aamaashaya (pet)

Stomach
Stomach diagram.svg
The location of the stomach in the human body.
Illu stomach.jpg
Diagram from cancer.gov:
* 1. Body of stomach
* 2. Fundus
* 3. Anterior wall
* 4. Greater curvature
* 5. Lesser curvature
* 6. Cardia
* 9. Pyloric sphincter
* 10. Pyloric antrum
* 11. Pyloric canal
* 12. Angular notch
* 13. Gastric canal
* 14. Rugal folds

Work of the United States Government
laitin Ventriculus
gre ki sharee‍aariki subject #247 1161
tantrika celiac ganglia, vagus[1]
lasika celiac preaortic lymph nodes[2]
emaiesaech {{{MeshNameHindi}}}
dorlainds/elseeviyr Stomach

kasheruki, ekaainodarmeta vansheeya jantu, keet (aadyamadhyaantr) aur molask sahit, kuchh jantuon mein, aamaashaya ek pesheeya, khokhala, poshan nali ka faila hua bhaag hai jo paachan nali ke pramukh ang ke roop mein kaarya karta hai. yeh charvan (chabaana) ke baad, paachan ke doosare charan mein shaamil hota hai. aamaashaya, graas nali aur chhoti aant ke beech mein sthit hota hai. yeh chhoti aanton mein aanshik roop se pache bhojan (amlaann) ko bhejane se pehle, abaadh peshi ainthan ke maadhyam se bhojan ke paachan mein sahaayata ke liye proteen-paachak prakinv(enjaaim) aur tej amlon ko sraavit karta hai (jo graasanaleeya pur:saran ke jriye bheja jaata hai).

aamaashaya ke liye prayukt angreji shabd stomach laitin ke stomachus se vyutpann hai, jo greek shabd stomachos se aur antat: stoma (σaaτaaόaaμaaα) yaani "muainh" se utpann hua hai. shabd gastro - aur gastric (arthaat pet se sambandhit) donon hi greek shabd gaster (γaaαaaσaaτaaήaaρ) se vyutpann hain.

yahaan tak ki ameeba aur maansaahaari paadapon mein bhi aisi sanrachanaaen maujood hain jo aamaashaya ke anuroop hain.

anukram

paachan mein bhoomika

pind (chabaaya hua aahaar) graasanaleeya avarodhini ke maadhyam se graasanali se aamaashaya mein pravesh karta hai. aamaashaya proteej (pepsin jaise proteen-paachak enjaaim) aur haaidroklorik aml mukt karta hai, jo jeevaanuon ko maarate ya rokate hain aur proteejon ko kaam karne ke liye amleeya pH upalabdh karaate hain. aamaashaya dvaara budhn[3] aur aamaashaya ke dhaanche ke ird-gird liptane se pehle, budhn ki maatra ko kam karte hue - deevaar ki maansapeshiyon ke sankuchan ke maadhyam se bhojan ka manthan kiya jaata hai, jab pind amlaann (aanshik roop se pacha hua aahaar) mein parivrtit hota hai. amlaann dheere-dheere jatharanirgam sankochi ke maadhyam se gujarata hai aur grahani mein pahunchata hai, jahaan poshak tatvon ki nikaasi shuroo hoti hai. maatra aur aahaar-saamagri ke aadhaar par, aamaashaya bhojan ko 40 minute se lekar kuchh ghanton ke beech amlaann ke roop mein pachaata hai.

pet ki shaareerik-rachana

aamaashaya graas nali aur grahani ke beech sthit hota hai (chhoti aant ka pratham bhaag). yeh udar guha ke baaen oopari bhaag mein maujood hota hai. aamaashaya ka oopari hissa madhyapat ke vipreet hota hai. aamaashaya ke peechhe agnyaashaya sthit hai. maha vapaajaal maha vakrata se neeche lataka hota hai.

do avarodhiniyaan aamaashaya ki saamagri ko antarvisht rakhati hain. ve hain nali ko oopar vibhaajit karti hui graas naleeya avarodhini (hrudaya kshetr mein maujood, sanrachanaatmak avarodhini naheen) aur chhoti aant se aamaashaya ko vibhaajit karti hui jatharanirgameeya avarodhini.

aamaashaya paraanukanpi (uttejak) aur sahajaanukanpi (nirodhak) snaayujaal (agr jathareeya, pashch, oordhv aur nimn, udareeya aur aantrapeshi-astar sambandhi rakt vaahiniyaan aur tantrika jaal), jo apni maansapeshiyon ki sraavan gatividhi aur prerak (gatijnak) kriyaakalaap, donon ko niyantrit karta hai.

maanavon mein, aamaashaya mein mand, lagbhag khaali 45 mi.li. ki maatra hoti hai. yeh ek lacheela ang hai. yeh saamaanya roop se 1 liter aahaar dhaarit karne ke liye visfaarit hota hai[4], lekin yeh 2-3 liter tak dhaarit kar sakta hai (jabki navajaat shishu keval 30ml rokane mein saksham hai).

bhaag

pet ko 4 bhaagon mein vibhaajit kiya jaata hai, jinmein se pratyek ki alag koshikaaen aur bhinn kaarya hain. ye bhaag hain:

budhn ang ke oopari vakrata dvaara nirmit.
shareer ya pind pramukh, keindreeya kshetr.
jatharanirgam ang ka nichla bhaag jo chhoti aant mein saamagri ko khaali karne mein madad karta hai.

rakt ki aapoorti

udar ke liye rakt aapoorti: baain aur daain aamaashayi dhamani, baain aur daain aamaashayi-vapa sambandhi dhamani aur chhoti aamaashayi dhamani.[5]

aamaashaya ki nyoon vakrata ko daain jathareeya dhamani dvaara kam aapoorti ki jaati hai aur baain jathareeya dhamani dvaara zyaada, jo hrudaya kshetr ko bhi aapoorti karti hai. uchch vakrata ko daain jathareeya-vapa dhamani dvaara kam aapoorti hoti hai aur baain jathareeya-vapa dhamani dvaara zyaada. aamaashaya ke budhn aur maha vakrata ke oopari bhaag ko laghu jathareeya dhamani dvaara aapoorti hoti hai.

jatharaantr nalika ke anya bhaagon ki tarah, aamaashaya ki deevaarein, andar se baahar, nimnalikhit paraton se bani hoti hain:

seerameekala yeh parat baahya pesheekala ke oopar hoti hai, jismein udaraavaran ke saath sanyoji ootakon ki paratein satat maujood rahati hain.
chitr:Stomach.JPG
pet ki deevaar ka anuprasth kaat.
chitr:Pyloric stomach LPO.JPG
pet ki deevaar ke jatharanirgameeya bhaag ka sookshmadarshi anuprasth kaat.

granthiyaan

aamaashaya ki upakala gahre gaddhe taiyaar karti hain. in sthaanon par granthiyon ke naam sangat pet ke bhaag ke anusaar hain:

Gray1053.png | | Gray1054.png | | Gray1055.png

in granthiyon ke vibhinn paraton mein koshikaaon ke vibhinn prakaar paae jaate hain:

aamaashaya ki parat naam sraav aamaashaya kshetr abhiranjan
granthi sankeernapath shleshm greeva koshikaaen shleshma jail parat budhn sambandhi, hrudaya sambandhi, jatharanirgami svachh
granthi ka mukhya bhaag paarshvik (amlasraavi) koshikaaen gaistrik esid aur aantarik kaarak budhn sambandhi, hrudaya sambandhi, jatharanirgami amlaraagi
granthyaadhaar mukhya (kinvajanak) koshika pepsinojan keval budhn sambandhi kshaararaagi
granthyaadhaar aantrikant:sraavi (APUD) koshikaaen haarmon gaistreen, histaamin, endorfin, sirotonin, koleesistokaaininaur somaatostaitin budhn sambandhi, hrudaya sambandhi, jatharanirgami

sraav aur gatisheelata niyantran

pet mein rasaayanon ka sanchalan aur pravaah, donon svaayatt tantrika pranaali aur vibhinn paachan pranaali haarmon dvaara niyantrit hote hain:

jathareeya bachaav mein EGF

adhichrm vruddhi kaarak ya EGF koshikeeya prodbhavan, vibhedeekaran aur avashesh mein parint hota hai.[6] EGF ek pehle maaus avaadhohanuj granthi se shuddh nyoon-aanavik-bhaar wala pauleepeptaaid hai, lekin baad mein jo avaadhohunaj granthi, karnamool granthi sahit kai maanav ootakon mein paaya gaya. laaramaya EGF, jo lagta hai aahaareeya akaarbanik aayodeen dvaara viniymit hai, mukh-graas naleeya aur aamaashaya ootak sanpoornata ke rakharakhaav mein bhi ek mahatvapoorn shaareerik bhoomika nibhaata hai. laaramaya EGF ke jaivik prabhaavon mein shaamil hai maukhik aur aamaashaya-graasanaleeya alsar, jathareeya aml avarodh, sraav, DNA sanshleshan ka uddeepan aur saath hi jathareeya aml, pitt aml, pepsin aur traaisin jaise intraaluminl haanikaarak ghatakon aur bhautik, raasaayanik aur jaivik agenton se shleshmik sanrakshan.[7]

poshan sanvedak ke roop mein aamaashaya

aamaashaya glootaamet graahiyon ka upayog karte hue sodiym glootaamet ka "svaad" pa sakta hai[8] aur yeh jaankaari vegas tantrika ke maadhyam se svaadisht sanket ke roop mein mastishk mein paarshvik adh:shchetak aur seemaant pranaali ko paarit ki jaati hai.[9] aamaashaya bhi jeebh aur maukhik svaad graahiyon ki tarah svatantr roop se glookoj,[10] carbohydrate,[11] proteen,[11] aur vasa[12] ko samajh sakta hai. yeh mastishk ko unke svaad ke saath aahaar ke poshan moolya ko jodna sulabh karaata hai.[10]

pet ke rog

aitihaasik roop se, vyaapak taur par yeh maana jaata tha ki aamaashaya ka uchch amleeya parivesh pet ki sankraman se pratirksha kar sakta hai. lekin, badi sankhya mein adhyayanon ne sanket diya hai ki udaravran, jatharashoth aur aamaashaya Cancer ka kaarak ke adhikaansh maamalon ke aur helikobaiktar paailori sankraman hai.

anya jantuon mein

ek svasth 65 varsheeya mahila ke saamaanya udar ka guhaantadarshan.

haalaanki aamaashaya ka sateek roop aur aakaar vibhinn kasherukiyon mein vyaapak roop se alag hota hai, par graasanaleeya aur grahani ke pravesh dvaaron ki sambaddh sthiti apekshaakrut sthir rahi hai. parinaamasvaroop, ang hamesha jatharanirgameeya avarodhini se milne ke liye peechhe mudne se pehle, baain or kuchh had tak mud jaata hai. tathaapi, laimpre, haigafish, kaaimeera, lang fish aur kuchh teleeost machhali mein graas nali seedhe aant mein khulate hue, aamaashaya hi naheen hota hai. ye sabhi jantu aise aahaar grahan karte hain jinke sangrahan ki zyaada zaroorat naheen hoti, ya paachak rason ke saath poorv-paachan zaroori naheen, ya donon hi.[13]

saamaanyat: jathareeya astar do kshetron mein vibhaajit hota hai, ek budhn granthiyon dvaara astarit agravarti bhaag aur jatharanirgameeya granthiyon sahit pichhla bhaag. hrudaya granthiyaan stanapaayi jantuon mein adviteeya hain aur fir bhi kai prajaatiyon mein anupasthit rahe hain. in granthiyon ka vitran prajaatiyon ke beech bhinn hai aur maanav jaise hamesha ek hi kshetr ke anuroop naheen rahate hain. iske alaava, kai gair maanaveeya stanadhaariyon mein, hrudaya granthiyon ke aage aamaashaya ka kuchh hissa graas nali ke samaan anivaarya roop se upakala se astarit hota hai. vishesh roop se, romanthak ka aamaashaya jatil hota hai, jiske pehle teen koshth graasanaleeya shleshma se astarit hote hain.[13]

pakshi aur makar jaati ke jantuon mein aamaashaya do kshetron mein vibhaajit hota hai. aage ek sankeern nalikaakaar kshetr, proveintreekyulas, budhn granthiyon dvaara astarit aur sahi aamaashaya ko galathaili se jodta hua hota hai. iske pare shaktishaali pesheeya peshani, budhn granthiyon se astarit hoti hai aur, kuchh prajaatiyon mein, aahaar ko peesane mein madad ke liye jantu dvaara nigle hue patthar shaamil hote hain.[13]

kai stanadhaari prajaatiyon ke udareeya granthil pradeshon ki tulana. peela: graasanali; hara: agranthil upakala; baingani: hrudaya granthiyaan; laal: aamaashayi granthiyaan; neela: jatharanirgameeya granthiyaan; gahra neela: grahani. pradeshon ke beech granthiyon ki aavrutti yahaan chitrit ki apeksha adhik suchaaroo roop se bhinn ho sakti hai. taaraankan (romanthi) truteeya aamaashaya ka pratinidhitv karta hai, jo taailopoda mein anupasthit hai (taailopoda mein kuchh hrudaya granthiyaan udareeya jaalika aur pratham aamaashaya mein khulata hai[14]) stanadhaariyon mein kai anya roop maujood hain.[15][16]

inhein bhi dekhein

  • samaayojya aamaashayi patti
  • sookshmagartika koshikaaen, udar ki shleshma utpaadit karne waali koshikaaen
  • kramaakunchan, udar mein hone waali maansapeshiyon ka sanchalan
  • aantrakoojan, pet ki gudgudaahat

sandarbh

  1. emaseeji mein shareer rachana vigyaan 6/6ch2/s6ch2_30
  2. stomach at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University)
  3. Richard M. Gore; Marc S. Levine. (2007). Textbook of Gastrointestinal Radiology. Philadelphia, PA.: Saunders. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1416023321.
  4. Sherwood, Lauralee (1997). Human physiology: from cells to systems. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub. Co. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0314092455. OCLC 35270048.
  5. [8]; p. 150
  6. Herbst RS (2004). "Review of epidermal growth factor receptor biology". International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 59 (2 Suppl): 21–6. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2003.11.041. PMID 15142631.
  7. Venturi S.; Venturi M. (2009). "Iodine in evolution of salivary glands and in oral health". Nutrition and Health 20: 119–134.
  8. yoomaatsu A, tsurugijaava ti, kondo ti, tori ke.(2009). kandishnd flevar prifrens larning baai intraagaistrik edaministreshan of L-glootamet in raits. nyooroski lett. February 27;451(3):190-3. pamid 19146916
  9. yoomaatsu A, tsurugijaavava ti, uneyaama H, tori ke.(2010) bren-gat kamyoonikeshan vaaya vegas narv maudyoolets kandishnd flevar prifrens. yoor J nyooroski. 31(6):1136-43. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2010.07136.xPMID 20377626
  10. a aa di araaujo, aai.E., oliviyera-maiya, A.J., sotnikova, ti.di., gaainetadinov, aar.aar., keraun, M.ji., nikolelis, M.A. aur Simon, S.A.(2008) fud rivaard in the ebsens of test riseptar signaling. nyooraun, 57, 930-941. PMID 18367093
  11. a aa perej, si., ekrauf, ke.aur sklaafani, A.(1996) carbohydrate-end proteen kandeeshand flevar prifrensas: efekts of nyootriyent prilodj. fijiyo. bihev., 59, 467-474. PMID 8700948
  12. ekraaf, ke., lyookaas, ef. end sklaafni, A.(2005) flevar prifrens kandishning ej A fnkshan of fait sors. fijiyo. bihev., 85, 448-460. PMID 15990126
  13. a aa i Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Thomas S. (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 345–349. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-03-910284-X.
  14. [26]
  15. [27]
  16. [28]

baahari kadiyaaain