aapastamb

aapastamb Bhaarat ke pracheen ganitjnya aur shulb sootr ke rachayita hain. ve sootrakaar hain; rishi naheen. vaidik sanhitaaon mein inka ullekh naheen paaya jaata. aapastanbadharmasootr mein sootrakaar ne swayam apne ko "avar" (paravarti) kaha hai (1.2.5.4).

parichay

inke naam se Krishna yajurved ki taittireeya shaakha ka aapastanbakalpasootr paaya jaata hai. yeh granth 30 prashnon mein vibhaajit hai. iske pratham 24 prashnon ko aapastanbashrautasootr kehte hain jinmein vaidik yajnyaon ka vidhaan hai. 25 vein prashn mein paribhaasha, pravarakhand tatha hautrak mantra hai, iske 26 vein aur 27 vein prashn ko milaakar aapastanbagruhmasootr kaha jaata hai jinmein gruhmasanskaaron aur dhaarmik kriyaaon ka varnan hai. kalpoosatr ke 28vein or 29vein prashn aapastanbadharmasootr ke naam se prasiddh hain. 30vaaain prashn shulvasootr kahalaata hai. ismein yajnyaakund aur vedika ki maap ka varnan hai. rekhaaganit aur vaastushaastr ka praarambhik roop inmein milta hai.

samaajashaastr, shaasan aur vidhi ki drushti se aapastanbadharmasootr vishesh mahatva ka hai. yeh do prashnon mein aur pratyek prashn 11 patalon mein vibhkt hai. pratham prashn mein ninmalikhit vishyon ka varnan hai:dharm ke mool-ved tatha vedavidon ka sheel; chaar varn aur unka vareeyataakram; aachaarya; upanayan ka samay aur usaki avhelna ke liye praayashchit; brahmachaari ki karttavya; brahmacharyakaal-48,36,25 athva 12 varsh; brahmachaari ki jeevanacharya, dand, mekhala, ajin, bhiksha, samidhaaharan, agnyaadhaan; brahmachaari ke vrat, tap; aachaarya tatha vibhinn varno ko pranaam karne ki vidhi; brahmacharya ke vrat, tap; aachaarya tatha vibhinn varno ko pranaam karne ki vidhi; brahmacharya samaapt hone par gurudakshina; snaan aur snaatak; vedaadhyayan tatha anadhyaaya; panchamamahaayajnya-bhootayajnya, nruyajnya, devayajnya, pitruyajnya; tatha rishiyjnya; sabhi varno ke saath shishtaachaar; yajnyaopaveet; aachaman; bhojan tatha peya, nishedh; braahman ke liye aapaddharm-vanikkarm, kuchh padaartho ka vikraya varjit; pataneeya-chaurya, brahmahatya athva hatya; bhroonahatya; nishiddh sambandh mein yonisanbandh, suraapaan aadi; aadhyaatmik prashn-aatm, brahm, naitik saadhan aur dosh; kshatriya, vaishya tatha shoodr hi hatya ki kshatipoorti; braahman, guru evam shrotriya ke vadh ke liye praayashchit; guru-talp-gaman, suraapaan tatha suvarnachaurya ke liye praayashchitt; pakshi, gaaya tatha saand ke vadh ke liye praayashchit; gurujanon ko apashabd kehne ke liye praayashchitt; shoodra ke saath maithun tatha nishiddh bhojan ke liye praayashchitt; kruchhravat; chaurya; patit guru tatha maata ke saath vyavahaar; guru-talp-gaman ke liye praayashchit; par vividh mat; pati patni ke vyabhichaar ke liye praayashchit; bhroon (vidvaan braahman) hatya ke liye praayashchit; aatmaraksha ke atirikt shastragrahan braahman ke liye nishiddh; abhishst ke liye praayashchit; chhote paapon ke liye praayashchit; vidyaasnaatak, vratasnaatak tatha vidyaavratasnaatak ke sambandh mein vividh mat aur snaatakon ke vrat tatha aachaar.

dviteeya prashn ke vishay nimnaankit hain: paanigrahan ke uparaant gruhasth ke vrat; bhojan, upavaas tatha maithun; sabhi varn ke log apne karttavyapaalan se upayukt tatha na paalan se nimn yoniyon mein janm lete hain; pratham teen varnon ko nitya snaan kar vishvedav yagya karna chaahiye; shudr kisi aarya ke nireekshan mein anya varnon ke liye bhojan pakaave; pakvaann ki bali; pratham atithi tatha pun: baal, vruddh, rugn tatha garbhini ko bhojan; vaishvadev ke ant mein aae kisi aagantuk ko bhojan ke liye pratyaakhyaan naheen; avidvaan braahman, kshatriya, vaishya evam shoodr atithi ka svaagat; gruhasth ke liye uttareeya athva yajnyaopaveet; braahman ke abhaav mein kshatriya athva vaishya aachaarya; guru ke aagaman mein gruhasth ka kartavya; gruhasth ke liye adhyaapan tatha anya kartavya; agyaat varn aur sheel ke atithi ka svaagat; atithi; madhupark; shadvedaang; vaishvadev ke pashchaat shvaan tatha chaandaal ko bhi bhojan; daan, bhrutya aur das ko kasht dekar naheen; swayam, stri tatha putr ko kasht dekar daan; brahmachaari, gruhasth, parivraajak aadi ko bhojan; aachaarya, vivaah, yagya, maata-pita ka poshan, vratapaalan aadi bhiksha ke avsar; braahman aadi varnon ke kartavya; yuddh ke niyam; purohit ki niyukti; dand; braahman ki adandayata aur avadhyata; maarg ke niyam; varn ka utkarsh aur apakarsh pehli patni (santaanavati evam susheela) ke rahate doosra vivaah nishiddh; vivaah ke niyam; vivaah ke chhah prakaar-braahm, aarsh, daiv, gaandharv, aasur aur raakshas; vivaahit danpati ke kartavya; vividh prakaar ke putr; santaan ki adeyata aur avikreyata; daaya tatha vibhaajan; pati patni mein vibhaajan nishiddh; vedaviruddh deshaachaar aur kulaachaar anukaraneeya naheen; maranaashauch; daan; shraaddh; chaar aashram; parivraajakadharm; raajadharm; raajadhaaneesabha; aparaadhanirmoolan; daan; prajaarakshan; kar tatha kar se mukti; vyabhichaaradand; apashabd tatha narahatya; vividh prakaar ke dand; vaad (abhiyog); sandehaavastha mein anumaan tatha divya pramaan; striyon tatha saamaanya janta se vividh dharmo ka gyaan.

praacheenata mein aapastanbadharmasootr gautamadharmasootr aur baudhaayanadharmasootr se peechhe ka tatha hirnyakeshi aur vasishthadharmasootr ke pehle ka hai. iske sangrah ka samay 500 E.poo. ke pehle rakha ja sakta hai. aapastanbadharmasootr (2.7.17.17.) mein audeechyon (uttaravaalon) ke aachaar ka vishesh roop se ullekh hai. ispar kai vidvaanon ne yeh nishkarsh nikaala hai ki aapastanb dakshinaatya (sambhavat: Andhra) the. parantu sarasvati nadi ke uttar ka pradesh udeechi hone se yeh anumaan keval dakshin par hi laagoo naheen hota. yeh sach hai ki aapastanbeeya shaakha ke braahman narmada ke dakshin mein paae jaate hain, parantu unka yeh prasaar paravarti kaal ka hai. aapastanbadharmasootr par haradatt ka ujvalaavrutti naamak bhaashya prasiddh hai.

baahari kadiyaaain