aaranyak

is sandook ko: dekhein samvaad

hindu dharm
par ek shreni ka bhaag

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vigrah
praveshadvaar: hindu dharm

HinduSwastika.svg

hindu maapan pranaali

aaranyak hindu dharm ke pavitratam aur sarvochch granth vedon ka gadya wala khand hai. ye vaidik vaangmaya ka teesara hissa hai aur vaidik sanhitaaon par diye bhaashya ka doosra star hai. inmein darshan aur gyaan ki baatein likhi hui hain, karmakaand ke baare mein ye chup hain. inki bhaasha vaidik sanskrut hai. ved, mantra tatha braahman ka sammilit abhidhaan hai. mantrabraahmanayorvedanaamadheyam (aapastanbasootr). braahman ke teen bhaagon mein aaranyak anyatam bhaag hai.

saayan ke anusaar is naamakaran ka kaaran yeh hai ki in granthon ka adhyayan aranya (jungle) mein kiya jaata tha. aaranyak ka mukhya vishay yajnyaabhaagon ka anushthaan na hokar tadantargat anushthaanon ki aadhyaatmik meemaansa hai. vastut: yagya ka anushthaan ek nitaant rahasyapoorn prateekaatmak vyaapaar hai aur is prateek ka poora vivran aaranyak grantho mein diya gaya hai. praanavidya ki mahima ka bhi pratipaadan in granthon mein vishesh roop se kiya gaya hai. sanhita ke mantron mein is vidya ka beej avashya upalabdh hota hai, parantu aaranyakon mein isi ko pallavit kiya gaya hai. tathya yeh hai ki upanishd aaranyak mein sanketit tathyon ki vishd vyaakhya karti hain. is prakaar sanhita se upanishdon ke beech ki shrrunkhala is saahitya dvaara poorn ki jaati hai.

anukram

'aaranyak' shabd ka arth

aaranyak granthon ka aadhyaatmik mahattv braahman granthon ki apeksha adhik hai. ye apne naam ke anusaar hi aranya ya van se sambaddh hain. jo aranya mein padha ya padhaaya jaae use 'aaranyak' kehte hain- aranye bhavam aaranyakam. aaranyak granthon ka pranayan praay: braahmanon ke pashchaat hua hai kyonki ismein durbodh yagya-prakriyaaon ko sookshm adhyaatm se joda gaya hai. vaanaprasthiyon aur sannyaasiyon ke liye aatmatattv aur brahmavidya ke gyaan ke liye mukhya roop se in granthon ki rachana hui hai-aisa maana jaata hai.

aaranyak granthon ka vivechya vishay

aaranyak granth vastut: braahmanon ke parishisht bhaag hain aur upanishdon ke poorvaroop. upanishdon mein jin aatmavidya, srushti aur tattvajnyaaan vishyak gambheer daarshanik vishyon ka pratipaadan hai, usaka praarambh aaranyakon mein hi dikhlaayi deti hai. aaranyakon mein vaidik yaagon ke aadhyaatmik aur daarshanik pakshon ka vivechan hai. inmein praanavidya ka vishesh varnan hua hai. kaalachakr ka vishd varnan taittireeya aaranyak mein praapt hota hai. yajnyaopaveet ka varnan bhi is aaranyak mein sarvapratham milta hai.

aaranyak granthon ka mahattv

vaidik tattvameemaansa ke itihaas mein aaranyakon ka vishesh mahattv sveekaar kiya jaata hai. inmein yagya ke goodh rahasyon ka udghaatan kiya gaya hai. inmein mukhya roop se aatmavidya aur rahasyaatmak vishyon ke vivran hain. van mein rahakar svaadhyaaya aur dhaarmik kaaryon mein lage rahane vaale vaanaprasth-aashramavaasiyon ke liye in granthon ka pranayan hua hai, aisa prateet hota hai. aaranyak granthon mein praanavidya ki mahima ka vishesh pratipaadan kiya gaya hai. praanavidya ke atirikt prateekopaasana, brahmavidya, aadhyaatmikta ka varnan karne se aaranyakon ki vishesh mahatta hai. anek aitihaasik aur saanskrutik tathyon ki prastuti ke kaaran bhi aaranyak granth upodaya hain. vastut: ye granth braahman granthon aur upanishdon ko jodne waali kadi jaise hain, kyonki inse upanishdon ke pratipaadya vishay aur bhaasha shaili ke vikaas ka adhyayan karne mein sahaayata milti hai.

pramukh aaranyak

aaranyakon ke mukhya granth nimnalikhit hai :

aitareya aaranyak

iska sambandh rigved se hai. aitareya ke bheetar paanch mukhya adhyaaya (aaranyak) hain jinmein pratham teen ke rachayita aitareya, chaturth ke aashvalaayan tatha pancham ke shaunak maane jaate hain. daaktar keeth ise nirukt ki apeksha arvaacheen maankar iska rachanaakaal shashth shataabdi vikramapoorv maanate hain, parantu vastut: yeh nirukt se praacheenatar hai. aitareya ke pratham teen aaranyakon ke karta mahidaas hain isse unhein aitareya braahman ka samakaaleen maanana nyaayya hai.

shaankhaayan

iska bhi sambandh rigved se hai. yeh aitareya aaranyak ke samaan hai tatha pandrah adhyaayon mein vibhkt hai jiska ek ansh (teesare a. se chhathe a. tak) kausheetaki upanishd ke naam se prasiddh hai.

taittireeya aaranyak

das parichhedon (prapaathakon) mein vibhkt hai, jinhein "aran" kehte hain. inmein saptam, ashtam tatha navam prapaathak milkar "taittireeya upanishd" kahalaate hain.

bruhadaaranyak

vastut: shukl yujarved ka ek aaranyak hi hai, parantu aadhyaatmik tathyon ki prachurata ke kaaran yeh upanishdon mein gina jaata hai.

tavalakaar (aaranyak)

saamaved se sambaddh ek hi aaranyak hai. jismein chaar adhyaaya hain aur pratyek adhyaaya mein kai anuvaak. chaturth adhyaaya ke dasham anuvaak mein prakhyaat tavalakaar (ya ken) upanishd hai.


aaranyak granthon ka vibhaajan

har ved ka ek ya adhik aaranyak hota hai. atharvaved ka koi aaranyak upalabdh naheen hai. aaranyakon ka vedaanusaar parichay is prakaar hai-

  • saamaved
    • taavalakar (ya jaimineeyopanishd) aaranyak
    • chhaandogya aaranyak
  • yajurved
    • shukl
      • vruhadaaranyak
    • Krishna
      • taittireeya aaranyak
      • maitraayani aaranyak

yadyapi atharvaved ka pruthak se koi aaranyak praapt naheen hota hai, tathaapi uske gopath braahman mein aaranyakon ke anuroop bahut si saamagri milti hai.

sandarbh

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