki safal appeal ke liye adhikaansh laagat ke bhugataan par maamale ko samaapt kiya.[20]

adhyaatmavaad

1906 mein apni patni luisa ki mrutyu, pratham vishv yuddh ki samaapti se theek pehle apne bete kingsale ki maut aur apne bhaai ines, apne do saalon (jinmein se ek saahityik paatr raifals ke rachanaakaar E. dablyoo. haurnang the) aur yuddh ke kuchh hi dinon baad apne do bhateejon ki mrutyu ke pashchaat kaunan dauyal avasaad mein doob gaye. adhyaatmavaad aur kabr se aage jeevan ke astitv ke pramaan ka pata lagaane ki iski koshish ke samarthan se unhein saantvana mili. vishesh roop se kuchh logon ke anusaar[21] ve isaai aadhyaatm ko pasand karte the aur aathavein parasept - jo najaarath ke jeesas ki shikshaaon aur udaaharan ka paalan karna tha, ko sveekaar karne mein spirichualists national union ko protsaahit kiya tha. ve prasiddh asaadhaaran sangathan the ghost club ke ek sadasya bhi the. us samay aur ab iska dhyaan asaadhaaran ghatna ke astitv ko saabit (ya khandan) karne ke kram mein kathit asaadhaaran gatividhiyon ke vaigyaanik adhyayan par keindrit tha.

28 October 1918 ko nimoniya ke kaaran kingsale dauyal ka nidhan ho gaya, jiski chapet mein ve 1916 mein somme ke yuddh ke dauraan gambhir roop se ghaayal ho jaane ke baad apne svaasthya laabh ke kram mein aa gaye the. February 1919 mein Brigadier general innes dauyal ki mrutyu bhi nimoniya se hui thi. sar aarthar aadhyaatm ke saath is kadar jud gaye the ki unhonne is vishay par professor chaileinjar par aadhaarit ek upanyaas, the land of mist likh daala tha.

chitr:Cottingley Fairies 1.jpg
July 1917 mein elsi right dvaara li gayi kathit pariyon ke saath Francis greefith ki paanch tasveeron mein se ek.

unki pustak the kaming of feyareej (1921 se pata chalta hai ki ve paanch kotingale pariyon ki tasveeron (jinka khulaasa dashakon ke baad ek jhaanse ke roop mein hua) ki sachchaai ko pratyaksh roop se sveekaar karte the. unhonne pariyon aur aatmaaon ke svabhaav aur astitv ke baare mein siddhaanton ke saath unhein pustak mein punarprastut kiya. history of spirichualijm (1926) mein kaunan dauyal ne yoosaipiya pailedino aur meena "maargari" kraindan dvaara prastut maanasik paddhati aur aatma ke moort roop ki prashansa ki. [22] is vishay par unki rachana unke laghu-katha sangrahon mein se ek, the edaveinchars of sharalauk homs ke kaaranon mein se ek thi jise tathaakathit guhyavidya ke kaaran 1929 mein soviyt sangh mein pratibandhit baar diya gaya tha.[krupaya uddharan jodein] is pratibandh ko baad mein hata liya gaya tha.[kab?] roosi abhineta vaisili livaanov ne sharalauk homs ke apne chitran ke liye ek order of the british empaayar ka sammaan praapt kiya tha.

kaunan dauyal ek samay ke liye ameriki jaadoogar Harry hudini ke mitr rahe the jo swayam apni priya maaain ki mrutyu ke baad 1920 ke dashak mein adhyaatmavaadi aandolan ke virodhi ban gaye the. haalaanki hudini ne jor dekar kaha ki adhyaatmavaadi maadhyamon mein pravanchana ka prayog hota tha (aur lagaataar unhein dhokhaadhadi ke roop mein bataaya), kaunan dauyal ne sveekaar kiya ki hudini mein swayam alaukik shaktiyaan theen -- yeh drushtikon kaunan dauyal ki the ej of the ananon mein vyakt kiya gaya tha. hudini jaahir taur par kaunan dauyal ko yeh samajhaane mein asamarth rahe ki unke karatab seedhe taur par bhram hain, jo donon ke beech ek kadve saarvajanik bahas ka kaaran bana gaya.[22]

vigyaan ke ek ameriki itihaasakaar richrd milnar ne ek aisa maamala prastut kiya hai jismein kaunan dauyal 1912 ke piltadaaun main ke jhaanse ke aparaadhi rahe ho sakte hain jab unhonne kalpit hominid jeevaashm ki rachana kar vaigyaanik jagat ko 40 varshon se bhi adhik samay se moorkh banaae rakha. milnar ka kehna hai ki kaunan dauyal ka ek maksad tha -- arthaat unke pasandeeda manovijnyaaanon mein se ek ka asli roop dikhaane ke liye vaigyaanik pratishthaan se badla lena -- aur yeh ki the laust world mein jhaanse mein unke shaamil hone ke sambandh mein kai kootabhaashit suraag maujood hain.[23]

shaimual rojenabarg ki 1974 ki pustak neked is the best disgaaij yeh vyaakhya karne ka daava karti hai ki apni sampoorn lekhani mein kaunan dauyal ne apni maanasikta ke chhipe hue aur dabe hue pahaluon se sambandhit khule suraag chhode hain.

mrutyu

minsteed, London mein sar aarthar kaunan dauyal ki samaadhi
kroboro mein aarthar kaunan dauyal ki moorti

kaunan dauyal ko 7 July 1930 ko East saseks ke kroboro mein apne ghar, vindaleshaam ke hall mein apni chhaati ko mutthi se dabaae paaya gaya. unki mrutyu 71 saal ki umr mein dil ka daura padne se ho gayi thi. unke antim shabd apni patni ki or nirdeshit the: "tum adbhut ho."[24] haimpashaayar ke new faurest mein minsteed ke kbristaan mein unki kabr ke patthar par maujood smruti-lekh is prakaar hai:

'

steel troo
blade stret
aarthar kaunan dauyal
naait
paitriyt, fijishiyn end main of letars



'

London ke dakshin haaindahed ke paas ka ghar, andarashau jise kaunan dauyal ne banaaya tha aur kam se ek dashak tak usamein rahe the, vah 1924 se lekar 2004 tak ek hotel aur restaurant raha tha. iske baad ise ek devalapar ne khareed liya aur tab se yeh khaali hai jabki sanrakshanavaadi aur kaunan dauyal ke prashansak ise sanrakshit karne ki ladaai lad rahe hain.[17]


kaunan dauyal ke sammaan mein ek moorti kroboro mein kroboro kraus par bani hai jahaan kaunan dauyal 23 varshon tak rahe the. sharalauk homs ki bhi ek moorti edinbarg ke pikaardi place mein us ghar ke nikat bhi maujood hai jahaan kaunan dauyal ka janm hua tha.

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saaaincha:Expand further

  1. "kaunan dauyal ded fraum heart ataik", New York times, 8 July 1930. 4 November 2010 ko praapt kiya gaya.
  2. "Scottish writer best known for his creation of the detective Sherlock Holmes". Encyclopaedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/170563/Sir-Arthur-Conan-Doyle. abhigman tithi: 30 December 2009.
  3. "sar aarthar kaunan dauyal baayograafi". sherlockholmesonline.org. http://www.sherlockholmesonline.org/biography/index.htm. abhigman tithi: 2011-01-13.
  4. lelenabarg, John; dainiyl staisahovar aur Charles fole (2007). aarthar kaunan dauyal : A life in letars. haarpar press. pp. 8–9. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0-00-724759-2. staisahovar, dainiyl (2000). Taylor of tels: the life of aarthar kaunan dauyal. penguin books. pp. 20–21. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-8050-5074-4.
  5. staashauvar kehte hain ki unka sanyukt upanaam unke mahaan chaacha Michael kaunan ki den hai jo ek pratishthit patrakaar the aur jinse aarthar aur usaki badi bahan enet ne apne sanyukt upanaam "kaunan dauyal" ko praapt kiya tha. vahi srot bataata hai ki 1885 mein ve apne ghar ke baahar ki naamapatti tatha apni dauktaret theesis mein swayam ko "A. kaunan dauyal" ke roop mein varnit karte the. haalaanki, anya sroton (jaise ki 1901 ki janaganana) se sanket milta hai ki kaunan dauyal ka upanaam "dauyal" tha aur unke dvaara "kaunan dauyal" upanaam ka prayog keval baad ke varshon mein hi shuru kiya gaya.[krupaya uddharan jodein]
  6. esajeeemati - sar aarthar kaunan dauyal: othar of di sharalauk homs Detective nauvels.
  7. staashauvar 30-31.
  8. edinbarg research archive par upalabdh.
  9. aarthar kaunan dauyal end plaayamaauth.
  10. staashauvar 52-59.
  11. staashauvar 55, 58-59.
  12. Independence, 7 August 2006.
  13. 5 April 1893, aar L steeveinsan ki or se kaunan dauyal ko patra di laitars of Robert lyoois steeveinsan vaulyoom 2/chaiptar baarah.
  14. sova, Don bi. edagar elan po: A too jed . new yaurk: chekmaark books, 2001. peepi. 162-163. aaiesabeeen 0-8160-4161-X.
  15. Juson, Dave; Bull, David (2001). Full-Time at The Dell. Hagiology. pa॰ 21. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-9534474-2-1.
  16. "London County v Marylebone Cricket Club at Crystal Palace Park, 23-25 Aug 1900". Static.cricinfo.com. http://static.cricinfo.com/db/ARCHIVE/1900S/1900/ENG_LOCAL/OTHERS/LONDON-CO_MCC_23-25AUG1900.html. abhigman tithi: 2 March 2010.
  17. a aa leeman, syoo, "sharalauk homs ke prashansak devalapars se kaunan dauyal ke ghar ko ki ummeed karte hain", associated press, 28 July 2006.
  18. Miller, Russel. di edaveinchars of aarthar kaunan dauyal . new yaurk: Thomas dyooni books, 2008. peepi. 211-217. aaiesabeeen 0-312-37897-1.
  19. Paul Spiring. "by A. Conan Doyle, 'The Lost World' & Devon". Bfronline.biz. http://www.bfronline.biz/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=123&Itemid=9. abhigman tithi: 2011-02-03.
  20. Roughead, William (1941). "Oscar Slater". In Hodge, Harry. Famous Trials. 1. Penguin Books. pa॰ 108.
  21. Price, Leslie (2010). "Did Conan Doyle Go Too Far?". Psychic News (4037).
  22. a aa kalush, William aur lairi sloman, di seekret life of hudini: di meking of amerikaaj fast suparaheero, etriya books, 2006. aaiesabeeen 0-7432-7207-2.
  23. haaifild, Roger, "di mistreej case of kaunan dauyal end piltadaaun main", di daily teleegraaf, guroovaar 20 March 1997.
  24. staashauvar, pi. 439.

baahya kadiyaan

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