aandhr pradesh

aandhr pradesh
ఆaaంaaధaa్aaర పaa్aaరaaదaaేaaశaa్
Bhaarat ka raajya
upanaam: Bhaarat ka chaaval ka katora
aandhr pradesh ki Bhaarat ke maanachitr par sthiti
nirdeshaank (Hyderabad): 16°a30′aN 80°a36′aE / 16.5°aN 80.6°aE / 16.5; 80.6Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 16°a30′aN 80°a36′aE / 16.5°aN 80.6°aE / 16.5; 80.6
desh Bhaarat
sthaapana 1 November 1956 (1956-11-01) (59 varsh pehle)
rajdhani amaraavati
sabse bada city vishaakhapatnam
jile 13
shaasan
• sabha aandhr pradesh sarkaar , Bhaarat sarkaar
raajyapaal E. S. L. narasimhan
mukhyamantri chandrabaaboo Naidu
vidhaan mandal dvisdaneeya (175 + 56 seatein)
• bhaarateeya uchch nyaayalaya Andhra pradesh uchch nyaayaalaya
kshetr
• kul 1,60,205
kshetr darja chautha
ooainchaai 49
janasankhya (2011)[1]
• kul 49
• darja paanchava
• ghanatv <
samay mandal IST (yooteesi +05:30)
UN/LOCODE AP
aaiesao 3166 kut IN-AP
vaahan panjeekaran AP
maavisoo Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 0.473 (nimn)
maavisoo kram 15vaan (2011)
saaksharata 67.77% (2011)
aadhikaarik raajya bhaashaaen telugu, urdoo
jaalasthal ap.gov.in

Andhra pradesh telugu: ఆaaంaaధaa్aaర పaa్aaరaaదaaేaaశaa్(, anuvaad: aandhron ka praant), sankshipt aan.pr., Bhaarat ke dakshin-poorvi tat par sthit raajya hai. kshetr ke anusaar yeh Bhaarat ka chautha sabse bada aur janasankhya ki drushti se aathavaan sabse bada raajya hai. iski rajdhani aur sabse bada shahar Hyderabad hai. Bhaarat ke sabhi raajyon mein sabse lamba samudra tat Gujarat mein (1600 ki॰mee॰) hote hue, doosare sthaan par is raajya ka samudra tat (972 ki॰mee॰) hai.[2]

Hyderabad keval das saal ke liye rajdhani rahegi, tab tak amaraavati shahar ko rajdhani ka roop de diya jaayega.

Andhra pradesh 12°a41' tatha 22°au॰ akshaansh aur 77° tatha 84°a40'poo॰ deshaantar rekhaansh ke beech hai aur uttar mein Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh aur udeesa, poorv mein Bengal ki khaadi, dakshin mein tamil naadu aur pashchim mein Karnataka se ghira hua hai. aitihaasik roop se Andhra pradesh ko "Bhaarat ka dhaan ka katora" kaha jaata hai. yahaaain ki fasal ka 77% se zyaada hissa chaaval hai.[3] is raajya mein do pramukh nadiyaaain, godaavari aur Krishna bahti hain. puducheri (paandeecheri) raajya ke yaanam jile ka chhota ant:kshetr (12 varg meal (30 varg ki॰mee॰)) is raajya ke uttari-poorv mein sthit godaavari delta mein hai.

aitihaasik drushti se raajya mein shaamil kshetr aandhrapath, aandhrades, aandhravaani aur Andhra vishay ke roop mein jaana jaata tha.[4] Andhra raajya se Andhra pradesh ka gathan 1 November 1956 ko kiya gaya.

February 2014 ko bhaarateeya sansad ne alag telangaana raajya ko manjoori de di. telangaana raajya mein das jile tatha shesh aandhr pradesh (seemaanndhr) mein 13 jile honge. das saal tak Hyderabad donon raajyon ki sanyukt rajdhani hogi. naya raajya seemaanndhr do-teen maheene mein astitv mein aajaaega ab Loksabha/Rajyasabha ka 25/12sit Andhra mein aur Loksabha/raajyasabhaa17/8 sit telangaana me hoga.[5] isi maah aandhr pradesh mein raashtrapati shaasan bhi laagoo ho gaya jo ki raajya ke batavaare tak laagoo rahega.[6]

Andhra pradesh raajya chinh
raajya bhaasha telugu (తaaెaaలaaుaaగaaు)
raajya prateek poorn Kumbh (పaaూaaరaa్aaణaaకaaుaaంaaభaaం)
raajya geet ma telegu talli ki (మaaా తaaెaaలaaుaaగaaు తaaలaa్aaలaaిaaకaaి మaaలaa్aaలaaె పaaూaaదaaంaaడ) shankaraambaadi sundaraachaari dvaara
raajya pashu chinkaara, (కaaృaaషaa్aaణ జaaిaaంaaక)
raajya pakshi neelakanth, (పaaాaaల పaaిaaటaa్aaట)
raajya ka ped neem (వaaేaaప)
raajya khel kabaddi (చaaెaaడaaుaaగaaుaaడaaు)
raajya nrutya kuchipoodi (కaaూaaచaaిaaపaaూaaడaaి)
raajya fool kumud (కaaలaaుaaవ పaaుaaవaa్aaవaaు)

anukram

itihaas

aitareya braahman (E.poo.800) aur mahaabhaarat jaise sanskrut mahaakaavyon mein Andhra shaasan ka ullekh kiya gaya tha.[7]bharat ke naatyashaastr (E.poo. pehli sadi) mein bhi "Andhra" jaati ka ullekh kiya gaya hai.[8]bhatteeprolu mein paae gaye shilaalekhon mein telugu bhaasha ki jadein khoji gayi hain.[9]

chandragupt maurya (E.poo. 322-297) ke nyaayaalaya ka daura karne vaale megasthanees ne ullekh kiya hai ki Andhra desh mein 3 gadh vaale nagar aur 100,000 paidal sena, 200 ghudsavaar fauj aur 1000 haathiyon ki sena thi. bauddh pustakon se prakat hota hai ki us samay aandhravaasiyon ne godaavari kshetr mein apne raajyon ki sthaapana ki thi. apne 13vein shilaalekh mein ashok ne havaala diya hai ki aandhravaasi uske adheenasth the.[10]

shilaalekheeya pramaan darshaate hain ki tatavarti Andhra mein kuberaka dvaara shaasit ek praarambhik raajya tha,[11] jiski rajdhani pratipaalapura (bhatteeprolu) thi. yeh shaayad Bhaarat ka sabse puraana raajya hai.[12]lagta hai isi samay dhaanyakatakam/dharaneekota (vartamaan amaraavati) mahatvapoorn sthaan rahe hain, jiska Gautam buddh ne bhi daura kiya tha. praacheen tibbati vidvaan taaraanaath ke anusaar: "apne jnyaaanodaya ke agale varsh chaitr maas ki poornima ko buddh ne dhaanyakatak ke mahaan stoop ke paas 'mahaan nakshatr' (kaalachakr) mandalon ka sootrapaat kiya."[13][14]

Warangal mein kaakateeya moortikla

mauryon ne E.poo. chauthi shataabdi mein apne shaasan ko Andhra tak failaaya. maurya vansh ke patan ke baad E.poo. teesari shataabdi mein Andhra shaatavaahan svatantr hue. 220 E.sadi mein shaatavaahan ke hraas ke baad, ikshvaaku raajavansh, pallav, aanand gotrika, vishnukundeena, poorvi chaalukya aur chola ne telugu bhoomi par shaasan kiya. telugu bhaasha ka shilaalekh pramaan, 5veen isvi sadi mein renaati chola (kadapa kshetr) ke shaasan kaal ke dauraan mila.[15] is avadhi mein telugu, praakrut aur sanskrut ke aadhiptya ko kam karte hue ek lokapriya maadhyam ke roop mein ubhari.[16]apni rajdhani vinukonda se shaasan karne vaale vishnukundeen raajaaon ne telugu ko raajabhaasha banaaya.vishnukundeenon ke patan ke baad poorvi chaalukyon ne apni rajdhani veingi se lambe samay tak shaasan kiya. pehli isvi sadi mein hi chaalukyon ke baare mein ullekh kiya gaya ki ve shaatavaahan aur baad mein ikshvaakuon ke adheen jaageeradaar aur mukhiya ke roop mein kaam karte the. 1022 E. ke aas-paas chaalukya shaasak raajaraaj Narendra ne raajamandri par shaasan kiya.

palnaadu ki ladaai ke parinaamasvaroop poorvi chaalukyon ki shakti ksheen ho gayi aur 12veen aur 13veen sadi mein kaakateeya raajavansh ka udaya hua. kaakateeya, Warangal ke chhote pradesh par shaasan karne vaale raashtrakooton ke pratham saamant the. sabhi telugu bhoomi ko kaakateeyon ne ekajut kiya. 1323 E. mein Delhi ke sultaan giyaas-ud-din tuglak ne ulagh Khan ke tahat telugu desh ko jeetne aur Warangal ko kbje mein karne ke liye badi sena bheji. raaja prataaparudr bandi banaae gaye. 1326 E. mein musunoori naayakon ne Delhi saltanat se Warangal ko chhuda kar us par pun: kbja kiya aur pachaas varshon tak shaasan kiya. unki safalta se prerit hokar, Warangal ke kaakateeyon ke paas raajakosh adhikaariyon ke taur par kaam karne vaale harihr aur bukka ne vijyanagar saamraajya ki sthaapana ki, jo ki Andhra pradesh aur Bhaarat ke itihaas mein sabse bada saamraajya hai.[17]1347 E. mein Delhi saltanat ke khilaaf vidroh karte hue ala-ud-deen hasan gangoo dvaara dakshin Bhaarat mein ek svatantr muslim raashtra, bahamani raajya ki sthaapana ki gayi. 16veen sadi ke praarambh se 17veen sadi ke ant tak lagbhag do sau varshon ke liye kutubashaahi raajavansh ne Andhra desh par aadhiptya jamaaya.

Hyderabad mein Charminar
makka masjid

aupaniveshik Bhaarat mein, uttari sarkaar british Madras presideinsi ka hissa ban gaye. antat: yeh kshetr tateeya Andhra pradesh ke roop mein ubhara. baad mein nijaam ne british ko paanch kshetr saunpe, jo antat: raayalaseema kshetr ke roop mein ubhara. nijaam ne sthaaneeya svaayattata ke badle mein british shaasan ko sveekaar karte hue vishaal raajya Hyderabad ke roop mein aantarik praanton par niyantran banaae rakha. is beech fraanseesiyon ne godaavari delta mein yaanam (yaanaun) par kbja kiya aur (british niyantran ki avadhi ko chhod kar) 1954 tak use apne adheen rakha.

1947 mein british saamraajya se Bhaarat svatantr hua. Hyderabad ke musalmaan nijaam ne Bhaarat se apni svatantrata ko banaae rakhana chaaha, lekin is kshetr ke logon ne bhaarateeya sangh mein shaamil hone ke liye aandolan shuroo kiya. 5 dinon tak chalne vaale operation polo ke baad, jisko Hyderabad raajya ki janta ka poora samarthan praapt tha, 1948 mein Hyderabad raajya ko Bhaarat ganaraajya ka hissa banane ke liye majaboor kiya gaya.

ek svatantr raajya praapt karne ke prayaas mein aur Madras raajya ke telugu logon ke hiton ki raksha ke liye, amarajeevi potti shreeraamulu ne aamaran upavaas kiya. unki maut ke baad saarvajanik duhaai aur naagrik ashaanti ne sarkaar ko majaboor kiya ki telugu bhaashi logon ke liye ek nae raajya ke gathan ki ghoshana karein.1 October 1953 ko Andhra ne karnool ko apni rajdhani ke saath raajya ka darja paaya.

1 November 1956 ko Andhra pradesh raajya ke nirmaan ke liye Andhra raajya ka vilay Hyderabad raajya ke telangaana praant se kiya gaya. Hyderabad raajya ki vigat rajdhani Hyderabad ko nae raajya Andhra pradesh ki rajdhani banaaya gaya. 1954 mein fraanseesiyon ne yaanam par adhikaar tyaag diya, lekin sandhi ki ek shart yeh thi ki jile ki alag aur spasht pehchaan ko kaayam rakhein, jo ki vartamaan puducheri raajya ka gathan karne vaale anya dakshin bhaarateeya parikshetron ke liye bhi laagoo tha.

bhoogol aur jalavaayu

aam taur par Andhra pradesh ki jalavaayu garm aur nam hai. raajya ki jalavaayu ka nirdhaaran karne mein dakshin pashchim monsoon ki pramukh bhoomika hai. lekin Andhra pradesh mein sardiyaan sukhad hoti hain. yeh vah samay hai jab raajya kai paryatakon ko aakarshit karta hai.

Andhra pradesh mein greeshmakaal March se June tak chalta hai. in maheenon mein taapamaan kaafi ooncha rahata hai. tateeya maidaanon mein garmiyon ka taapamaan aam taur par raajya ke baaki jagahon ki tulana mein adhik hota hai. garmiyon mein, aam taur par taapamaan 20 degree celcius aur 40 degree celcius ke beech rahata hai. garmi ke dinon mein kuchh sthaanon par taapamaan uchchatam 45 degree tak bhi pahunchata hai.

Andhra pradesh mein July se September ushnakatibandheeya baarish ka mausam hota hai. in maheenon ke dauraan raajya mein bhaari varsha hoti hai. Andhra pradesh mein kul varsha ka lagbhag ek tihaai ansh poorvottar monsoon ki vajah se hota hai. October maheene ke aas-paas raajya mein sardi ka mausam aata hai. Andhra pradesh mein October, November, December, January aur February sardi ke maheene hain. raajya ka tateeya ilaaka kaafi lamba hone ki vajah se sardiyon mein mausam bahut thanda naheen hota hai. sardiyon mein taapamaan ka vistaar aam taur par 13 degree celcius se 30 degree celcius ke beech rahata hai.

garmi ke maheenon ke dauraan raajya ka daura karne ke liye aapko garmi ke kapadon ki achhi taiyaari karne ki zaroorat padegi. mausam ka achhi tarah saamana karne ke liye sooti kapde upayukt hain.

choonki varsh ke adhikaansh bhaag ke dauraan Andhra Pradesh ki jalavaayu anukool naheen hai, raajya ka daura karne ke liye October se fravari ke beech ka samay achha hai.

prabhaag

ఆaaంaaధaa్aaర పaa్aaరaaదaaేaaశaa్ జaaిaaలaa్aaలaaాaaల పaaటaaమaaు
Andhra pradesh ke jilon ka naksha

Andhra pradesh ka vibhaaj hone ke baad is mein do kshetr vibhaajit roop se hain, yatha tateeya Andhra aur raayalaseema [18]

Andhra pradesh mein 13 jile hain: anantapur, chittoor, kadapa, poorv godaavari, guntoor, Krishna, karnool, shri potti shreeraamulu nelloor, prakaasham, shreekaakulam, vishaakhaapatnam, vijyanagaram, aur pashchim godaavari.

pratyek jila kai mandalon mein vibhaajit hai aur pratyek mandal kuchh gaanvon ka samooh hai.

Hyderabad rajdhani hai. aandhrapradesh aur telangaana raajya alag karne ke baad, aandhr pradesh ki rajdhani das saal Hyderabad rahegi, aur nai rajdhani vijyavaada shahar ko ghoshit kar diya gaya hai. Andhra pradesh ka mukhya bandargaah vishaakhaapatnam, raajya ka doosra sabse bada shahar hai aur bhaarateeya nausena ke poorvi nausena kamaan ka ghar hai. vijyavaada, apni avasthiti aur pramukh rel aur sadak maargon se niktata ke kaaran ek pramukh vyaapaarik kendra aur raajya ka teesara sabse bada shahar hai. anya mahatvapoorn shahar aur kasbein hain: kaakeenaada, guntoor, tirupati, raajamandri, nelloor, ongol, karnool, anantapur, aur elooru.

janasaankhyiki

telugu anya bhaasha kul
hindu 82% 2% 84%
musalmaan 1% 8% (mukhyat: urdoo) 9%
isaai 4% 1% 5%
anya dharm 0.5% 0.5% 1%
kul 88.5% 11.5% 100%
janasankhya chalan
janaganana janasankhya
1961 3,59,83,000
1971 4,35,03,000 20.9%
1981 5,35,50,000 23.1%
1991 6,65,08,000 24.2%
2001 7,57,27,000 13.9%
strot- bhaarataaya janaganana[19]

telugu raajya ki raajabhaasha hai, jo 88.5% janasankhya dvaara boli jaati hai. Bhaarat ki atyadhik boli jaane waali bhaashaaon mein telugu ka teesara sthaan hai.[20]raajya mein pramukh bhaashaai alpasankhyak samoohon mein urdoo 8.63%) aur hindi (0.63%) tatha tamil (1.01%) bolne vaale shaamil hain.[21]Bhaarat sarkaar ne 1 November 2008 ko ek shaastreeya aur praacheen bhaasha ke roop mein telugu ko naamit kiya.[22]

Andhra pradesh mein 1% se kam boli jaane waali anya bhaashaaon mein kannad (0.94%), maraathi (0.84%), udiya (0.42%), gondi (0.21%) aur malayalam (0.1%) hain. raajya nivaasiyon dvaara 0.1% se kam boli jaane waali bhaashaaon mein gujaraati (0.09%), saavara (0.09%), koya (0.08%), jatapu (0.04%), punjabi (0.04%), kolami (0.03%), konda (0.03%), gadaba (0.02%), sindhi (0.02%), gorakhaali/nepaali (0.01%) aur khond /kondh (0.01%) shaamil hain.

Andhra pradesh ka mukhya jaateeya samooh telugu log hain, jo mukhyat: aarya aur dravid ki mishrit jaati se sambandhit hain.

arth-vyavastha

raajya ki arthavyavastha ke liye aay ka mukhya srot krushi rahi hai. Bhaarat ki chaar mahatvapoorn nadiyaan, yatha godaavari, Krishna, penna aur tungabhadra raajya mein sinchaai pradaan karte hue pravahit hoti hain. chaaval, ganna, kapaas, mirchi (kaali mirch), aam aur tambaakoo sthaaneeya fasal hain. haal hi mein, vanaspati tel ke utpaadan ke liye prayukt fasal, jaise ki soorajamukhi aur moongafali ne samarthan paaya hai. godaavari nadi ghaati sinchaai pariyojana aur duniya mein sarvochch, pattharon se bane naagaarjun saagar baandh sahit, kai bahu raajya sinchaai pariyojanaaen vikaasaadheen hain.[23][24]

raajya ne soochana praudyogiki aur jaiv-praudyogiki ke kshetron par bhi dhyaan keindrit karna shuroo kar diya hai. 2004-2005 mein Andhra pradesh Bhaarat ke sarvochch IT niryaatakon ki soochi mein paanchave sthaan par raha tha. 2004-2005 ke dauraan raajya se 2004-2005 niryaat Ru.82,700 million ($ 1,800 million) raha tha.[25]prati varsh 52.3% ki dar se IT kshetr ka vistaar ho raha hai. raashtra ke kul IT niryaat mein 14 pratishat ke yogadaan dvaara, 2006-2007 mein IT niryaat Ru.190,000 million ($4.5 billion) tak pahuncha aur Bhaarat mein chauthe sthaan par raha.[26]pehle se hi sakal raajya ghareloo utpaad (GSDP) mein raajya ke seva kshetr ka yogadaan 43% hai aur 20% kaarya bal niyojit hai.[24]is raajya ki rajdhani Hyderabad ko desh ke thok dava ki rajdhani maana jaata hai. faarmaasyootikl kshetr ke sheershasth 10 companiyon ka 50% is raajya se hain. is raajya ki kai companiyon dvaara pehle se morcha sambhaalne ki vajah se, buniyaadi suvidhaaon ke maamale mein bhi raajya ne bahut hi mahatvapoorn sthaan haasil kiya hai.

Andhra pradesh ek khanij samruddh raajya hai, jo khanij sanpada ke maamale mein Bhaarat mein doosare sthaan par hai. 30 arab tan ke anumaan sahit, Bhaarat ke choona patthar bhandaar ka ek tihaai is raajya mein hai.Krishna godaavari ghaati mein praakrutik gas aur petrolium ke vishaal bhandaar hain. raajya, koyale ke bhandaar ki badi raashi se bhi samruddh hai.[24]

raashtreeya baajaar mein 11% ki hissedaari ke saath, desh bhar mein jal vidyut utpaadan ke maamale mein raajya pehle sthaan par hai.

2005 ke liye Andhra pradesh ka GSDP, maujooda keematon ke anusaar anumaanat: $62 billion aanka gaya tha. saankhyiki aur kaaryakram kaaryaanvayan mantraalaya dvaara bhaarateeya rupayon ke million mein aankadon ke saath anumaanit baajaar ki keematon ke liye Andhra pradesh ke GSDP ki pravrutti soochak taalika hai. tadanusaar, Bhaarat ke pramukh raajyon ke beech raajya ka darja, samagr GSDP ke sandarbh mein chauthe[27] aur prati vyakti bhi chauthe sthaan par hai. ek anya maap-siddhaant ke anusaar, bhaarateeya sangh ke sabhi raajyon mein sakal utpaad ke maamale mein raajya teesare sthaan par hai.[28]

varsh raajya ke sakal ghareloo utpaad (Ru.mein)
1980 81,910
1985 152,660
1990 333,360
1995 798,540
2000 1,401,190
2007 2,294,610

krushi

khaadyaann utpaadan mein sanlagn Andhra pradesh ki arthavyavastha ka praathamik kshetr krushi hai. Andhra pradesh desh ke pramukh dhaan utpaadan raajyon mein se ek hai aur Bhaarat mein varjeeniya tanbaakoo ka lagbhag 4/5 bhaag ka utpaadan bhi yaheen hota hai. raajya ki nadiyaaain, visheshakar godaavari aur Krishna krushi ke liye mahattvapoorn hain. lambe samay tak inke laabh Andhra pradesh ke tateeya kshetron tak seemit the, jinhein sarvottam sinchaai suvidhaaen upalabdh theen. svatantrata ke baad shushk aantarik kshetron ke liye in do nadiyon ke alaava anya do nadiyon ke paani ko ekatr karne ke prayaas kiye gaye hain. naharon dvaara sinchaai karne se telangaana aur raayalaseema kshetron mein tateeya Andhra pradesh ki krushi-audyogik ikaaiyon se hod leti ikaaiyon ki sankhya badh gayi hai.

Andhra pradesh mein naagrikon ka mukhya vyavasaaya kheti hai, iske lagbhag 62 pratishat hisse mein kheti hoti hai. Andhra pradesh ki mukhya fsal chaaval hai aur yahaaain ke logon ka mukhya aahaar bhi chaaval hi hai. raajya ke kul anaaj ke utpaadan ka 77 pratishat bhaag chaaval hi hai. yahaaain ki anya pramukh fsalein - jvaar, tanbaakoo, kapaas aur ganna hain. Andhra pradesh Bhaarat ka sabse adhik mooaingafali paida karne wala raajya hai. raajya ke kshetrafal ke 23 pratishat hisse mein saghan ghane van hain. van utpaadon mein saagavaan, yookeliptas, kaajoo, kaisyooreena aur imaarati lakdi mukhya roop se hain.

sarkaar aur raajaneeti

Andhra pradesh mein 175 seaton ki vidhaan sabha hai. Bhaarat ke sansad mein raajya ke 25 sadasya hain; uchch sadan, raajya sabha mein 12 aur nichle sadan, lok sabha mein 42.[29][30]

1982 tak Andhra pradesh mein bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress (INC) party ke netrutv ki sarkaaron ka silsila tha. kaasoo brahmaanand Reddy ne lambe samay tak sevaarat mukhyamantri ka record banaae rakha tha, jise 1983 mein N.ti. raamaaraav ne toda. pi.vi.narasinha Rao ne bhi raajya ke mukhyamantri ke taur par seva ki, jo 1991 mein Bhaarat ke pradhaanamantri bane. raajya ke pramukh mukhyamantriyon mein shaamil hain Andhra raajya ke mukhyamantri (CM) tangutoori prakaasham, (vartamaan Andhra pradesh ke pratham mukhyamantri neelam sanjeev Reddy the), anya hain kaasoo brahmaanand Reddy, marri chenna Reddy, jalagam veingal Rao, nedurumalli janaardan Reddy, naadeindla bhaaskar Rao, kotla vijay bhaaskar Reddy, N.ti. raamaaraav, naara chandrabaaboo Naidu aur vai.S. raajashekhar Reddy.

Hyderabad uchch nyaayaalaya, raajya ka pramukh nyaayik nikaaya

1983 mein telugu desham party (TDP) ne raajya chunaavon mein vijay haasil ki aur N.ti.raamaaraav (NTR) ne raajya ka mukhya mantri ban kar pehli baar Andhra pradesh ki raajaneeti mein doosare durjeya raajaneetik dal ko pravartit kiya aur is tarah Andhra pradesh ki raajaneeti mein ek party ke ekaadhikaar ko toda. kuchh maheenon ke baad, jab NTR door sanyukt raajya America mein ilaaj ke liye gaye the, nandeindla bhaaskar Rao ne anyaayapoorvak satta chheen li. vaapas aane ke baad, NTR ne raajya ke raajyapaal ko safalataapoorvak vidhaanasabha bhang karne aur dubaara chunaav ke liye manaaya. TDP ne bhaari bahumat se chunaav jeeta.

dau॰ marri chenna dvaara maamalon ki patavaar sanbhaalate hue INC party ki satta mein vaapasi ke saath hi 1989 mein saamoohik chunaavon ne NTR ke 7-varsheeya shaasan ko samaapt kiya. unhein N. janaardhan Reddy ne pratisthaapit kiya, jab ki baad mein kotla vijay bhaaskar Reddy ne unki jagah li.

1994 mein Andhra pradesh ne dubaara TDP ko janaadesh diya aur fir se NTR mukhyamantri bane. NTR ke daamaad chandrabaaboo Naidu ne raajaneetik tikdm bhida kar, peeth peechhe vaar karte hue unase satta chheen li. is vishvaasaghaat ko pacha paane mein asamarth NTR ki baad mein dil ke daure se mrutyu ho gayi.TDP ne 1999 mein chunaav jeeta, par May 2004 ke chunaavon mein vai.S. raajashekhar Reddy ke netrutv waali INC pradhaan gathabandhan se usaki haar hui.

2008 mein film abhineta chiranjeevi dvaara praja raajyam party (PRP) ka gathan kiya gaya aur 2009 chunaavon mein trikoneeya sangharsh saamane aaya. vishaal media prachaar aur apekshaaon ke baavajood, vah parivrtak khel naheen khel paaya aur keval 18 seatein jeetne mein safal raha. aasha ki kiran yeh hai ki vah Congress ke 36 pratishat aur telugu desham ke 25 pratishat ki tulana mein kul maton ka 17 pratishat jeetne mein kaamayaab raha.

praja raajyam party aur TDP, TRS, CPI aur CPM ke vruhat gathabandhan ko pare rakhate hue vai.S. raajashekhar reddi dubaara mukhyamantri bane. YSR Reddy, aan.pr. ke itihaas mein ek satr mein bataur CM sampoorn 5 varsh poore karne vaale pratham mukhyamantri bane.

sanskruti

saanskrutik sansthaaen

Andhra pradesh mein kai sangrahaalaya hain, jinmein shaamil hai- guntoor shahar ke paas amaraavati mein sthit puraatatv sangrahaalaya, jismein aas-paas ke praacheen sthalon ke avashesh surakshit hain, Hyderabad ka saalaarajang sangrahaalaya, jismein sthaapatya, chitrakala aur dhaarmik vastuon ka vividh sangrah hai, vishaakhaapatnam mein sthit vishaakha sangrahaalaya hai, jahaan dach punarvaas bangale mein svatantrata poorv Madras presideinsi ka itihaas pradarshit hai.[31]vijyavaada mein sthit Victoria jubili sangrahaalaya mein praacheen moortiyaan, chitr, devamoortiyaan, hathiyaar, chaakoo-chhuriyaan, chammach aadi aur shilaalekhon ka achha sangrah hai.[32]

Pak shaili

anya bhaarateeya vyanjanon ke saath parosi gayi haidaraabaadi biryaani

Andhra pradesh ke vyanjan, sabhi bhaarateeya vyanjanon mein sabse zyaada masaaledaar ke roop mein vikhyaat hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein] bhaugolik kshetr, jaati, paranparaaon ke aadhaar par Andhra vyanjan mein kai bhinnataaen hain. achaar aur chatani, jise telugu mein pachchadi kaha jaata hai, Andhra pradesh mein vishesh roop se lokapriya hai aur kai kism ke achaar aur chatani is raajya ki khaasiyt hai. tamaatar, baingan aur anbaada (gongoora) sahit vyaavahaarik taur par pratyek sabji se chatani banaai jaati hai. aam ke achaaron mein sanbhavat: aavakaaya Andhra ke achaaron mein sabse zyaada prasiddh hai.

chaaval pradhaan bhojan hai aur iska prayog vividh tareekon se kiya jaata hai. aam taur par, chaaval ko ya to ubaala jaata hai aur sabji ke saath khaaya jaata hai, ya fir lapasi bana li jaati hai, jo patali parat jaisa pakavaan attu (pesarattu - jo chaaval aur moong daal ke mishran se banta hai) ya dosa banaane ke liye prayukt hota hai.

maans, tarakaariyaan aur saag se vibhinn masaalon ke saath vividh khushaboodaar svaadisht vyanjan taiyaar kiye jaate hain.

haidaraabaadi Pak-shaili musalmaanon se prabhaavit hai, jo 14veen sadi mein telangaana mein aae the. jyaadaatar vyanjan maans ke ird-gird ghoomate hain. mohak masaalon aur ghi ke zyaada istemaal se bane ye vyanjan svaadisht aur khushaboodaar hote hain. maansaahaari vyanjan mein memane, murgi aur machhali ka maans sabse zyaada vyaapak roop se prayukt hota hai. haidaraabaadi vyanjanon mein sabse vishisht aur lokapriya vyanjan shaayad biryaani hai.

nrutya

kuchipudi nrutya bhangim

jayapa senaani (jayapu Naidu) pehle vyakti hain, jinhonne Andhra pradesh mein prachalit nrutyon ke baare mein likha hai.[33]nrutya ke donon, desi aur maargi roopon ko sanskrut pustak 'nrutya ratnaavali' mein shaamil kiya gaya hai. ismein aath adhyaaya hain. lok-nrutya ke roop yatha perani, prerankhana, shuddh nartan, sarkaari, raasaka, dand raasaka, Shiv priya, kanduk nartan, bhandika nrutyam, charan nrutyam, chindu, gondali aur kolaatam ka varnan kiya gaya hai. pehle adhyaaya mein lekhak ne maarg aur desi, taandav aur laasya, naatya aur nrutya ke beech matabhed ki charcha ki hai. doosare aur teesare adhyaaya mein aangik-abhinay, chaaris, sthaanak aur mandalon ki charcha ki hai. chauthe adhyaaya mein karan, angahaar aur rechak varnit hain. baad ke adhyaayon mein unhonne sthaaneeya nrutya roopon arthaat desi nrutya ka varnan kiya hai. antim adhyaaya mein unhonne kala aur nrutya ke abhyaas ka varnan kiya hai.

Andhra mein shaastreeya nrutya, purush aur mahilaaon, donon dvaara kiya ja sakta hai; lekin adhikaanshat: mahilaaen hi ise seekhati hain. kuchipoodi raajya ka sarvaadhik prasiddh shaastreeya nrutya roop hai. raajya ke itihaas mein vidyamaan vibhinn nrutya roop hain cheinchu bhaagotam, kuchipoodi, bhaamaakalaapam, burrakatha, veeranaatyam, butt bommalu, dappu, tappet gullu, lanbaadi, bonaalu, dheemsa, kolaattam aur chindu.

tyauhaar

  • January mein sankraanti.
  • February/March mein maha shivraatri.
  • March mein holi.
  • March/April mein yugaadi ya telugu navavarsh.
  • March/April mein yugaadi ke 9 dinon ke baad shri Ram navami.
  • August mein varalakshmi vratam, raakhi poornima, vinaayak chavathi.
  • September/October mein dashahara.
  • aashvij maheene mein shukl paksh ke teesare din atl taddi (yeh grigoriyn calendar ke September/October mein aata hai).
  • dashahara ke 20 din baad October/November mein deepaavali.
  • Eid-ul-fitr, idul ajha, muharram.
  • shraavan mein bonaalu. (telangaana kshetr mein manaaya jaata hai).
  • telangaana kshetr mein navaraatri-dashahara kahe jaane vaale durgaashtami ke dauraan 9 dinon ke liye batukamma manaaya jaata hai.
  • navaroj
  • christmas

saahitya

nannayya, tiknna aur yerrapragada vah trimoorti hain, jinhonne mahaan sanskrut mahaakaavya mahaabhaarat ka telugu mein anuvaad kiya. ek aur kavi hain bommera potana, jinhonne ved vyaas dvaara sanskrut mein likhe gaye shreemadbhaagavatam ka telugu mein anuvaad karte hue shreshth granth shreemad Andhra mahaabhaagavatamu ki rachana ki. nannayya ko aadikvi kaha jaata hai, jinhein raajamaheindravaram (raajamandri) par shaasan karne vaale raaja raajaraajanareindr dvaara ne sanrakshan diya.vijyanagar ke samraat krushnadev rai ne aamuktamaalyada ki rachana ki. kadapa nivaasi telugu kavi vemana bhi daarshanik kavitaaon ke liye prasiddh hain. kandukoori veereshalingam ke baad ke telugu saahitya ko aadhunik saahitya kaha jaata hai, gadya tiknna kahe jaane vaale veereshalingam, telugu-bhaasha ke saamaajik upanyaas satyavati charitm ke lekhak hain. anya aadhunik lekhakon mein shaamil hain jnyaaanapeeth puraskaar vijeta shri vishvanaath satya Narayan aur dau॰ si. Narayan Reddy. Andhra pradesh ke mool nivaasi aur kraantikaari kavi shri shri ne telugu saahitya mein abhivyakti ke nae roop pravisht kiye.

shri puttaparti naaraayanaachaaryulu bhi telugu saahitya ke vidvaan kaviyon mein se ek hain. ve shri vishvanaath satyanaaraayan ke samakaaleen the. shri puttaparti naaraayanaachaaryulu ne dvipdakaavya[tathya vaanchhit] shivtaandavam aur paandurang mahaatyam jaisi prasiddh pustakein likheen.

Andhra pradesh se anya ullekhaneeya lekhakon mein shreerangam shreenivaas Rao, gurram jaashuva, chinnayya soori, vishvanaath satyanaaraayan aur vaddera chandeedaas shaamil hain.

filmein

Andhra pradesh Bhaarat ke sabse adhik cinema hall wala raajya hai, jahaan lagbhag 2700[krupaya uddharan jodein] cinema-ghar hain. raajya dvaara ek varsh mein lagbhag 200[krupaya uddharan jodein] filmon ka nirmaan kiya jaata hai. Bhaarat ke dolabi digital theateron mein lagbhag 40% (930 mein 330) yahaan sthit hain.[34]ab yahaan ek bade 3D screen ke saath IMax theatre aur 3-5 malteepleks bhi hain. tauleevud, Bhaarat mein sabse adhik sankhya mein filmon ka nirmaan karta hai. tauleevud ka apoorv sitaara hai N.ti.aar.unhonne apni party ke gathan ke 9 maheenon mein mukhyamantri ban kar itihaas racha, jo ki ek vishv rikaard bhi hai aur ise aur koi haasil naheen kar paaya hai.

sangeet

raajya ke paas sangeet ki bahumoolya viraasat hai. Karnataka sangeet ki trimoorti tyaagaraaj, annamaachaarya, kshetrayya sahit bhadraachal raamadaas jaisi Karnataka sangeet ki kai mahaan vibhootiyaan telugu vanshasth theen. mahaan maindolin vaadak, maindolin shreenivaas bhi Andhra pradesh se hain. raajya ke graameen kshetron mein lok geet bhi lokapriya hain. mahaan Karnataka gaayak, shri mangalamapalli baalamuraleekrushn bhi telugu vansh se hain, jinhonne Karnataka sangeet ke kuchh aur raagon ka aavishkaar kiya.

dharm

Andhra pradesh sabhi jaatiyon ke hindu santon ka ghar hai. ek mahatvapoorn pichhdi jaati ki hasti, sant yogi shri potuloori veer brahmeindr svaami vishvabraahman (sunaar) jaati mein paida hue the, jinke shishyon mein braahman, harijn aur muslim shaamil the.[35] machhuaare raghu bhi shoodr the.[36]sant kaakayya chhura (mochi) harijn sant the.

kai mahatvapoorn aadhunik hindu sant Andhra pradesh se hain. inmein shaamil hain ninbaark, jinhonne dvaitaadvait ki sthaapana ki, Arvind mission ki maan meera jinhonne bhaarateeya svatantrata ka samarthan kiya, shri satya saai Baba jo pooja mein dhaarmik ekta ka samarthan karte hain, svaami sundar chaitanyaanandaji.

teerth-sthaan aur dhaarmik sthal

tirumala veinkateshvar mandir, tirupati mein sthit atyant mahatvapoorn teerth sthal.

sampoorn Bhaarat mein tirupati ya tirumala hinduon ke liye ek bahut hi mahatvapoorn teerth-sthaan hai. yeh shahar duniya mein sabse sampann (kisi bhi dhaarmik aastha ka) teerth-sthaan hai. iska mukhya mandir Bhagwan veinkateshvar ko samarpit hai. tirupati chittoor jile mein sthit hai. poorvi godaavari jile ke annavaram mein satyanaaraayan svaami ka mandir prasiddh hai. raashtreeya mahatva ka ek aur atyant lokapriya teerth-sthal hai sinhaachalam. pauraanik kathaaon mein sinhaachalam ko nindak-pita hirnyakashyap se prahlaad ko bachaane vaale uddhaarak Bhagwan narasinh ka nivaas maana gaya hai.vijyavaada shahar mein sthit kanak durga mandir Andhra pradesh ke prasiddh mandiron mein ek hai. shri kaalahasti ek mahatvapoorn praacheen Shiv mandir hai aur vah chittoor jile ke svarnamukhi nadi ke kinaare par sthit hai.

sinhaachalam ek pahaadi mandir hai, jo vishaakhaapatnam se 16 ki॰mee॰ ki doori par shahar ki uttari disha mein pahaad ke doosari or sthit hai. Andhra pradesh ke ati utkrusht taraashe gaye mandiron mein se ek, yeh ghane jaganlon se ghire pahaadiyon ke beech sthit hai. sundar roop se gadhe gaye 16-khanbhon wala naatya mandap aur 96-khanbhon wala kalyaan mandap, mandir ke kushal vaastu-shilp ki gavaahi dete hain. ishtadev shri lakshmeenarasinh svaami Bhagwan ki chhavi ko chandan ki moti parat se dhaka jaata hai. vishnu ke ek avataar, Bhagwan narasinh ko samarpit yeh mandir Bhaarat ka sabse puraana mandir hai, jise 11veen sadi mein ek chola raaja kollutunga ne nirmit kiya tha. ek vijay stambh ka nirmaan, udeesa ke gajapati raajaaon par vijay praapt karne ke baad shri Krishna Dave rai dvaara kiya gaya. is mandir mein praacheen telugu shilaalekh mileinge. yeh mandir Bhaarat ke sabse prasiddh mandiron mein se ek hai. iski vaastukala dravid (dakshin bhaarateeya) hai. ek aam dhaarana hai ki Bhagwan baadh, chakravaat, bhookamp aur sunaami jaisi praakrutik vipdaaon se vaijaag ki raksha kar rahe hain. aaj tak praakrutik vipdaaon se ek bhi maut naheen hui hai. ek anushthaan ke roop mein shaadi se pehle var-vadhoo ki jodiyaan is mandir mein jaati hain. yeh mandir Andhra pradesh ke sabse bheed vaale mandiron mein se ek hai.

husain saagar jheel par buddh ki moorti.

shreeshailam Andhra pradesh mein sthit ek aur raashtreeya mahatva ka pramukh mandir hai. yeh Bhagwan Shiv ko samarpit hai. vibhinn jyotirlingon mein se ek yahaan avasthit hai. skandapuraan mein ek adhyaaya "shreeshail kaandam" ise samarpit hai, jo iski praacheenata ki or sanket karta hai. iski pushti is baat se bhi hoti hai ki pichhli sahasraabdiyon ke tamil santon ne bhi is mandir ka gunagaan karte hue bhajan gaae hain. kaha jaata hai ki aadi shankar ne bhi is mandir ka daura kiya aur usi samay "shivaanand lahari" ki rachana ki. maanyata hai ki Shiv ke pavitra bail vrushabh ne bhi mahaakaali ke mandir mein us samay tak tapasya ki, jab tak ki Shiv aur paarvati unke samaksh mallikaarjun aur bhramaraanba ban kar prakat naheen hue. mandir 12 pavitra jyotirling mein se ek hai; Bhagwan Ram ne swayam sahasraling ki sthaapana ki, jabki paandavon ne mandir ke aangan mein panchapaandav lingon ki sthaapana ki.shreeshailam karnool jile mein sthit hai.

bhadraachalam shri Ram mandir aur godaavari nadi ke liye jaana jaata hai. yeh vahi jagah hai jahaan prasiddh bhakt raamadaas (mool naam - kancherl gopanna) ne Bhagwan Ram ko samarpit apne bhaktiprak geeton ki rachana ki.maana jaata hai ki tretaayug mein Bhagwan Ram ne kuchh varsh yahaan godaavari nadi ke kinaare bitaae. kinvadanti hai ki bhadra (pahaad) ne gambhir tapasya ke baad Ram se yahaan sthaai nivaas banaane ki maang ki thi. kehte hain Bhagwan Ram apni patni seeta aur bhaai Lakshman ke saath bhadragiri mein bas gaye. bhadraachalam khammam jile mein sthit hai. gopanna ne 17veen sadi mein taaneesha ke shaasan kaal mein logon se dhan juta kar, Ram mandir ka nirmaan kiya. unhonne Bhagwan Ram aur seeta ki shaadi ka jashn manaana shuroo kar diya. tab se prati varsh shri Ram navami manaaya jaata hai. Andhra pradesh sarkaar is samaaroh ke liye har saal bhadraachalam ko moti bhejati hai.

basar - sarasvati mandir, vidya ki devi sarasvati ka ek aur prasiddh mandir hai. basara aadilaabaad jile mein sthit hai. yaaganti gufaaen bhi Andhra pradesh ke mahatvapoorn teerth keindron mein ek hai. mahaanandi ke alaava, hara-bhara karnool jila ek aur teerth kendra hai. prasidgh hindu Birla mandir aur raamappa mandir, muslim makka masjid aur Charminar, saath hi husain saagar jheel par buddh ki pratima Andhra pradesh ke adbhut dhaarmik smaarakon mein shaamil hain.

raamappa mandir

Bhaarat ke Andhra pradesh mein kanakadurga mandir ek prasiddh mandir hai. yeh Krishna nadi ke tat par vijyavaada shahar ke indrakeelaadri pahaadi par sthit hai. ek katha ke anusaar, vartamaan hara-bhara vijyavaada kisi jmaane mein chattaani kshetr tha, jahaan Krishna nadi ke pravaah ko rokate hue pahaad bikhre the. is prakaar bhoomi, nivaas ke liye ya kheti ke yogya naheen thi. Bhagwan Shiv se praarthana kiye jaane par unhonne pahaadiyon ko Krishna nadi ke liye raasta banaane ka nirdesh diya. aur chamatkaar! nadi Bhagwan Shiv dvaara pahaadiyon mein kiye gaye chhed "bejjam" ya surangon ke maadhyam se bina rok-tok ke poore josh mein bahne lagi.is tarah sthaan ka naam bejvaada pada.

is sthaan se judi hui pauraanik kathaaon mein ek yeh hai ki arjun ne Bhagwan Shiv ka anugrah praapt karne ke liye indrakeela pahaadi ki choti par praarthana ki aur unki vijay ke baad is shahar ka naam "vijyavaada" pada. ek aur lokapriya dantakatha raakshas raaja mahishaasur par devi kanakadurga ki vijay se judi hai. kaha jaata hai ki ek samay is kshetr ke logon ke liye raakshason ke badhte atyaachaar asahaneeya ho gaye. saadhu indrakeela ne ghor tapasya ki aur jab devi prakat huin, to saadhu ne unase apne sir par nivaas karne aur dusht raakshason par nigraani rakhane ka aagrah kiya. unki ichha ke anusaar, raakshason ka sanhaar karne ke baad, devi durga ne indrakeela ko apna sthaai nivaas banaaya. baad mein unhonne raakshason ke changul se vijyavaada ke nivaasiyon ko mukt karte hue raakshas raaja mahishaasur ka vadh kiya. dashahara kahalaane vaale navaraatri ke dauraan vishesh pooja ka aayojan kiya jaata hai. sabse mahatvapoorn hain sarasvati pooja aur teppotsavam. yahaan prati varsh devi durga ke liye dashahara manaaya jaata hai. badi sankhya mein bhaktagan is rangaarang samaaroh mein bhaag lete hain aur Krishna nadi mein pavitra snaan karte hain.

anya saanskrutik tatv

Bapu ki chitrakaari, nandoori subbaaraav ke yeinki paataloo (yeinki naamak dhoban par/dvaara geet), sharaarati budugu (mullapoodi dvaara rachit ek kirdaar), annamayya ke geet, aavakaaya (aam ke achaar ka ek prakaar, jismein guthali ko nikaala naheen jaata), gongoora (anbaada paudhe ki chatani) atlataddi (ek mausami tyohaar, mukhyat: kishor yuvatiyon ke liye), godaavari nadi ka tat, doodoo basavanna (nai fasal ke tyohaar sankraanti ke dauraan samaarohik bail ko saja kar ghar-ghar pradarshan ke liye le jaana) telugu sanskruti mein varnit hai.durgi gram jaana jaata hai prastar-shilp, naram pattharon mein moortiyaan taraashane ke liye, jinhein apakshaya ke khtare se bachaane ke liye chhaaya mein pradarshit karna zaroori hai.'kalankaari' ek praacheen kala roop hai, jiska sambandh hadppa ki sabhyata se hai. Andhra, gudiya banaane ke liye bhi mashahoor hai. gudiyon ko lakdi, mitti, sookhi ghaas aur halke vajn waali mishr dhaatuon se banaaya jaata hai. tirupati laal lakdi ki nakkaashiyon ke liye mashahoor hai. kondapalli gahre rangon vaale mitti ke khilaunon ke liye prasiddh hai. vaijaag mein sthit itikoppakka khilaunon ke liye prasiddh hai. nirmal chitr bahut hi arthapoorn hain aur aam taur par inhein kaale rang ki prushthabhoomi mein chitrit kiya jaata hai. kahaani sunaana bhi Andhra ka ek kala roop hai. 'yaksh gaanam', 'burr katha' (aam taur par teen logon dvaara, vibhinn sangeet vaadya-yantron ka prayog karte hue katha sunaana), 'jangam kathalu', 'hari kathalu', 'chekk bhajan', 'urumal naatyam' (aam taur par tyohaaron par kiya jaata hai, jahaan oonche sangeet ki laya par golaakaar samoohon mein log nrutya karte hain), 'ghat naatyam' (sir par mitti ke bartan rakh kar pradarshan) sabhi vishaakha mein Andhra Pradesh palumaanb tyauhaar se juda adviteeya lok-nrutya hai.

shiksha

Andhra pradesh mein uchch shiksha ke 20 se adhik sansthaan hain. sabhi pramukh kala, maanaviki, vigyaan, engineering, kaanoon, chikitsa, vyaapaar aur pashu chikitsa vigyaan sambandhi vishay upalabdh hain, jismein snaatak se snaatakottar star tak ki padhaai ho sakti hai. sabhi pramukh kshetron mein unnat anusandhaan sanchaalit kiya ja raha hai.

Andhra pradesh mein 1330 kala, vigyaan aur vaanijya mahaavidyaalaya; 1000 MBA aur MCA college; 500 engineering college aur 53 medical college hain. uchch shiksha mein chhaatr va shikshakon ka anupaat 19:1 hai. 2001 ki janaganana ke anusaar, Andhra pradesh mein samagr saaksharata dar 60.5% hai. jahaan purush saaksharata dar 70.3% hai, mahila saaksharata dar keval 50.4% hote hue chintaajanak star par hai.

raajya mein kai sansthaanon ki sthaapana dvaara haal hi mein ullekhaneeya pragati hui hai. Andhra pradesh mein pratishthit Birla Institute of teknaulaji end science, (BITS Pilani Hyderabad kaimpas) aur IIT Hyderabad hain. antarraashtreeya soochana praudyogiki sansthaan, Hyderabad (IIIT-H), Hyderabad vishvavidyaalaya (Hyderabad kendreeya vishvavidyaalaya) aur Indian school of bijnes (ISB) apne maanakon ke liye raashtreeya dhyaan aakarshit kar rahe hain. national Institute of fashion teknaulaji aur the Institute of hotel management, catering teknaulaji end eplaaid nyootrishn (NIFT) bhi Hyderabad mein sthit hain. pratishthit usmaaniya vishvavidyaalaya Hyderabad mein sthit hai.

Andhra pradesh sarkaar ne kai samitiyon ki sifaarishon ko poora karte hue pratham svaasthya vigyaan vishvavidyaalaya ki sthaapana ka gaurav haasil kiya hai. is prakaar Andhra pradesh vidhaanasabha ke adhiniyam san.6 dvaara "Andhra pradesh svaasthya vigyaan vishvavidyaalaya" sthaapit kiya gaya tha aur 9-4-1986 ko Andhra pradesh ke tatkaaleen mukhyamantri svargeeya shri N.ti.raamaaraav dvaara iska udghaatan kiya gaya tha. is svaasthya vigyaan vishvavidyaalaya ne 01-11-1986 se vijyavaada mein kaarya karna shuroo kar diya. iske sansthaapak shri N.ti.raamaaraav ki mrutyu ke baad unke naam par 1998 ke adhiniyam san.4 ke jriye 2.2.98 se vishvavidyaalaya ka naam badal kar NTR svaasthya vigyaan vishvavidyaalaya rakha gaya.

samaachaar patra

Andhra pradesh mein kai telugu bhaasha ke samaachaar patra hain. inaadu, Andhra jyoti, saakshi, prajaashakti, vaarta, Andhra bhoomi, vishaalaandhra, soorya aur Andhra prabha raajya ke pramukh telugu-bhaasha ke samaachaar patra hain.

Andhra pradesh ke urdoo bhaasha ke samaachaar patron mein shaamil hain siyaasat daily, munsif daily, rahanuma-A-dakkhan, itimd urdoo daily, avaam aur the milaap daily .

Andhra pradesh mein Deccan kraunikl, the hindu, the times of India, the new Indian express, the economic times, the business line sahit kai angreji bhaasha ke samaachaar patra hain.

Andhra pradesh kai hindi bhaasha ke samaachaar patron ka bhi ghar hai. inmein hain svatantr vaarta, vishaakhapatnam nijaamaabaad aur hindi milaap, jo ki Hyderabad se prakaashit sabse puraana hindi samaachaar patra hai.

paryatan

belam gufaaen

paryatan vibhaag dvaara Andhra pradesh ka prachaar "Bhaarat ka kohinoor " ke roop mein kiya ja raha hai.

Andhra pradesh kai dhaarmik teerth keindron ka ghar hai. tirupati, Bhagwan veinkateshvar ka nivaas, duniya mein sabse jyaada dekha jaane wala (kisi bhi dharm ka) dhaarmik kendra hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] nallamala pahaadiyon mein basa shreeshailam, shri mallikaarjun ka nivaas hai aur Bhaarat ke baarah jyotirlingon mein ek hai. amaraavati ka Shiv mandir panchaaraamamon mein ek hai, vaise hi yaadagireegutta mein vishnu ke avataar shri lakshmi narasinh ka vaas hai. mandir ki nakkaashiyon ke liye varangal mein sthit raamappa mandir aur hajaar stambhon ka mandir prasiddh hai. raajya mein amaraavati, naagaarjun konda, bhatteeprolu, ghantashaala, nelakondapalli, dhooliktta, baavikonda, totlakonda, shaaligundem, paavuraalakonda, shankaram, fanigiri aur kolanapaaka mein kai bauddh kendra hain.

6veen shataabdi mein baadaami chaalukyon ne (baadaami Karnataka mein hai) aalamapur ke brahma mandir ka nirmaan kiya,[37] jo chaalukya kala aur shilp-kala ka ek utkrusht udaaharan hai. vijyanagar saamraajya ne asankhya smaarak, shreeshailam mandir aur lepaakshi mandiron ka nirmaan kiya.

vishaakhaapatnam mein golden beech, borra mein ek lakh varsh puraane choona-patthar ki gufaaen, suramya araku ghaati, haarsali pahaadiyon ke hil-risaurt, paapi kondalu ke sankare raaste se godaavari nadi mein nauka-daud, ittipotala, kuntala ke jharane aur taalakona mein samruddh jaiv-vividhta, is raajya ke kuchh praakrutik aakarshanon mein shaamil hain. kailaashagiri vishaakhaapatnam mein samudra ke paas hai. kailaashagiri pahaadi ki choti par ek bageecha hai. vishaakhaapattanam, INS karaasura panadubbi sangrahaalaya (Bhaarat mein apni tarah ka akela), Bhaarat ka sabse lamba samudra-tateeya sadak, yaarada samudra-tat, araku ghaati, VUDA park aur indira Gandhi chidiyaaghar jaise kai paryatak aakarshanon ka ghar hai.

borra gufaaen

borra gufaaen Bhaarat ke Andhra pradesh raajya mein vishaakhaapatnam ke sameep poorvi ghaat ke anantagiri pahaadiyon mein sthit hai. ye madhyam samudri tal se lagbhag 800 se 1300 meter ki oonchaai par hain aur laakhon baras pehle ke aarohi aur avarohi nikshep ke liye prasiddh hain. varsh 1807 mein british bhoovijnyaaani William King George dvaara inki khoj ki gayi. gufa ka naam gufa ke andar ke ek gathan se pada hai, jo dekhne mein maanav mastishk jaisa lagta hai, jise sthaaneeya bhaasha telugu mein burra kaha jaata hai. isi tarah, belam gufaaon ka gathan karodon saal pehle chitraavati nadi dvaara choona-patthar sangrahon ke kataav dvaara hua. in choona-patthar ki gufaaon ka gathan kaarbaanik esid - ya choona-patthar aur paani ke beech pratikriya ki vajah se halke amleeya bhoomigat jal ki kriya ke falasvaroop hua hai.

belam gufaaen bhaarateeya up mahaadveep mein doosari sabse badi gufa-pranaali hai. belam gufaaon ka naam, gufa ke liye sanskrut mein prayukt shabd bailam se vyutpann hai. telugu mein ye gufaaen belam guhalu naam se jaani jaati hain. belam gufaaon ki lanbaai 3229 meter hote hue, use bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ki doosari sabse badi praakrutik gufa banaati hai. belam gufaaon mein lambe galiyaare, vishaal kothariyaan, meethe paani ke surang aur naaliyaan hain. gufa ka gahra bindu120 fut (37 mi) pravesh dwaar se hai aur yeh paataalaganga ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.

haarsali pahaadi ki oonchaai 1265 meter hai aur yeh Andhra pradesh ka prasiddh garmiyon ka pahaadi sairagaah hai, jo Bengaluru se lagbhag 160 ki॰mee॰ door aur tirupati se 144 ki॰mee॰ ki doori par hai. iske paas madanapalli shahar basa hai. pramukh paryatakon ke liye aakarshanon mein mallamma mandir aur rishi valley school shaamil hain. 87 ki॰mee॰ ki doori par haarsali pahaadi kaundinya vanyajeev abhayaaranya ke liye prasthaan bindu hai.

Charminar, golakonda kila, chandragiri kila, chaumuhalla pailes aur falakanuma pailes raajya ke kuchh smaarak hain.

Krishna jila ke vijyavaada mein kanakadurga mandir, dvaarakaatirumala mein veinkateshvar mandir, pashchim godaavari jila (ise chinn tirupati bhi kaha jaata hai), shreekaakulam jile ke arasavelli mein soorya mandir bhi Andhra pradesh mein dekhne laayak sthaan hain. annavaram satyanaaraayan svaami ka mandir poorvi godaavari jile mein hai

parivhan

Andhra pradesh ke pramukh sadak sampark
vishaakhaapatnam bandargaah
Secundarabad railway station, dakshin madhya railway ka mukhyaalaya

raajya dvaara kul 1,46,944 ki॰ami॰ lambi sadkon ka anurakshan kiya jaata hai, jismein raajya raajamaarg 42,511 ki.mi., raashtreeya raajamaarg 2949 ki॰ami॰ aur jila sadkein 1,01,484 ki॰ami॰ shaamil hain. Andhra pradesh mein vaahan ke vikaas ki dar 16% hote hue desh mein sabse adhik hai.[38]

Andhra pradesh raajya sadak parivhan nigam (APSRTC) Andhra pradesh sarkaar ke svaamitv waali pramukh saarvajanik parivhan nigam hai, jo sabhi shaharon aur gaanvon ko jodti hai. sabse bada vaahanon ka beda rakhane aur pratidin sabse adhik kshetr aavrut karne/ aavaajaahi ke liye APSRTC ko gineej book of world record ka bhi gaurav haasil hai. inke alaava, raajya ke pramukh shaharon aur kasbon ko jodte hue kai niji oparetar hajaaron basein chalaate hain. car, motarayukt scooter aur cycle ki tarah niji vaahanon ne bhi shahar aur aaspaas ke gaanvon mein sthaaneeya parivhan ke ek bade hisse ko gher rakha hai.

raajya mein paanch havaai adde hain: Hyderabad (Rajiv Gandhi antarraashtreeya)(raajya mein sabse bada), vishaakhaapatnam, vijyavaada, raajamandri aur tirupati. sarkaar dvaara anya chhah shaharon mein havaai adde shuroo karne ki yojana hai: nelloor, Warangal, kadapa, taadepalleegudem, raamagundem aur ongol.

Andhra pradesh ke paas vishaakhaapatnam aur kaakeenaada mein Bhaarat ke do pramukh bandargaah hain aur machhaleepatnam, nijaamapatnam(guntoor) aur krushnapatnam mein teen chhote bandargaah hain. vishaakhapatnam ke nikat gangaavaram mein ek aur niji bandargaah viksit kiya ja raha hai. yeh gahra samudra pattan, bade samudri jahaajon ko bhaarateeya tat mein pravesh anumat karte hue, 200,000-250,000 DWT tak ke samudri jahaajon ko jagah de sakta hai.

yeh bhi dekhein

not

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