aapaatakaal (Bhaarat)

pradhaanamantri indira Gandhi, jinhonne Bhaarat ke raashtrapati fakharuddeen Ali Ahmad se raashtreeya aapaatakaal ki ghoshana karavaai.

26 June 1975 se 21 March 1977 tak ka 21 maheene ki avadhi mein Bhaarat mein aapaatakaal ghoshit tha. tatkaaleen raashtrapati fkhruddeen Ali Ahmad ne tatkaaleen bhaarateeya pradhaanamantri indira Gandhi ke kehne par bhaarateeya samvidhaan ki dhaara 352 ke adheen aapaatakaal ki ghoshana kar di. svatantr Bhaarat ke itihaas mein yeh sabse vivaadaaspad aur alokataantrik kaal tha. aapaatakaal mein chunaav sthagit ho gaye tatha naagrik adhikaaron ko samaapt karke manamaani ki gayi. indira Gandhi ke raajaneetik virodhiyon ko kaid kar liya gaya aur press par pratibandhit kar diya gaya. pradhaanamantri ke bete sanjaya Gandhi ke netrutv mein bade paimaane par nasabandi abhiyaan chalaaya gaya. jayaprakaash Narayan ne ise bhaarateeya itihaas ki sarvaadhik kaali avadhi' kaha tha.

anukram

parichay

indira Gandhi ka udaya

1967 aur 1971 ke beech, pradhaanamantri indira Gandhi ne sarkaar aur bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress party ke saath hi sansad mein bhaari bahumat ko apne niyantran mein kar liya tha. keindreeya mantrimandal ki bajaay, pradhaanamantri ke sachivaalaya ke bheetar hi kendra sarkaar ki shakti ko keindrit kiya gaya. sachivaalaya ke nirvaachit sadasyon ko unhonne ek khatra ke roop mein dekha. iske liye vah apne pradhaan sachiv peeen haksar, jo indira ke salaahakaaron ki andaruni ghere mein aate the, par bharosa kiya. iske alaava, haksar ne sattaaroodh party ki vichaaradhaara "pratibaddh naukarashaahi" ke vichaar ko badhaava diya.

indira Gandhi ne chaturaai se apne pratidvandiyon ko alag kar diya jis kaaran Congress vibhaajit ho gayi aur 1969-mein do bhaagon , Congress (O) ("sindeeket" ke roop mein jaana jaata hai jismein puraane guard shaamil hain) va Congress (aar) jo indira ki or thi, bhaagon mein bat gayi. akhil bhaarateeya Congress committee aur Congress saansadon ke ek bade bhaag ne pradhaanamantri ka saath diya. indira Gandhi ki party puraani Congress se jyaada taakatavar va aantarik lokatantr ki paranparaaon ke saath ek majaboot sanstha thi. doosari aur Congress (aar) ke sadasyon ko jaldi hi samajh mein aa gaya ki unki pragati indira Gandhi aur unke parivaar ke liye apni vafaadaari dikhne par poori tarah nirbhar karti hai aur chaatukaarita ka dikhaavati pradarshit karna unki dincharya ban gaya. aane vaale varshon mein indira ka prabhaav itna badh gaya ki vah Congress vidhaayak dal dvaara nirvaachit sadasyon ki bajaay, raajyon ke mukhyamantriyon ke roop mein swayam chune gaye vafaadaaron ko sthaapit kar sakti theen.

indira ki us sarkaar ke paas janta ke beech unki karishmaai appeal ka samarthan praapt tha. iski ek aur kaaran sarkaar dvaara liye gaye faisale bhi the.ismein July 1969 mein pramukh bankon ka raashtreeyakaran va sitmbar 1970 mein raajabhatte(privi pars) se unmoolan shaamil hain; ye faisale apne virodhiyon ko saarvabhaumik jhatka dene ke liye, adhyaadesh ke maadhyam se achaanak kiye gaye the. iske baad, sindeeket aur anya virodhiyon ke vipreet, indira ko "gareeb samarthak , dharm ke maamalon mein, arthashaastr aur dharmanirpekshata va samaajavaad ke saath poore desh ke vikaas ke liye khadi ek chhavi ke roop mein dekha gaya."[1] [2] pradhaanamantri ko vishesh roop se vanchit vargon-gareeb, daliton, mahilaaon aur alpasankhyakon dvaara bahut samarthan mila. unke liye, vah unki indira amma theen.

1971 ke aam chunaavon mein, "gareebi hataao" ka indira ka lokalubhaavan naara logon ko itna pasand aaya ki puraskaar svarup unhein ek vishaal bahumat (518 se baahar 352 seatein) se jeeta diya. " jeet ke itne bade antar ke sambandh mein itihaasakaar raamachandr guha ne baad mein likha tha ki "Congress (aar) asli Congress ke roop mein khadi hai ise yogyata pradarshit karne ke liye kisi pratyaya ki aavashyakta naheen hai."

December 1971 mein, inke sakriya yuddh netrutv mein Bhaarat ne poorv mein poorvi Pakistan (Bangladesh) ko apne kattar dushman Pakistan se svatantrata dilvaai. agale maheene hi unhein Bhaarat ratn se sammaanit kiya gaya, vah us samay apne charam par theen; unki jeevani lekhak indar malhotra, ke liye 'Bhaarat ki saamraajnyai' ke roop mein unka varnan" upayukt lag raha tha. niyamit roop se ek taanaashaah hone ka aur ek vyaktitv panth ko badhaava dene ka aarop lagaane vaale vipakshi netaaon ne bhi unhein durga saamaan maana.[3]

1975 ki tapati garmi ke dauraan achaanak bhaarateeya raajaneeti mein bhi bechaini dikhi. yeh sab hua Allahabad uchch nyaayaalaya ke us faisale se jismein indira Gandhi ko chunaav mein dhaandhali karne ka doshi paaya gaya aur un par chhah varshon tak koi bhi pad sambhaalne par pratibandh laga diya gaya tha. lekin indira Gandhi ne is faisale ko maanane se inkaar karte hue sarvochch nyaayaalaya mein appeal karne ki ghoshana ki aur 26 June ko aapaatakaal laagoo karne ki ghoshana kar di gayi.

aakaashavaani par prasaarit apne sandesh mein indira Gandhi ne kaha, "jab se mainne aam aadmi aur desh ki mahilaaon ke faayde ke liye kuchh pragatisheel kdam uthaae hain, tabhi se mere khilaaf gahari saajish rachi ja rahi thi."

aapaatakaal laagoo hote hi aantarik suraksha kaanoon (meesa) ke tahat raajaneetik virodhiyon ki girftaari ki gayi, inmein jayaprakaash Narayan, George frnaandis aur atal bihaari Vajpayee bhi shaamil the.

maamala

maamala 1971 mein hue Loksabha chunaav ka tha, jismein unhonne apne mukhya pratidvandvi raaj Narayan ko paraajit kiya tha. lekin chunaav parinaam aane ke chaar saal baad raaj Narayan ne High Court mein chunaav parinaam ko chunauti di. unki daleel thi ki indira Gandhi ne chunaav mein sarkaari machinery ka durupyog kiya, tay seema se adhik kharch kiye aur matadaataaon ko prabhaavit karne ke liye glat tareekon ka istemaal kiya. adaalat ne in aaropon ko sahi thaharaaya. iske baavajood indira Gandhi tas se mas naheen huin. yahaaain tak ki Congress party ne bhi bayaan jaari kar kaha ki indira ka netrutv party ke liye aparihaarya hai.

pehli gair-Congressi sarkaar

moraaraji Desai : pratham gair-Congressi pradhaanamantri (1977–1979)

aapaatakaal laagoo karne ke lagbhag do saal baad virodh ki lahar tej hoti dekh pradhaanamantri indira Gandhi ne Loksabha bhang kar chunaav karaane ki sifaarish kar di. chunaav mein aapaatakaal laagoo karne ka faisala Congress ke liye ghaatak saabit hua. khud indira Gandhi apne gadh raayabareli se chunaav haar gain. janta party bhaari bahumat se satta mein I aur moraaraji Desai pradhaanamantri bane. sansad mein Congress ke sadasyon ki sankhya 350 se ghat kar 153 par simat gayi aur 30 varshon ke baad kendra mein kisi gair Congressi sarkaar ka gathan hua. Congress ko uttar pradesh, Bihar, Punjab, Haryana aur Delhi mein ek bhi seat naheen mili. nai sarkaar ne aapaatakaal ke dauraan liye gaye faisalon ki jaaainch ke liye shaah aayog gathit ki gayi. haalaaainki nai sarkaar do saal hi tik pai aur androoni antarvirodhon ke kaaran 1979 mein sarkaar gir gayi. up pradhaanamantri chaudhari charan Singh ne kuchh mantriyon ki dohari sadasyata ka savaal uthaaya jo janasangh ke bhi sadasya the. isi mudde par charan Singh ne sarkaar se samarthan vaapas le liya aur Congress ke samarthan se unhonne sarkaar banaai lekin chali sirf paaainch maheene. unke naam kabhi sansad naheen jaane vaale pradhaanamantri ka record darj ho gaya.

sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain